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Vasta V.,University of Catania | Aouadi D.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Brogna D.M.R.,University of Catania | Scerra M.,University of Reggio Calabria | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2013

Eighteen Barbarine lambs (3. months of age), were assigned for 95. days to 3 treatments: six lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate plus oat hay ad libitum (control group, C); other lambs received the control diet plus essential oil (400. ppm DM) either of Rosmarinus officinalis (R400 group; n. =. 6) or of Artemisia herba alba (A400 group; n. =. 6). At slaughter the muscle longissimus dorsi was sampled and subjected to fatty acid and volatile organic compounds (VOC) analyses. The A400 lambs presented a greater amount of vaccenic, rumenic and linolenic acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in meat than the C and R400 animals. Essential oils supplementation did not affect meat VOC profile though the sesquiterpenes copaene and β-caryophyllene were detected only in the meat of R400 and A400 lambs. It is concluded that the supplementation of rosemary or artemisia essential oils does not produce detrimental effects on lamb meat VOC profile. The supplementation of artemisia can improve meat healthy properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Salem I.B.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,INIA | Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Kraiem K.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

In the current study follicular dynamics, pituitary function, ovulatory response and luteal activity of 30 maiden Barbarine sheep were analyzed according to oestrus occurrence and lambing outcome after oestrus synchronisation with cloprostenol. Animals were retrospectively classified in three groups named as O- (n = 7, ewes not displaying oestrus), O+L- (n = 7, ewes showing oestrus but failing to lamb) and O+L+ (n = 16; ewes showing oestrus and lambing thereafter). All the sheep ovulated and daily transrectal ultrasonographies revealed that preovulatory follicles were present at cloprostenol injection in all the animals. In sheep O+L+ and O+L-, 50% and 57% of the ovulatory follicles were the largest follicles at cloprostenol treatment (mean size of 4.1 ± 0.26 mm and 4.3 ± 0.74 mm, respectively). In O- ewes, the same percentage was higher (86%, P < 0.05 when compared to group O+L+; mean size of 4.0 ± 0.46 mm). The number of large follicles and the final diameter of the ovulatory follicles at oestrous tended thereafter to be higher in group O+L+ (1.4 ± 0.1 and 6.4 ± 0.2) than in groups O+L- (1 ± 0.2 and 5.7 ± 0.36) and O- (0.9 ± 0.2 and 5.9 ± 0.5, respectively). Conversely, the number of medium follicles at oestrus detection was higher in the group O+L- (2.1 ± 0.3, P < 0.05) than in the other two groups (1 ± 0.2 and 1 ± 0.3 for O+L+ and O- respectively). Timing of preovulatory LH surge was earlier for ewes O- (24.0 ± 4.75, P < 0.05) than for sheep O+L+ and O+L- (37.9 ± 2.45 h and 38.0 ± 4.75 h, respectively) and 94% of O+L+ ewes had a LH surge between 16 h and 64 h after cloprostenol injection compared to 57% in O+L- and O- groups (P < 0.05). Thus, maiden Barbarine sheep failing to display oestrus or conceive showed alterations in their follicular dynamics and, thereafter, pituitary function and ovulatory response. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,INIA | Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Ben Salem H.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2012

The present study evaluated the effects of supplementation with cactus cladodes on follicular dynamics and ovulatory response of sheep reared in semi-arid areas. A total of 76 ewes were distributed into two equal groups supplemented with either concentrated feed or cactus cladodes. After 30days of supplementation, no differences were found between feeding regimens on the final live weight (LW; 41.5±0.6 and 42.1±0.7kg in the Concentrate and Cactus groups respectively) and body condition score (BCS; 1.8±0.3 and 1.8±0.4 for Concentrate and Cactus group respectively). Moreover, no differences were found between the initial and the final values of both LW and BCS; thus, there were no effects of supplementation on any of both parameters. Analysis of follicular population showed that, during the follicular phase induced by ram effect, the number of follicles reaching ovulatory size increased in both groups. However, the number was always higher in Cactus ewes and, at oestrus, Cactus ewes had 1.6±0.2 and Concentrate sheep had 1.2±0.2 large follicles (p<0.05). Thereafter, ovulation rate was affected by duration of supplementation; being higher in sheep fed with cactus for 6-10days (1.7±0.1) than in ewes supplied with cactus for more than 11days (1.3±0.1; p<0.05), in sheep fed with concentrate for 6-10days (1.2±0.1; p<0.01) and even than in individuals subjected to classical flushing with concentrate (1.3±0.1; p<0.05). © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,INIA | Ben Salem I.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Tounsi A.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

