Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
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Leduc F.,Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche | Tournayre P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kondjoyan N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mercier F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to reliably identify odorous compounds of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after 1, 4 and 15 days of storage in order to find markers of freshness or spoilage. For this purpose, a dynamic headspace gas chromatography olfactometry device (DH-GC-MS/8O) was used with a panel of eight sniffers for comprehensive detection of odorants. One- and two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC-GC-MS/O) coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry gave reliable identification. More than 144 volatile compounds were detected in seabass flesh, of which only 13 proved to be odorant (their biochemical origins are discussed): methane-thiobis, thiophene, toluene + butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanal, 1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, dimethyl-trisulfide, octanal, 1-nonen-3-ol, (E)-2-nonenal and 2 unknown compounds. Amongst these compounds, only thiophene, hexanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl-trisulfide, and 1-nonen-3-ol are proposed as markers of seabass quality. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Combrouse T.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Combrouse T.,Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche | Sadovskaya I.,University of the Littoral Opal Coast | Faille C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aims: The purpose of this study was to quantify the extracellular matrix of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm. A preliminary study was carried out to establish a relationship between phylogenetic lineage of 27 strains and their ability to form biofilm in various conditions. Methods and Results: Biofilm formation on microtitre plates of 27 strains of L. monocytogenes belonging to lineages I or II was evaluated in different conditions [two temperatures (37 and 22°C) and two media (tryptone soy broth yeast extract medium (TSBYE) and MCDB 202 defined medium)] using crystal violet assay. Lineage II strains produced significantly more biofilm than lineage I strains. In microtitre plates assay, biofilm quantities were greater in MCDB 202 vs TSBYE medium [confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis] and at 37 vs 22°C. Cultivable bacteria from biofilm population on Petri dishes were enumerated in greater quantities in TSBYE than in MCDB 202 medium. The SEM investigation established that L. monocytogenes biofilms produce extracellular matrix in both media at 37°C. The amount of exopolymers in the extracellular matrix and the pH values were significantly higher in TSBYE than in MCDB 202 medium. The exception was the ScottA strain that presented similar pH values and exopolymer contents in both media. Proteins were the most abundant exopolymer components, followed by DNA and polysaccharides. Conclusions: The interpretation of results of biofilm quantification was depending on the growth conditions, the viability of the bacteria and the analysis method. The quantities of proteins, DNA and polysaccharides were different according to the strains and the medium. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study screened the potential of a wide panel of L. monocytogenes strains to synthesize exopolymers in biofilm growing condition. The characterization of L. monocytogenes biofilm composition may help to develop new strategies to prevent the formation of biofilms and to remove the biofilms. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


Fall P.A.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Fall P.A.,University of Nantes | Fall P.A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pilet M.F.,University of Nantes | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

This study investigated the sensory quality and physicochemical evolution (pH, glucose, l-lactic acid, biogenic amine, free amino-acids and volatile compounds) during storage at 8 °C of cooked peeled shrimp inoculated with the specific spoilage bacteria Brochothrix thermosphacta alone or mixed with the protective strain Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031. Growth of both bacteria was monitored at regular intervals during storage by microbial counts and the thermal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) technique. Bacterial counts showed that L. piscium and B. thermosphacta inoculated at 7 log CFU/g and 3 log CFU/g were well adapted to shrimp, reaching a maximum level of 9 log CFU/g after 4. days and 10. days respectively. In mixed culture, the growth of B. thermosphacta was reduced by 3.2 ± 0.1 log CFU/g. The TTGE technique allowed monitoring the colonisation of the strains on the shrimp matrix and confirming the dominance of L. piscium in mixed culture throughout the experiment. Sensory analysis confirmed that B. thermosphacta spoiled the product after 11. days, when its cell number attained 8 log CFU/g with the emission of strong butter/caramel off-odours. This sensory profile could be linked to the production of 2,3 butanedione, cyclopentanol, 3-methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 4-methyl-3-chloro-3-pentanol and ethanol, which were produced in more significant quantities in the B. thermosphacta batch than in the batches in which the protective strain was present. On the contrary, TVBN and TMA were not suitable as quality indicators for B. thermosphacta spoilage activity. In the products where the protective L. piscium strain was present, no adverse effect on sensory quality was noted by the sensory panels. Moreover, biogenic amine assessment did not show any histamine or tyramine production by this strain, underlining its safety profile. Both strains produced lactic acid (1850. mg/kg in L. piscium and B. thermosphacta batch on days 3 and 10 respectively; 3830. mg/kg on day 7 in mixed culture) and the pH decrease from 6.6 ± 0.0 to 5.9 ± 0.1 was similar in all batches. Lactic acid production or competition for free amino-acid was not involved in the inhibition mechanism; however rapid glucose consumption by L. piscium could partially explain the growth limitation of the spoilage micro-organism. This study demonstrated the spoilage characteristic of B. thermosphacta and the usefulness of L. piscium as a bioprotective culture for tropical cooked peeled shrimp without any adverse effect on the sensory quality of the product. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Copin S.,Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche | Robert-Pillot A.,Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche | Robert-Pillot A.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Malle P.,Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

