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Folligan K.,Laboratoire dhistologie et embryologie moleculaires | Folligan K.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Embryologie | Roume J.,Center Hospitalier Poissy Saint Germain | Razavi F.,Unite de Foetopathologie | And 4 more authors.
Morphologie | Year: 2011

Hypoplasia adrenal congenita is an extremely uncommon disease of early onset. This condition can be lethal in the absence of treatment. Some forms are due to the congenital adrenal hypoplasia of anencephalic type whose origin is even unknown. Here, we present two cases of congenital adrenal hypoplasia of anencephalic type with pituitary abnormalities. The two male newborns died because adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal period. The adrenal glands were hypoplastic with a histological structure of anencephalic type Immunocytochemical study of the pituitary revealed an absence of the gonadotrophs. No mutation of DAX 1 and SF-1 was found. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Lacoste-Collin L.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Embryologie | Castiella M.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Embryologie | Franceries X.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Cassol E.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | And 4 more authors.
Dose-Response | Year: 2015

The study of cell survival following exposure to nonuniform radiation fields is taking on particular interest because of the increasing evidence of a nonlinear relationship at low doses. We conducted in vitro experiments using the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. A 2.4 ´ 2.4 cm2 square area of a T25 flask was irradiated by a Varian Novalis accelerator delivering 6 MV photons. Cell survival inside the irradiation field, in the dose gradient zone and in the peripheral zone, was determined using a clonogenic assay for different radiation doses at the isocenter. Increased cell survival was observed inside the irradiation area for doses of 2, 10, and 20 Gy when nonirradiated cells were present at the periphery, while the cells at the periphery showed decreased survival compared to controls. Increased survival was also observed at the edge of the dose gradient zone for cells receiving 0.02 to 0.01 Gy when compared with cells at the periphery of the same flask, whatever the isocenter dose. These data are the first to report cell survival in the dose gradient zone. Radiotherapists must be aware of this nonlinearity in dose response. © The Author(s) 2015.

Vaysse L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Vaysse L.,University Paul Sabatier | Labie C.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Embryologie | Canolle B.,Sanofi S.A. | And 11 more authors.
Brain Injury | Year: 2012

Objectives: In the adult human brain, neurogenesis occurs in the SVZ and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is still unclear whether persistent neural progenitor/stem cells are also present in other brain areas. The present work studies the possibility of obtaining neural progenitor/stem cells from the temporal lobe and investigates their potential to differentiate into neuronal cells. Methods: Human biopsies from the temporal lobe of epileptic patients were used to isolate potential neural progenitors. Differentiation was induced in the presence of different agents (NGF, NT3, RA) and immunocytochemistry was then performed for quantitative analysis. Results: It was shown that a significant number of cells in the temporal lobe are also capable of expansion and multi-potency. These cells can be amplified as neurospheres and have the potential to differentiate naturally in vitro into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Quantitative analyses show that the progenitor cells of the temporal lobe exhibit a better rate of neuronal differentiation in vitro than the cells from the SVZ, particularly in the presence of NGF. Conclusion: This study indicates that neural progenitors are also present in the human temporal lobe. Studying them could be of great interest for cell therapy in neurological disorders. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd.

Frainais C.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Embryologie | Frainais C.,Laboratoire Clement | Vialard F.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Of La Reproduction Et Of Cytogene Tique Chi Poissy | Rougier N.,Laboratoire Dhistologie Embryologie | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics | Year: 2010

Introduction: According french legislation, sperm freezing/thawing procedures are used to prevent ART contaminations in couple with HIV-1 infected men. We determined sperm nuclear fragmentation rate before and after selection and freezing/thawing in HIV-1 14 patients. Methods: Two groups of patients were studied: 20 control patients with normal sperm (group 1) and without viral infection and 20 fertile treated HIV-1 patients (group 2). DNA fragmentation was evaluated using terminal uridine nick end labeling, before and after gradient selection, and after cryopreservation and thawing procedures. Results: DNA fragmentation rates in fresh semen were increased in HIV patients (6.38% vs 3.39%) (p<0.05) compared with control patients. After sperm migration, fragmentation rates were significantly lower (p<0.0001) in the two groups compared with fresh sperm rates. After freezing/thawing, values were similar to those of fresh semen with an increased rate (p<0.01) for HIV-1 patients, with respectively 3.40% and 5.18% rates in control and infected patients. HIV-1-infected patients treated by antiretroviral therapy showed a significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation in fresh sperm and also after freezing/thawing procedures, but these two fragmentation rates were not significantly different. Conclusion: So, freezing/thawing procedures do not seem to impair sperm DNA and preserve probability of conception for couples with HIV-1 infected men. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Pirot N.,Montpellier University | Delpech H.,Montpellier University | Deleuze V.,Montpellier University | Dohet C.,Montpellier University | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2014

Maturation of newly formed vessels is a multistep phenomenon during which functional endothelial barriers are established. Disruption of vessel integrity is an important feature in many physiological and pathological processes. We previously reported that lymphoblastic leukemia-derived sequence 1 (LYL1) is required for the late stages of postnatal angiogenesis to limit the formation of new blood vessels, notably by regulating the activity of the small GTPase Rap1. In this study, we show that LYL1 is also required during the formation of the mature endothelial barrier in the lungs of adult mice. Specifically, LYL1 knockdown in human endothelial cells downregulated the expression of ARHGAP21 and ARHGAP24, which encode two Rho GTPase-activating proteins, and this was correlated with increased RhoA activity and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into stress fibers. Importantly, in lungs of Lyl1-deficient mice, both vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and p120-catenin were poorly recruited to endothelial adherens junctions, indicative of defective cell-cell junctions. Consistent with this, higher Evans blue dye extravasation, edema, and leukocyte infiltration in the lung parenchyma of Lyl1-/- mice than in wild-type littermates confirmed that lung vascular permeability is constitutively elevated in Lyl1-/- adult mice. Our data show that LYL1 acts as a stabilizing signal for adherens junction formation by operating upstream of VE-cadherin and of the two GTPases Rap1 and RhoA. As increased vascular permeability is a key feature and a major mechanism of acute respiratory distress syndrome, molecules that regulate LYL1 activity could represent additional tools to modify the endothelial barrier permeability. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

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