Laboratoire dExcellence Inflamex

Paris, France

Laboratoire dExcellence Inflamex

Paris, France

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Millet A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Millet A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Millet A.,University of Paris Descartes | Millet A.,Laboratoire dExcellence INFLAMEX | And 12 more authors.
Postgraduate Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of diseases corresponding to necrotising inflammation of small vessels with a wide range of clinical presentations. At least two of the diseases are believed to exhibit a common ground of pathophysiological mechanisms. These are granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). ANCA directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) are preferentially associated with GPA, and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA are associated mainly with MPA and eosinophilic GPA (formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome). Anti-MPO and anti-PR3 antibodies can activate neutrophils in vitro. In vivo data are available for humans and mice on the pathogenicity of anti-MPO but it is more controversial for PR3-ANCA. A recent genome-wide association study of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides confirmed the genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of these conditions, with significant association of PR3-ANCA and human leukocyte antigen-DP and the genes encoding α1-antitrypsin and PR3. MPO-ANCA were significantly associated with human leukocyte antigen-DQ. Thus, recent results from epidemiological studies, genome-wide association study and therapeutic trials have suggested that these entities are, in fact, distinct. We have summarised these results and discuss the idea that these two entities should be studied separately as the nature of the two auto-antigens suggests at a molecular level despite shared ANCA involvement.


Taille C.,University Paris Diderot | Taille C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Taille C.,Departement Hospitalo University | Taille C.,Laboratoire DExcellence INFLAMEX | And 31 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is frequently observed in severe asthma but the causal link between the 2 diseases remains hypothetical. The role of OSA-related systemic and airway neutrophilic inflammation in asthma bronchial inflammation or remodelling has been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to compare hallmarks of inflammation in induced sputum and features of airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies from adult patients with severe asthma with and without OSA. Materials and Methods An overnight polygraphy was performed in 55 patients referred for difficult-to-treat asthma, who complained of nocturnal respiratory symptoms, poor sleep quality or fatigue. We compared sputum analysis, reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness, smooth muscle area, vascular density and inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchial biopsies. Results In total, 27/55 patients (49%) had OSA diagnosed by overnight polygraphy. Despite a moderate increase in apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI; 14.2±1.6 event/h [5-35]), the proportion of sputum neutrophils was higher and that of macrophages lower in OSA than non-OSA patients, with higher levels of interleukin 8 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. The RBM was significantly thinner in OSA than non-OSA patients (5.8±0.4 vs. 7.8±0.4 μm, p<0.05). RBM thickness and OSA severity assessed by the AHI were negatively correlated (rho = -0.65,p<0.05). OSA and non-OSA patients did not differ in age, sex, BMI, lung function, asthma control findings or treatment. Conclusion Mild OSA in patients with severe asthma is associated with increased proportion of neutrophils in sputum and changes in airway remodelling. © 2016 Taillé et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Mallat A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mallat A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Lodder J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lodder J.,University Paris Diderot | And 13 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Liver fibrosis is a common wound healing response to chronic liver injury of all causes, and its end-stage cirrhosis is responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Fibrosis results from prolonged parenchymal cell apoptosis and necrosis associated with an inflammatory reaction that leads to recruitment of immune cells, activation and accumulation of fibrogenic cells, and extracellular matrix accumulation. The fibrogenic process is driven by hepatic myofibroblasts, that mainly derive from hepatic stellate cells undergoing a transdifferentiation from a quiescent, lipid-rich into a fibrogenic myofibroblastic phenotype, in response to paracrine/autocrine signals produced by neighbouring inflammatory and parenchymal cells. Autophagy is an important regulator of liver homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. This review focuses on recent findings showing that autophagy is a novel, but complex, regulatory pathway in liver fibrosis, with profibrogenic effects relying on its direct contribution to the process of hepatic stellate cell activation, but with antifibrogenic properties via indirect hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, cell-specific delivery of drugs that exploit autophagic pathways is a prerequisite to further consider autophagy as a potential target for antifibrotic therapy. © 2014 Ariane Mallat et al.