The most-probable-number (MPN) method is often time-consuming for the isolation, detection, and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from natural sources. MPN counting of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria usually involves the isolation of typical V. parahaemolyticus colonies on selective medium, with subsequent confirmation by biochemical identification. In this study, we evaluated the use of a PCR on MPN enrichment cultures (MPN-PCR) for the direct detection of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells in frozen shrimp. This reaction targeted the R72H, tdh, and trh sequences. An internal amplification control was added to the samples before R72H amplification. There was an excellent correlation between the results of the two methods for artificially inoculated and natural shrimp samples. Of 36 natural samples, 28 tested positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus, with an MPN value of 2 × 10 -1 to 9.2 × 10 1 per g. No pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells were detected. The test had a detection limit of one V. parahaemolyticus organism per g and was completed within two working days. These results support the use of the combination of PCR with MPN for the detection of total or potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells in frozen shrimp. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.


Duflos G.,Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche | Leduc F.,Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche | N'Guessan A.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Krzewinski F.,Lille University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

The freshness of whiting was studied at five stages of ice storage by comparing the analysis of volatile compounds obtained through solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) with two sensory methods. RESULTS: Of the volatile compounds identified, 38 were analysed using a statistical multivariate approach and classified according to their role in the estimation of freshness during storage as markers of freshness or spoilage. Regarding the evolution of the presence or absence of individual compounds, three categories were defined. For example, the volatile compounds propanal, hexanal, 1-penten-3-ol, pentanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 1-penten-3-one, heptanal, (E)-2-pentenal, 2,3-octanedione, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, 1-pentanol, butanal, octanal, 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-hexene, 1-hexanol and 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane appeared highly relevant, because they are found throughout storage and can be divided into several categories that are directly related to the quality of fish. CONCLUSION: SPME/GC/MS combined with a statistical multivariate approach may be a useful method to identify volatile compounds and characterise fish freshness during storage. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.


PubMed | Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of food protection | Year: 2012

The most-probable-number (MPN) method is often time-consuming for the isolation, detection, and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from natural sources. MPN counting of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria usually involves the isolation of typical V. parahaemolyticus colonies on selective medium, with subsequent confirmation by biochemical identification. In this study, we evaluated the use of a PCR on MPN enrichment cultures (MPN-PCR) for the direct detection of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells in frozen shrimp. This reaction targeted the R72H, tdh, and trh sequences. An internal amplification control was added to the samples before R72H amplification. There was an excellent correlation between the results of the two methods for artificially inoculated and natural shrimp samples. Of 36 natural samples, 28 tested positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus, with an MPN value of 2 10(-1) to 9.2 10(1) per g. No pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells were detected. The test had a detection limit of one V. parahaemolyticus organism per g and was completed within two working days. These results support the use of the combination of PCR with MPN for the detection of total or potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus cells in frozen shrimp.


PubMed | Laboratoire Des Produits Of La Peche
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2010

The freshness of whiting was studied at five stages of ice storage by comparing the analysis of volatile compounds obtained through solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) with two sensory methods.Of the volatile compounds identified, 38 were analysed using a statistical multivariate approach and classified according to their role in the estimation of freshness during storage as markers of freshness or spoilage. Regarding the evolution of the presence or absence of individual compounds, three categories were defined. For example, the volatile compounds propanal, hexanal, 1-penten-3-ol, pentanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 1-penten-3-one, heptanal, (E)-2-pentenal, 2,3-octanedione, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, 1-pentanol, butanal, octanal, 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-hexene, 1-hexanol and 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane appeared highly relevant, because they are found throughout storage and can be divided into several categories that are directly related to the quality of fish.SPME/GC/MS combined with a statistical multivariate approach may be a useful method to identify volatile compounds and characterise fish freshness during storage.

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