Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles

La Croix-Valmer, France

Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles

La Croix-Valmer, France
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Mallet S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Huneau-Salaun A.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Herman L.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | De Reu K.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research
Productions Animales | Year: 2010

Due to the expected ban in 2012 of conventional cages for laying hens, new breeding systems are being developed. The impact of these systems on the hygienic status of the eggs was studied. The contamination of the egg shell by bacteria is significantly higher in free-range systems compared to furnished or conventional cages. These differences are lower in commercial conditions than in experimental studies. This could be explained by differences in breeding practices in the different breeding sites compared. The differences observed between furnished and conventional cages are lower and not constant. The percentage of eggs laid in the nest but also the disposition of the furniture (nest, perch and scratching area) may significantly affect the bacterial load of the egg shell. Many other factors such as cracks or dirt on the shell, dust concentration in the rooms or season may also influence bacterial egg shell contamination. Studies also show that it is highly unlikely that a move from conventional cages to alternative cage systems and non-cage housing systems for laying hens will result in an increase in Salmonella infection and shedding, rather the opposite is expected.


Beaumont C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chapuis H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sellier N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Calenge F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2010

Improving the fowl's natural ability to clear Salmonella from their body is important in reducing disease prevalence in poultry flocks, as recommended by a recent regulation of the European Commission. It may be efficient, as expected from estimation of heritability coefficients : 0.16 in chicks and 0.18 for global contamination of hens. The animal's age has to be considered since the genetic correlation between resistances at the two ages is negative. Selecting two series of divergent lines for increased or decreased resistance, after inoculation at one week of age (chick resistance) or at the peak of lay (adult resistance) confirmed the efficiency at least of selection for the adult resistance. In parallel, genes controlling variations to Salmonella resistance were researched and several QTLs identified in crosses between experimental lines and, for some of them, confirmed in commercial lines. Thanks to the derivation of a model of Salmonella propagation within a flock, it has been shown that a combination of vaccination and genetic selection can result in very low percentage of contamination. © World's Poultry Science Association 2010.


Michel V.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Prampart E.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Mirabito L.,ITAVI | Allain V.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | And 6 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2012

1. Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a recognised welfare problem in broiler chickens. Broiler feet (n = 54) were examined macroscopically and microscopically to determine a reliable correspondence between macroscopic and histological features, and to devise a scoring system that was relevant to bird welfare and easy to use at processing plants.2. Three types of footpad lesion were defined based on their severity. Type I were mild lesions, visually characterised by scale enlargement and erythema, and histologically by hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis, superficial dermal congestion and oedema. Type II were moderate, superficial lesions, visually characterised by hypertrophic and hyperkeratotic scales covered with yellowish to brownish exudate, and histologically by a prominent pustular and crust-forming dermatitis. Type III lesions were the most pronounced, visually characterised by a thick dark adherent crust, and histologically by extensive ulceration.3. On the basis of the severity and extent of these three types of lesions, a 5-point scale was devised, i.e. no or type I lesion (score 1), type II lesion (<50% or >50% of footpad, scores 2 and 3 respectively) and type III lesion (<50% or >50% of footpad, scores 4 and 5 respectively).4. The scoring system has the advantage of making sense in terms of welfare compared with previous schemes. Furthermore, it is histologically validated and easy to use for the routine assessment of broiler welfare in processing plants. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Huneau-Salaun A.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Michel V.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Huonnic D.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Balaine L.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Le Bouquin S.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles
British Poultry Science | Year: 2010

1. The aim was to assess eggshell contamination in various laying hen-housing systems and to identify factors influencing this contamination. 2. Fifty-eight laying hen farms in France were studied, including 21 flocks housed in conventional cages, 7 in furnished cages and 30 kept on-floor. 3. Sixty eggs per flock were analysed to obtain counts of the total mesophilic flora. Data on equipment and hen management were collected. 4. Mean bacterial count on eggshells tended to be higher in on-floor systems (4·82 ± 0·51 log CFU/eggshell) than in cage systems (4·57 ± 0·58 log CFU/eggshell, P = 0·09). 5. Contamination increased with age of the hens, airborne dust concentration, manual packing of the eggs, and packing in plastic rather than in recycled-pulp egg-flats. 6. The effect of the housing system on eggshell contamination, previously described in experimental assays, was confirmed under production conditions. © 2010 British Poultry Science Ltd.


