de Coetlogon G.,Laboratoire Atmosphere |
Leduc-Leballeur M.,Laboratoire Atmosphere |
Meynadier R.,Laboratoire Atmosphere |
Bastin S.,Laboratoire Atmosphere |
And 5 more authors.
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2014
The surface-wind response to sea-surface temperature (SST) and SST meridional gradient is investigated in the Gulf of Guinea by using daily observations and re-analyses in the 2000-2009 decade, with a focus on boreal spring and summer months (May to August), where quasi-biweekly fluctuations in the position of the northern front of the equatorial cold tongue induce quasi-biweekly equatorial SST anomalies. Following a large-scale wind acceleration (deceleration), an equatorial SST cold (warm) anomaly is created within a few days. In order to explain the local atmospheric response to this SST anomaly, the two following mechanisms are invoked: first, a colder (warmer) ocean decreases (increases) the vertical stability in the marine atmospheric boundary layer, which favours a weaker (stronger) surface wind; and second, a negative (positive) anomaly of SST meridional gradient induces a positive (negative) anomaly of the sea-level-pressure meridional gradient, which decelerates (accelerates) the surface wind. The first mechanism has an immediate effect in the equatorial belt between 1°S and 1°N (and to a lesser extent between 3°S and 1°S), whereas the second takes 1 or 2 days to adjust and damps anomalous southeasterlies up to 800 hPa in the low troposphere between 7°S and 1°N, through reversed anomalies of meridional SST and pressure gradient. This negative feedback leads to weaker (stronger) winds in the southeastern tropical Atlantic, which forces the opposite phase of the oscillation within about 1 week. Around the Equator, where the amplitude of the oscillation is found to be maximal, both mechanisms combine to maximize the wind response to the front fluctuations. Between the Equator and the coast, a low-level secondary atmospheric circulation takes control of the surface-wind acceleration or deceleration around 3°N, which reduces the influence of the SST-front fluctuations. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.
Diakhate M.,Laboratoire Of Physique Of Latmosphere Et Of Locean Simeon Fongang Lpao Sf |
Diakhate M.,Laboratoire dOceanographie et Climat |
de Coetlogon G.,Laboratoire Atmosphere |
Lazar A.,Laboratoire dOceanographie et Climat |
And 2 more authors.
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2016
Tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) maximum intraseasonal variability (ISV) and their interaction with local surface winds are investigated, applying statistical analysis to observations and to a recent coupled reanalysis over the 2000-2009 decade. Five cores of strong ISV emerge, with standard deviation reaching about 1 °C in frontal areas of the three main upwelling systems: equatorial, Angola-Benguela and Senegal-Mauritania (the southern side of the Canary upwelling). West of 10 °W along the Equator, a 20-60-day peak caused by tropical instability waves is shown to generate surface wind anomalies through the adjustment of the horizontal surface pressure gradient in addition to the modification of near-surface atmospheric stratification. East of 10°W along the Equator, an intense biweekly oscillation increases the ocean and atmosphere ISV. In the two coastal upwelling fronts, intraseasonal SST anomalies resemble each other. They are shown to be influenced by coastal Kelvin waves in addition to large-scale wind forcing. Over the Angola-Benguela upwelling, coastal wind bursts controlling the SST ISV are associated with anomalously strong pressure patterns related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation, the St Helena anticyclone and the Antarctic Oscillation. In the Senegal-Mauritania upwelling, the wind anomalies mainly linked to the Azores anticyclone in the southern front during November to May appear to be connected to the Saharan heat-low in the northern front from June to September. In all five regions and as expected for such upwelling regimes, vertical oceanic mixing represents the dominant term in the mixed-layer heat budget. In the equatorial band, as found in previous studies, horizontal advection is equally important, while it appears surprisingly weak in coastal fronts. Finally, a striking result is the general lack of surface wind signal related to the SST ISV in the coastal upwellings. © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society.