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Martin L.,University of Monastir | Latypova X.,University of Monastir | Terro F.,University of Monastir | Terro F.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Et Of Cytogenetique
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2011

Alzheimer's disease (AD) belongs to a group of neurodegenerative diseases collectively designated as "tauopathies", because they are characterized by the aggregation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. The mechanisms responsible for tau aggregation and its contribution to neurodegeneration are still unknown. Thereby, understanding the modes of regulation of tau is of high interest in the determination of the possible causes at the origin of the formation of tau aggregates and to elaborate protection strategies to cope with these pathological lesions. The regulation of tau takes place predominantly through post-translational modifications. Extensive reports have been published about tau phosphorylation; however, the other tau post-translational modifications have received much less attention. Here, we review the different types of post-translational modifications of tau including phosphorylation, glycosylation, glycation, prolyl-isomerization, cleavage or truncation, nitration, polyamination, ubiquitination, sumoylation, oxidation and aggregation, with a particular interest towards their relevance in AD. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Martin L.,University of Monastir | Page G.,Groupe de Recherche sur le Vieillissement Cerebral | Terro F.,University of Monastir | Terro F.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Et Of Cytogenetique
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2011

Overactivation of GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β) and downregulation of PP2A (protein phosphatase-2A) have been proposed to be involved in the abnormal tau phosphorylation and aggregation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). GSK3β and PP2A signaling pathways were reported to be interconnected. Targeting tau kinases was suggested to represent a therapeutic strategy for AD. Here, tau phosphorylation and neuronal apoptosis were induced in cortical cultured neurons by the inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid (OKA). In this in vitro model of 'tau pathology' and neurodegeneration, we tested whether GSK3β and other tau kinases including DYRK1A and CDK5 were implicated. Our results show that the inhibitors of GSK3β, lithium and 6-BIO (6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime), prevented OKA-induced tau phosphorylation and neuronal apoptosis. The implication of GSK3β in these OKA-induced effects was confirmed by its silencing by hairpin siRNA. By contrast, inhibition of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase-1A) and CDK5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-5) reversed OKA-induced tau phosphorylation at certain sites but failed to prevent neuronal apoptosis. These results indicate that OKA-induced effects, especially neuronal apoptosis, are preferentially mediated by GSK3β. Furthermore, since chronic exposure to lithium and 6-BIO might be deleterious for neurons, we tested the effect of a new 6-BIO derivative, 6-BIBEO (6-bromoindirubin-3′-(2-bromoethyl)-oxime), which is much less cytotoxic and more selectively inhibits GSK3β compared to lithium and 6-BIO. We show that 6-BIBEO efficiently reversed OKA-induced tau phosphorylation and neuronal apoptosis. It will be interesting to test neuroprotection by 6-BIBEO in an in vivo model of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Martin L.,University of Monastir | Martin L.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Et Of Cytogenetique | Martin L.,University of Nantes | Martin L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2013

Tau phosphorylation is regulated by a balance between tau kinase and phosphatase activities. Disruption of this equilibrium was suggested to be at the origin of abnormal tau phosphorylation and thereby might contribute to tau aggregation. Thus, understanding the regulation modes of tau phosphorylation is of high interest in determining the possible causes at the origin of the formation of tau aggregates in order to elaborate protection strategies to cope with these lesions in Alzheimer's disease. Among the possible and specific interventions that reverse tau phosphorylation is the inhibition of certain tau kinases. Here, we extensively reviewed tau protein kinases, their physiological roles and regulation, their involvement in tau phosphorylation and their relevance to AD. We also reviewed the most common inhibitory compounds acting on each tau kinase. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Martin L.,University of Monastir | Martin L.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Et Of Cytogenetique | Martin L.,University of Nantes | Martin L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2013

Tau phosphorylation is regulated by a balance between tau kinase and phosphatase activities. Disruption of this equilibrium was suggested to be at the origin of abnormal tau phosphorylation and thereby that might contributes to tau aggregation. Thus, understanding the regulation modes of tau dephosphorylation is of high interest in determining the possible causes at the origin of the formation of tau aggregates and to elaborate protection strategies to cope with these lesions in AD. Among the possible and relatively specific interventions that reverse tau phosphorylation is the stimulation of certain tau phosphatases. Here, we reviewed tau protein phosphatases, their physiological roles and regulation, their involvement in tau phosphorylation and the relevance to AD. We also reviewed the most common compounds acting on each tau phosphatase including PP2A. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Wilson C.M.,University of Limoges | Wilson C.M.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Et Of Cytogenetique | Magnaudeix A.,University of Limoges | Yardin C.,University of Limoges | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

The oligosaccharyltransferase complex catalyzes the transfer of oligosaccharide from a dolichol pyrophosphate donor en bloc onto a free asparagine residue of a newly synthesized nascent chain during the translocation in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. The role of the less known oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) subunits, DC2 and KCP2, recently identified still remains to be determined. Here, we have studied DC2 and KCP2, and we have established that DC2 and KCP2 are substrate-specific, affecting amyloid precursor protein (APP), indicating that they are not core components required for N-glycosylation and OST activity per se. We show for the first time that DC2 and KCP2 depletion affects APP processing, leading to an accumulation of C-terminal fragments, both C99 and C83, and a reduction in full-length mature APP. This reduction in mature APP levels was not due to a block in secretion because the levels of sAPPα secreted into the media were unaffected. We discover that DC2 and KCP2 depletion affects only the γ-secretase complex, resulting in a reduction of the PS1 active fragment blocking Aβ production. Conversely, we show that the overexpression of DC2 and KCP2 causes an increase in the active γ-secretase complex, particularly the N-terminal fragment of PS1 that is generated by endoproteolysis, leading to a stimulation of Aβ production upon overexpression of DC2 and KCP2. Our findings reveal that components of the OSTcomplex for the first time can interact with the γ-secretase and affect the APP processing pathway. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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