Rigoni A.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori | Bongiovanni L.,University of Palermo | Burocchi A.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori | Sangaletti S.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2015

Mast cells (MC) are immune cells located next to the intestinal epithelium with regulatory function in maintaining the homeostasis of the mucosal barrier. We have investigated MC activities in colon inflammation and cancer in mice either wildtype (WT) or MC-deficient (KitW-sh) reconstituted or not with bone marrow-derived MCs. Colitis was chemically induced with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Tumors were induced by administering azoxymethane (AOM) intraperitoneally before DSS. Following DSS withdrawal, KitW-sh mice showed reduced weight gain and impaired tissue repair compared with their WT littermates or KitW-sh mice reconstituted with bone marrowderived MCs. MCs were localized in areas of mucosal healing rather than damaged areas where they degraded IL33, an alarmin released by epithelial cells during tissue damage. KitW-sh mice reconstituted with MC deficient for mouse mast cell protease 4 did not restore normal mucosal healing or reduce efficiently inflammation after DSS withdrawal. In contrast with MCs recruited during inflammation-associated wound healing, MCs adjacent to transformed epithelial cells acquired a protumorigenic profile. In AOM- and DSS-treated WT mice, high MC density correlated with high-grade carcinomas. In similarly treated KitW-sh mice, tumors were less extended and displayed lower histologic grade. Our results indicate that the interaction of MCs with epithelial cells is dependent on the inflammatory stage, and on the activation of the tissue repair program. Selective targeting of MCs for prevention or treatment of inflammation-associated colon cancer should be timely pondered to allow tissue repair at premalignant stages or to reduce aggressiveness at the tumor stage. © 2015 AACR. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.


Clement M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Clement M.,University Paris Diderot | Clement M.,Departement Hospitalo University | Fornasa G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 35 more authors.
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2015

CD31, a trans-homophilic inhibitory receptor expressed on both T- and B-lymphocytes, drives the mutual detachment of interacting leukocytes. Intriguingly, T cell CD31 molecules relocate to the immunological synapse (IS), where the T and B cells establish a stable interaction.Here, we show that intact CD31 molecules, which are able to drive an inhibitory signal, are concentrated at the periphery of the IS but are excluded from the center of the IS. At this site, were the cells establish the closest contact, the CD31 molecules are cleaved, and most of the extracellular portion of the protein, including the trans-homophilic binding sites, is shed from the cell surface.T cells lacking CD31 trans-homophilic binding sites easily establish stable interactions with B cells; at the opposite, CD31 signaling agonists inhibit T/B IS formation as well as the ensuing helper T cell activation and function. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis of experimental T/B IS shows that the T cell inhibitory effects of CD31 agonists depend on SHP-2 signaling, which reduces the phosphorylation of ZAP70.The analysis of synovial tissue biopsies from patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed that T cell CD31 molecules are excluded from the center of the T/B cell synapses invivo. Interestingly, the administration of CD31 agonists invivo significantly attenuated the development of the clinical signs of collagen-induced arthritis in DBA1/J mice.Altogether, our data indicate that the T cell co-inhibitory receptor CD31 prevents the formation of functional T/B immunological synapses and that therapeutic strategies aimed at sustaining CD31 signaling will attenuate the development of autoimmune responses invivo. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Millet A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Millet A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Millet A.,University of Paris Descartes | Millet A.,Laboratoire dExcellence INFLAMEX | And 13 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of diseases corresponding to necrotising inflammation of small vessels with a wide range of clinical presentations. At least two of the diseases are believed to exhibit a common ground of pathophysiological mechanisms. These are granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). ANCA directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) are preferentially associated with GPA, and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA are associated mainly with MPA and eosinophilic GPA (formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome). Anti-MPO and anti-PR3 antibodies can activate neutrophils in vitro. In vivo data are available for humans and mice on the pathogenicity of anti-MPO but it is more controversial for PR3-ANCA. A recent genome-wide association study of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides confirmed the genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of these conditions, with significant association of PR3-ANCA and human leukocyte antigen-DP and the genes encoding α1- antitrypsin and PR3. MPO-ANCA were significantly associated with human leukocyte antigen-DQ. Thus, recent results from epidemiological studies, genome-wide association study and therapeutic trials have suggested that these entities are, in fact, distinct. We have summarised these results and discuss the idea that these two entities should be studied separately as the nature of the two auto-antigens suggests at a molecular level despite shared ANCA involvement.


