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Tripette J.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | Hardy-Dessources M.-D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hardy-Dessources M.-D.,University of the French West Indies and Guiana | Hardy-Dessources M.-D.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation | Year: 2013

This review presents the epidemiological data regarding the exercise-related complication in exercising sickle cell trait carriers, and focuses on the different potential mechanisms that could be involved in these adverse events, such as hemorheological alterations, inflammation, vascular adhesion of circulating blood cells, oxidative stress and impaired nitric oxide metabolism. We also discuss the effects of different modulating factors such as vascular function, environment (hot temperature), hydration status, physical fitness, exercise intensity and genetic factors. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Diaw M.,Laboratoire Of Physiologie Et Explorations Fonctionnelles | Connes P.,University of the French West Indies and Guiana | Connes P.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Samb A.,Laboratoire Of Physiologie Et Explorations Fonctionnelles | And 7 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2013

The goal of the present study was to test whether fasting during the holy period of Ramadan may disturb blood rheology in sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers more than in a group of subjects with normal hemoglobin. Twenty African male students participated in the study: 10 SCT carriers and 10 subjects with normal hemoglobin (CONT). Biochemical parameters (plasma glucose and lipids levels), hematocrit, blood viscosity, and urine specific gravity were measured in the two groups on the 14th day of the Ramadan period (Ramadan condition) and 6 wks after the end of Ramadan (baseline condition). All the measurements were performed twice for each experimental day to measure intraday variation: 8:00 and 18:00 h. Plasma glucose level and lipid profile were not significantly different between the two groups. Although Ramadan did not affect the lipid profile, the plasma glucose concentration was lower during the Ramadan period compared with the baseline condition in the two groups. Hematocrit and urine specific gravity did not differ between the two groups and was greater in the evening than in the morning, independently of the condition. SCT carriers had higher blood viscosity than the CONT group. However, whereas blood viscosity remained unchanged through the day in the CONT group, whatever the condition, SCT carriers were characterized by a large increase of blood viscosity in the evening during the Ramadan period, indicating higher risk for microcirculatory blood flow impairments. Specific medical recommendations are needed for SCT carriers engaged in religious fasting. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Diaw M.,Laboratoire Of Physiologie Et Explorations Fonctionnelles | Diop S.,Laboratoire dhemato immunologie | Soubaiga F.Y.W.,Laboratoire dhemato immunologie | Seck M.,Laboratoire dhemato immunologie | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to compare blood and plasma viscosities, as well as the hematocrit/blood viscosity ratio (HVR), between trained and sedentary SCT carriers. Thirty African male SCT carriers from the city of Dakar (Senegal) participated in the study: one group composed of 15 trained SCT carriers (TSCTc) and one group composed of 15 sedentary individuals (SSCTc). Blood was sampled in resting condition and blood and plasma viscosities were measured using a cone-plate viscometer. After the determination of hematocrit by microcentrifugation, HVR was determined for each subject. Blood and plasma viscosities, as well as hematocrit, were significantly reduced in TSCTc compared to SSCTc. As a consequence, HRV was greater in TSCTc. These findings provide evidence that SCT carriers should be encouraged to practice regular physical activity to limit the cardiovascular strain usually caused by their blood hyperviscosity. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors.

Diaw M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Pialoux V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pialoux V.,Institut Universitaire de France | Pialoux V.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | And 18 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE It is predicted that Africa will have the greatest increase in the number of patients with type 2 diabetesmellitus (T2DM)within the next decade. T2DMpatients are at risk for cardiovascular disorders. In Sub-Saharan African countries, sickle cell trait (SCT) is frequent. Despite the presence of modest abnormalities in hemorheology and oxidative stress, SCT is generally considered a benign condition. Little is known about vascular function in SCT, although recent studies demonstrated an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, including venous thromboembolism, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that SCT could accentuate the vascular dysfunction observed in T2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The current study, conducted in Senegal, compared vascular function, hemorheological profile, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and nitric oxide metabolism in healthy individuals (CONT), subjectswith T2DMor SCT, and patients with bothT2DM and SCT (T2DM-SCT). RESULTS Flow-mediated dilationwas blunted in individuals with T2DM, SCT, and T2DM-SCT compared with CONT, with vascular dysfunction being most pronounced in the latter group. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements demonstrated increased arterial stiffness in T2DM-SCT. Oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products, and inflammation (interleukin-1β)were greater in patients with T2DM-SCT compared with the other groups. Blood viscosity was higher in individuals with TD2M, SCT carriers, and individuals with T2DM-SCT, and the values were further increased in the latter group. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate severe biological abnormalities and marked vascular dysfunction in patients with both T2DM and SCT. SCT should be viewed as a risk factor for further cardiovascular disorders in individuals with T2DM. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association.

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