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Madic J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Madic J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Piperno-Neumann S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Servois V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 23 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: To develop a molecular tool to detect circulating tumor-derived DNA (ctDNA) in the plasma from patients with uveal melanoma as a marker of tumor burden and monitor treatment efficacy. Experimental Design: A real-time PCR was developed on the basis of bidirectional pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (bi-PAP) for the quantification of ctDNA using 30blocked primer pairs specific for the 3 recurrent mutually exclusive mutations of Ga subunits GNAQ and GNA11. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of bi-PAP were assessed on serial dilutions of tumor DNA in normal DNA for the 3 recurrent mutations. Each assay could detect a single mutated molecule per reaction, whereas 10 4 copies of normal DNA were not detected. The ctDNA was readily detected in plasma of mice bearing uveal melanoma xenografts in amounts proportional to circulating human DNA. Finally, plasma was almost always found positive (20 of 21 tested patients) in a prospective analysis of patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. Conclusions: Bi-PAP assays detect and quantify ctDNA in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. A prospective study is ongoing to assess the clinical usefulness of ctDNA level in uveal melanoma. ©2012 AACR.

Couderc C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Couderc C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Boin A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Boin A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 29 more authors.
Neoplasia (United States) | Year: 2016

The Hippo signaling network is a key regulator of cell fate. In the recent years, it was shown that its implication in cancer goes well beyond the sole role of YAP transcriptional activity and its regulation by the canonical MST/LATS kinase cascade. Here we show that the motin family member AMOTL1 is an important effector of Hippo signaling in breast cancer. AMOTL1 connects Hippo signaling to tumor cell aggressiveness. We show that both canonical and noncanonical Hippo signaling modulates AMOTL1 levels. The tumor suppressor Merlin triggers AMOTL1 proteasomal degradation mediated by the NEDD family of ubiquitin ligases through direct interaction. In parallel, YAP stimulates AMOTL1 expression. The loss of Merlin expression and the induction of Yap activity that are frequently observed in breast cancers thus result in elevated AMOTL1 levels. AMOTL1 expression is sufficient to trigger tumor cell migration and stimulates proliferation by activating c-Src. In a large cohort of human breast tumors, we show that AMOTL1 protein levels are upregulated during cancer progression and that, importantly, the expression of AMOTL1 in lymph node metastasis appears predictive of the risk of relapse. Hence we uncover an important mechanism by which Hippo signaling promotes breast cancer progression by modulating the expression of AMOTL1. © 2015 Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale.

Bieche I.,Institute Curie Hopital Rene Huguenin | Bieche I.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Vacher S.,Institute Curie Hopital Rene Huguenin | Vallerand D.,Laboratoire dInvestigation Preclinique | And 15 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Tumor endothelial transdifferentiation and VEGFR1/2 expression by cancer cells have been reported in glioblastoma but remain poorly documented for many other cancer types.Methods: To characterize vasculature of patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs), largely used in preclinical anti-angiogenic assays, we designed here species-specific real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays. Human and mouse PECAM1/CD31, ENG/CD105, FLT1/VEGFR1, KDR/VEGFR2 and VEGFA transcripts were analyzed in a large series of 150 PDXs established from 8 different tumor types (53 colorectal, 14 ovarian, 39 breast and 15 renal cell cancers, 6 small cell and 5 non small cell lung carcinomas, 13 cutaneous melanomas and 5 glioblastomas) and in two bevacizumab-treated non small cell lung carcinomas xenografts.Results: As expected, mouse cell proportion in PDXs -evaluated by quantifying expression of the housekeeping gene TBP- correlated with all mouse endothelial markers and human VEGFA RNA levels. More interestingly, we observed human PECAM1/CD31 and ENG/CD105 expression in all tumor types, with higher rate in glioblastoma and renal cancer xenografts. Human VEGFR expression profile varied widely depending on tumor types with particularly high levels of human FLT1/VEGFR1 transcripts in colon cancers and non small cell lung carcinomas, and upper levels of human KDR/VEGFR2 transcripts in non small cell lung carcinomas. Bevacizumab treatment induced significant low expression of mouse Pecam1/Cd31, Eng/Cd105, Flt1/Vegfr1 and Kdr/Vefr2 while the human PECAM1/CD31 and VEGFA were upregulated.Conclusions: Taken together, our results strongly suggest existence of human tumor endothelial cells in all tumor types tested and of both stromal and tumoral autocrine VEGFA-VEGFR1/2 signalings. These findings should be considered when evaluating molecular mechanisms of preclinical response and resistance to tumor anti-angiogenic strategies. © 2014 Bieche et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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