Mkaddem S.B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mkaddem S.B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Mkaddem S.B.,University Paris Diderot | Mkaddem S.B.,Laboratoire dExcellence Inflamex | And 19 more authors.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2014

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundantly produced antibody isotype in mammals. The primary function of IgA is to maintain homeostasis at mucosal surfaces and play a role in immune protection. IgA functions mainly through interaction with multiple receptors including IgA Fc receptor I (FcαRI), transferrin receptor 1 (CD71), asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), Fcα/μR, FcRL4, and DC-SIGN/SIGNR1. In this review we discuss recent data demonstrating anti-inflammatory functions of IgA through two receptors, the FcαRI and DC-SIGN/SIGNR1 interactions in the regulation of immunity. Serum monomeric IgA is able to mediate an inhibitory signal following the interaction with FcαRI. It results in partial phosphorylation of its FcRγ-ITAM and the recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, which induces cell inhibition following the formation of intracellular clusters named inhibisomes. In contrast, cross-linking of FcαRI by multimeric ligands induces a full phosphorylation of the FcRγ-ITAM leading to the recruitment of the tyrosine kinase Syk and cell activation. In addition, secretory IgA can mediate a potent anti-inflammatory function following the sugar-dependent interaction with SIGNR1 on dendritic cells which induces an immune tolerance via regulatory T cell expansion. Overall, the anti-inflammatory effect of serum and secretory IgA plays a crucial role in the physiology and in the prevention of tissue damage in multiple autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Mkaddem S.B.,University Paris Diderot | Mkaddem S.B.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Mkaddem S.B.,Laboratoire DExcellence Inflamex | Hayem G.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris | And 26 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2014

Rheumatoid arthritis-associated (RA-associated) inflammation is mediated through the interaction between RA IgG immune complexes and IgG Fc receptors on immune cells. Polymorphisms within the gene encoding the human IgG Fc receptor IIA (hFcγRIIA) are associated with an increased risk of developing RA. Within the hFcγRIIA intracytoplasmic domain, there are 2 conserved tyrosine residues arranged in a noncanonical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Here, we reveal that inhibitory engagement of the hFcγRIIA ITAM either with anti-hFcγRII F(ab′)2fragments or intravenous hIgG (IVIg) ameliorates RA-associated inflammation, and this effect was characteristic of previously described inhibitory ITAM (ITAMi) signaling for hFcαRI and hFcγRIIIA, but only involves a single tyrosine. In hFcγRIIA-expressing mice, arthritis induction was inhibited following hFcγRIIA engagement. Moreover, hFcγRIIA ITAMi-signaling reduced ROS and inflammatory cytokine production through inhibition of guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV-1 and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1), respectively. ITAMi signaling was mediated by tyrosine 304 (Y304) within the hFcγRIIA ITAM, which was required for recruitment of tyrosine kinase SYK and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Anti-hFcγRII F(ab′)2treatment of inflammatory synovial cells from RA patients inhibited ROS production through induction of ITAMi signaling. These data suggest that shifting constitutive hFcγRIIA-mediated activation to ITAMi signaling could ameliorate RA-associated inflammation.


Diana J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Diana J.,University of Paris Descartes | Lehuen A.,University of Paris Descartes | Lehuen A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lehuen A.,Laboratoire dExcellence INFLAMEX
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) development results from the interaction between pancreatic β-cells, and the innate and the adaptive immune systems culminating with the destruction of the insulin-secreting β-cells by autoreactive T cells. This diabetogenic course starts during the first postnatal weeks by the infiltration of the pancreatic islets by innate immune cells and particularly neutrophils. Here, we aim to determine the cellular and molecular mechanism leading to the recruitment of this neutrophils in the pancreatic islets of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Here, we show that neutrophil recruitment in the pancreatic islets is controlled by inflammatory macrophages and β-cells themselves. Macrophages and β-cells produce the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, recruiting CXCR2-expressing neutrophils from the blood to the pancreatic islets. We further show that pancreatic macrophages secrete IL-1β-inducing CXCR2 ligand production by the β-cells. Finally, the blockade of neutrophil recruitment at early ages using CXCR2 antagonist dampens the diabetogenic T-cell response and the later development of autoimmune diabetes, supporting the therapeutic potential of this approach. © 2014 The Authors.

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