Chauvin C.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Hillion S.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Balaine L.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Michel V.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | And 4 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2011

In recent years, broiler mortality during transport to the slaughterhouse has become a cause for concern because of animal welfare considerations and associated economic losses. A descriptive and analytical epidemiological study was carried out to estimate the extent of DoA in poultry broiler production in the main producing regions of France and to determine factors influencing the DoA rate. Data regarding animal characteristics and rearing, catching, transport and lairage conditions were collected on farm and at the slaughterhouse for 404 chicken broiler flocks processed during 2005. The average DoA rate was 0.18% (from 0% to 1.4%). Variables found to be associated (P < 0.05) with the DoA rate in a multivariable negative binomial model were flock cumulative mortality on farm, the catching system (mechanical being more at risk than manual), the density in crates (more space allowance being associated with less mortality) and climatic conditions (rain and wind being associated with more DoA). Mortality during transport is thus related to all production steps from the farm to the slaughterhouse. Efforts have therefore to be made by all professionals to contain mortality on farm and during catching and transportation. © The Animal Consortium 2010.


Huneau-Salaun A.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Michel V.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Balaine L.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | Petetin I.,Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2010

1. The aim in this study was to evaluate cleaning and disinfection programmes in battery cage and on-floor layer houses in France. 2. Cleaning and disinfection efficiency was assessed by a visual evaluation of cleaning and a bacteriological monitoring of surface contamination from counts of thermotolerant streptococci on contact agar plates. 3. In battery cage houses, dropping belts, manure conveyors, and house floors remained highly contaminated due to poor cleaning in half of the buildings examined. 4. In on-floor houses, a high standard of cleaning was achieved but errors in the planning of cleaning and disinfection operations sometimes led to a high residual contamination of nest boxes and egg sorting tables. © 2010 British Poultry Science Ltd.


PubMed | Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2012

In recent years, broiler mortality during transport to the slaughterhouse has become a cause for concern because of animal welfare considerations and associated economic losses. A descriptive and analytical epidemiological study was carried out to estimate the extent of DoA in poultry broiler production in the main producing regions of France and to determine factors influencing the DoA rate. Data regarding animal characteristics and rearing, catching, transport and lairage conditions were collected on farm and at the slaughterhouse for 404 chicken broiler flocks processed during 2005. The average DoA rate was 0.18% (from 0% to 1.4%). Variables found to be associated (P < 0.05) with the DoA rate in a multivariable negative binomial model were flock cumulative mortality on farm, the catching system (mechanical being more at risk than manual), the density in crates (more space allowance being associated with less mortality) and climatic conditions (rain and wind being associated with more DoA). Mortality during transport is thus related to all production steps from the farm to the slaughterhouse. Efforts have therefore to be made by all professionals to contain mortality on farm and during catching and transportation.


PubMed | Laboratoire Detudes Et Of Recherches Avicoles
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: British poultry science | Year: 2012

1. Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a recognised welfare problem in broiler chickens. Broiler feet (n = 54) were examined macroscopically and microscopically to determine a reliable correspondence between macroscopic and histological features, and to devise a scoring system that was relevant to bird welfare and easy to use at processing plants. 2. Three types of footpad lesion were defined based on their severity. Type I were mild lesions, visually characterised by scale enlargement and erythema, and histologically by hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis, superficial dermal congestion and oedema. Type II were moderate, superficial lesions, visually characterised by hypertrophic and hyperkeratotic scales covered with yellowish to brownish exudate, and histologically by a prominent pustular and crust-forming dermatitis. Type III lesions were the most pronounced, visually characterised by a thick dark adherent crust, and histologically by extensive ulceration. 3. On the basis of the severity and extent of these three types of lesions, a 5-point scale was devised, i.e. no or type I lesion (score 1), type II lesion (<50% or >50% of footpad, scores 2 and 3 respectively) and type III lesion (<50% or >50% of footpad, scores 4 and 5 respectively). 4. The scoring system has the advantage of making sense in terms of welfare compared with previous schemes. Furthermore, it is histologically validated and easy to use for the routine assessment of broiler welfare in processing plants.

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