Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris

Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, France

Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris

Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, France

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Delaunay C.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Goupil G.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Coursimault A.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Ravelomanantsoa H.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris | And 2 more authors.
15th IUAPPA World Clean Air Congress 2010, Presentations | Year: 2010

This work is conducted in 2007/2008 winter by two laboratories of the City of Paris and RATP, the operator of the Parisian subway network. This study aims at establishing the exposure levels of the Ile-de-France inhabitants when they commute in Paris between their dwelling and workplace, during morning and afternoon rush hour periods, using various modes of transport. A significant number of contrasted situations is retained; twenty routes are chosen implementing the main modes of transport : car, bus, subway, tramway, cycle and walking. Each route has been reproduced 30 times (15 round trips). The results are compared with the values obtained in similar conditions during the study led during period 1996-1998. For nitrogen dioxide, results show that levels are higher in cars and in buses than in other modes of transport. Median concentrations vary between 36 μg/m3 measured in the train of a subway line (RERB line) and 218 μg/m3 inside the car circulating on the ring road around Paris. The exposure in cars is the most important for carbon monoxide, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5 absorption coefficient and formaldehyde. The formaldehyde concentrations are the lowest for the pedestrian walking in a pedestrian district of Paris. They are the highest for the vehicle circulating on the ring road around Paris. PM2,5 mass concentration is higher in the underground lines of the Parisian subway system, where a specific particles source is observed. A significant decrease of benzene and carbon monoxide levels are observed between the studies of 1998 and 2008.


Nguyen T.-H.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Chevallier E.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Garcia J.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Nguyen T.-D.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2013

The development of new chemical sensors for the direct detection of nitrogen trichloride, NCl3, a toxic pollutant present in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools, is described. These innovative chemical and colorimetric sensors are based on the use of nanoporous matrices doped with probe-molecules, which act as sponges to trap the targeted pollutant and turn from transparent to pink-violet. These sensors can detect NCl3 at ppb level within 15 min in humid atmosphere. Due to the fast change of color, visible with naked eyes, these sensors can be used to detect peaks of pollution and to monitor the air quality of indoor pools in public or private area. The technology was transferred from Francis Perrin Laboratory (LFP) to ETHERA, a CEA-CNRS4 spin-off, which optimizes both the sensor synthesis for mass production and the quality control procedures needed for marketing. Validation of analytical procedures and sensor response in real environment is accomplished via a campaign of NCl3 measurements in a Parisian swimming pool. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Charpin D.,North Hospital | Baden R.,Direction de la Sante | Bex V.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris | Bladt S.,CRIPI | And 12 more authors.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

This review deals with environmental home inspection services in Western Europe provided for patients at the request of attending physicians to improve patient management. Such requests are usually motivated by respiratory or general symptoms which occur or worsen at home. The visit includes a standardised questionnaire as well as environmental sampling such as mite-allergen measurement, mould identification and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements. Besides, some non-respiratory indoor risks are also taken into account. Following the visit, a report is sent to the family and the attending physician. These services have been developed since the early 1990s, but evaluation of their efficacy is still limited. Some studies have demonstrated a reduction in mite-allergen levels and clinical improvement following the visit and implementation of advice provided to the family. However, more studies are needed to further document efficacy and also perform cost-benefit analysis of these services. © 2010 The Japanese Society for Hygiene.


Dubrou S.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris | Konjek J.,Service de Microbiologie | Konjek J.,University of Versailles | Macheras E.,Service de Microbiologie | And 12 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Garcia J.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Nguyen T.-D.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Tran-Thi T.-H.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Laurent A.-M.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris
Proceedings - 1st International Conference on Sensor Device Technologies and Applications, SENSORDEVICES 2010 | Year: 2010

The control of air quality is of great importance, in particular for the protection of the workers who can be exposed to toxic gas. The present work reports the development of new chemical sensors for the detection of halogenated gases. These sensors are based on the use of nanoporous matrices doped with cationic surfactants and acting as sponges to trap the targeted pollutants. These chemical sensors can be used for the detection of chlorine Cl2 or nitrogen trichloride NCl3 at ppb level. © 2010 IEEE.


