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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Rigoni A.,Molecular Immunology Unit | Bongiovanni L.,University of Palermo | Burocchi A.,Molecular Immunology Unit | Sangaletti S.,Molecular Immunology Unit | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Research

Mast cells (MC) are immune cells located next to the intestinal epithelium with regulatory function in maintaining the homeostasis of the mucosal barrier. We have investigated MC activities in colon inflammation and cancer in mice either wildtype (WT) or MC-deficient (KitW-sh) reconstituted or not with bone marrow-derived MCs. Colitis was chemically induced with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Tumors were induced by administering azoxymethane (AOM) intraperitoneally before DSS. Following DSS withdrawal, KitW-sh mice showed reduced weight gain and impaired tissue repair compared with their WT littermates or KitW-sh mice reconstituted with bone marrowderived MCs. MCs were localized in areas of mucosal healing rather than damaged areas where they degraded IL33, an alarmin released by epithelial cells during tissue damage. KitW-sh mice reconstituted with MC deficient for mouse mast cell protease 4 did not restore normal mucosal healing or reduce efficiently inflammation after DSS withdrawal. In contrast with MCs recruited during inflammation-associated wound healing, MCs adjacent to transformed epithelial cells acquired a protumorigenic profile. In AOM- and DSS-treated WT mice, high MC density correlated with high-grade carcinomas. In similarly treated KitW-sh mice, tumors were less extended and displayed lower histologic grade. Our results indicate that the interaction of MCs with epithelial cells is dependent on the inflammatory stage, and on the activation of the tissue repair program. Selective targeting of MCs for prevention or treatment of inflammation-associated colon cancer should be timely pondered to allow tissue repair at premalignant stages or to reduce aggressiveness at the tumor stage. © 2015 AACR. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Clement M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Clement M.,University Paris Diderot | Clement M.,Departement Hospitalo University | Fornasa G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 35 more authors.
Journal of Autoimmunity

CD31, a trans-homophilic inhibitory receptor expressed on both T- and B-lymphocytes, drives the mutual detachment of interacting leukocytes. Intriguingly, T cell CD31 molecules relocate to the immunological synapse (IS), where the T and B cells establish a stable interaction.Here, we show that intact CD31 molecules, which are able to drive an inhibitory signal, are concentrated at the periphery of the IS but are excluded from the center of the IS. At this site, were the cells establish the closest contact, the CD31 molecules are cleaved, and most of the extracellular portion of the protein, including the trans-homophilic binding sites, is shed from the cell surface.T cells lacking CD31 trans-homophilic binding sites easily establish stable interactions with B cells; at the opposite, CD31 signaling agonists inhibit T/B IS formation as well as the ensuing helper T cell activation and function. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis of experimental T/B IS shows that the T cell inhibitory effects of CD31 agonists depend on SHP-2 signaling, which reduces the phosphorylation of ZAP70.The analysis of synovial tissue biopsies from patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed that T cell CD31 molecules are excluded from the center of the T/B cell synapses invivo. Interestingly, the administration of CD31 agonists invivo significantly attenuated the development of the clinical signs of collagen-induced arthritis in DBA1/J mice.Altogether, our data indicate that the T cell co-inhibitory receptor CD31 prevents the formation of functional T/B immunological synapses and that therapeutic strategies aimed at sustaining CD31 signaling will attenuate the development of autoimmune responses invivo. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Diana J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Diana J.,University of Paris Descartes | Lehuen A.,University of Paris Descartes | Lehuen A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lehuen A.,Laboratoire dExcellence Inflamex
EMBO Molecular Medicine

Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) development results from the interaction between pancreatic β-cells, and the innate and the adaptive immune systems culminating with the destruction of the insulin-secreting β-cells by autoreactive T cells. This diabetogenic course starts during the first postnatal weeks by the infiltration of the pancreatic islets by innate immune cells and particularly neutrophils. Here, we aim to determine the cellular and molecular mechanism leading to the recruitment of this neutrophils in the pancreatic islets of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Here, we show that neutrophil recruitment in the pancreatic islets is controlled by inflammatory macrophages and β-cells themselves. Macrophages and β-cells produce the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, recruiting CXCR2-expressing neutrophils from the blood to the pancreatic islets. We further show that pancreatic macrophages secrete IL-1β-inducing CXCR2 ligand production by the β-cells. Finally, the blockade of neutrophil recruitment at early ages using CXCR2 antagonist dampens the diabetogenic T-cell response and the later development of autoimmune diabetes, supporting the therapeutic potential of this approach. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Mkaddem S.B.,University Paris Diderot | Mkaddem S.B.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Mkaddem S.B.,Laboratoire dExcellence Inflamex | Hayem G.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris | And 26 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation

Rheumatoid arthritis-associated (RA-associated) inflammation is mediated through the interaction between RA IgG immune complexes and IgG Fc receptors on immune cells. Polymorphisms within the gene encoding the human IgG Fc receptor IIA (hFcγRIIA) are associated with an increased risk of developing RA. Within the hFcγRIIA intracytoplasmic domain, there are 2 conserved tyrosine residues arranged in a noncanonical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Here, we reveal that inhibitory engagement of the hFcγRIIA ITAM either with anti-hFcγRII F(ab′)2fragments or intravenous hIgG (IVIg) ameliorates RA-associated inflammation, and this effect was characteristic of previously described inhibitory ITAM (ITAMi) signaling for hFcαRI and hFcγRIIIA, but only involves a single tyrosine. In hFcγRIIA-expressing mice, arthritis induction was inhibited following hFcγRIIA engagement. Moreover, hFcγRIIA ITAMi-signaling reduced ROS and inflammatory cytokine production through inhibition of guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV-1 and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1), respectively. ITAMi signaling was mediated by tyrosine 304 (Y304) within the hFcγRIIA ITAM, which was required for recruitment of tyrosine kinase SYK and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Anti-hFcγRII F(ab′)2treatment of inflammatory synovial cells from RA patients inhibited ROS production through induction of ITAMi signaling. These data suggest that shifting constitutive hFcγRIIA-mediated activation to ITAMi signaling could ameliorate RA-associated inflammation. Source

Millet A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Millet A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Millet A.,University of Paris Descartes | Millet A.,Laboratoire dExcellence Inflamex | And 12 more authors.
Postgraduate Medical Journal

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of diseases corresponding to necrotising inflammation of small vessels with a wide range of clinical presentations. At least two of the diseases are believed to exhibit a common ground of pathophysiological mechanisms. These are granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). ANCA directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) are preferentially associated with GPA, and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA are associated mainly with MPA and eosinophilic GPA (formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome). Anti-MPO and anti-PR3 antibodies can activate neutrophils in vitro. In vivo data are available for humans and mice on the pathogenicity of anti-MPO but it is more controversial for PR3-ANCA. A recent genome-wide association study of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides confirmed the genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of these conditions, with significant association of PR3-ANCA and human leukocyte antigen-DP and the genes encoding α1-antitrypsin and PR3. MPO-ANCA were significantly associated with human leukocyte antigen-DQ. Thus, recent results from epidemiological studies, genome-wide association study and therapeutic trials have suggested that these entities are, in fact, distinct. We have summarised these results and discuss the idea that these two entities should be studied separately as the nature of the two auto-antigens suggests at a molecular level despite shared ANCA involvement. Source

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