Nguyen T.-H.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Rivron C.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Tran-Thi T.-H.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Chevallier E.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | And 2 more authors.
2013 Transducers and Eurosensors XXVII: The 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, TRANSDUCERS and EUROSENSORS 2013 | Year: 2013

The control of air quality is of great importance, in particular for the protection of individuals and workers who can be exposed to harmful gases. We here describe innovative chemical and colorimetric sensors for the detection of nitrogen trichloride, NCl3 a pollutant present in indoor swimming pools. These sensors are nanoporous matrices doped with specific probe-molecules, which can efficiently react with NCl3. They act as sponges to trap the targeted pollutant and turn from transparent to pink-violet. These sensors can detect NCl3 at ppb level within 15 minutes in humid atmosphere and ambient temperature of indoor swimming pools. © 2013 IEEE.


Ranciere F.,University of Paris Descartes | Dassonville C.,University of Paris Descartes | Roda C.,University of Paris Descartes | Laurent A.-M.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20μg/m3. The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Enkiri F.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris | De Baynast H.,University Blaise Pascal | Squinazi F.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris
Journal Europeen d'Hydrologie | Year: 2011

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of "repeated treatments", performed on three materials, on the potential of these materials to promote microbial growth. These three materials; copper, CPVC and a variety of PEX, are widely used in water distribution systems inside buildings. These materials were tested as new and in a degraded condition; achieved by treating the material 120 times with a succession of cleaning and disinfection procedures typical of those applied to distribution systems inside buildings (in terms of products, durations and concentrations) and representative of the service life of a system that suffers from contamination problems. The test method is the project European standard CEN TC164/WG3/AHG3 (Biomass Production Potential - BPP - Enhancement of Microbial Growth) and is based on the determination of the concentration of active biomass in the water phase and on the material, by assaying the microbial adenosine triphosphate (ATP), under so-called "semi-dynamic" conditions. The three materials studied differed significantly from each other in terms of their ability to promote microbial growth. Consequently, the promotion of microbial growth was found to be dependent on the type of material. The highest level of growth was observed for PEX (1520 pg ATP/cm2) with much lower levels for CPVC and copper (35 pg ATP/cm2 and 11 pg ATP/cm2 respectively). These tests also revealed the absence of any impact of the repeated treatments, performed on these three materials, on their ability to form biofilms (similar ATP content per cm2 for new and "treated" material), even though the treatments were observed to have slightly attacked the surfaces of the CPVC, PEX and copper materials. These repeated treatments probably do not modify the properties of the materials with regards to the ability of the micro-organisms to attach and proliferate. This study considered to a very limited extent the structural changes induced by the ageing of the materials under actual conditions of use: surface condition, scaling phenomena and corrosion. Tests under dynamic conditions, in pilot systems, which represent more closely the actual conditions in which the materials are used, could be conducted and the results compared with those obtained with the BPP test, for an optimal understanding of the risks of uncontrolled development of biofilms, relating to the properties of the materials. © ASEES, 2012.


Roda C.,University of Paris Descartes | Barral S.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris | Ravelomanantsoa H.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris | Dusseaux M.,Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2011

Background: Children are sensitive to indoor environmental pollution. Up until now there has been a lack of data on air quality in child day care centers. Objectives: The aim of this study is to document the indoor environment quality of Paris child day care centers by repeated measurements, and to compare pollutant levels in child day care centers with levels in Paris dwellings. Methods: We selected 28 child day care centers frequented by a random sample of babies who participated in the PARIS birth cohort environmental investigation, and visited the child day care centers for one week twice in one year. Biological contaminants assessed were fungi, endotoxin, dust mite allergens, and chemical pollutants: aldehydes, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Relative humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather information about the buildings and their inhabitants. Results: Airborne endotoxin levels in child day care centers were higher than those found in Paris dwellings. Dust mite allergens in child day care centers were below the threshold level for sensitization in the majority of samples, and in common with dwelling samples. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most commonly identified genera fungi. The child day care center indoor/outdoor ratio for most chemical pollutants was above unity except for NO2, the levels for NO2 being significantly higher than those measured in homes. Conclusion: Chemical and biological contamination in child day care centers appears to be low, apart from endotoxin and NO2. Failure to take child exposure in child day care centers into account could result in an overestimation of children's exposure to other pollutants. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Laboratoire Dhygiene Of La Ville Of Paris
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2013

Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network.

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