Preovulatory follicle dynamics and plasma oestradiol around the time of onset of oestrus as well as ovulation rate were assessed, during non-breeding season, in prolific (W; n = 20) and non prolific (AB; n = 20) strains of the Barbarine sheep. Oestrus cycles were synchronized with progestagen sponges for 14 days followed by introduction of rams. Transrectal ultrasonographic monitoring of the ovaries was carried out from the day of pessaries removal up to oestrous exhibition. Blood samples were collected every 4. h and were analyzed for plasma concentrations of oestradiol by radioimmunoassay. Laparoscopy was performed 11 days after introduction of rams to assess number of corpora lutea (CL). Results indicate that along the first 5 days after introduction of rams, 20 and 14 ewes of respectively the AB and W ewes exhibited oestrus (P < 0.01). Ewes of the W strain had more medium (3.5-5.4. mm) follicles than AB ones during the follicular phase; the difference being significant (P < 0.01) 24. h before oestrus. The number of medium follicles prior to oestrus changed little in AB ewes but declined rapidly from 5.8 ± 0.7 to 4.0 ± 0.6 in W females (P < 0.05). Differences in medium follicles between strains were not reflected in the number of large (≥5.5. mm) or the growing large follicles during the follicular phase. Around oestrus, plasma oestradiol concentrations were higher for W in comparison to AB ewes (22.3 ± 12.6 vs. 11.8 ± 6.2. pg/ml; P < 0.01) and mean ovulation rates were 1.8 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.3 for respectively W and AB ewes (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the increased ovulation rate in the W strain is related to an extended period of follicle recruitment with appearance of co-dominance effects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Lahouar L.,University of Monastir | Pochart P.,French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts | Salem H.B.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | El Felah M.,Laboratoire des Grandes Cultures | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested an important role for dietary fibre (DF) of cereals in the prevention of colon cancer. The objective of the present study was to explain the effects of the DF of barley Rihane (BR) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colonic bacterial diversity in rats. Following an acclimatisation period, rats were divided into four groups and fed a control (C) diet or experimental diet containing 30% of BR. DF content in the experimental diet was twice that of the C diet (total DF was 8·69% in the C diet and 15·24% in the BR diet). At 7 and 8 weeks of age, rats received two successive subcutaneous injections of AOM at 20mg/kg body weight. At 12 weeks after the first injection, ten animals from each group were killed. The BR diet decreased colonic pH (P<0·05) compared with the C diet. The total number of ACF observed decreased considerably in the BR/AOM group compared with the C/AOM group (P<0·05). Comparison of similarity coefficients showed variability of colonic microbiota species between the different groups. In addition, we showed inter-individual variability within the same group. This similarity was affected by BR and AOM. The present results show that bifidobacteria numbers were lower in rats fed the BR diet compared with those fed the C diet. However, the number of enterobacteria in colonic content was increased (P<0·05) in the BR group compared with the C group. The results from the present study show that the DF of BR reduced the incidence of AOM-induced ACF and increased microbiota biodiversity. Copyright © 2012 The Authors.


Nefzaoui A.,ICARDA | Ben Salem H.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | El Mourid M.,ICARDA
EAAP Scientific Series | Year: 2011

Small ruminant production is the main source of income of farmers living in the arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. However, the development of this sector is constrained by numerous environmental, institutional, social and economical factors. These areas are characterized by low and erratic rainfall resulting in water scarcity leading to a low fodder potential. Furthermore, native rangelands are degrading due to overgrazing, high stocking rates and mismanagement. Options to improve small ruminant-based production systems include (1) innovative technologies targeting the increase of feed resources availability, improving diets' quality and alleviation of feeding cost, (2) organization of local institutions for better adoption of these technologies and to protect the main natural resources (rangelands and water), (3) participatory approaches involving all stakeholders concerned with the improvement of farmer's income and livelihoods and the better use of natural resources. This paper reports on updated knowledge and technologies available to improve the productivty and sustainabilty of production systems in the Mediterranean arid and semi-arid regions and discusses the success stories as well as failures of a set of technologies targeting the promotion of small ruminant production in the Mediterranean basin.


Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Ben Salem H.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Chalouati H.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Ben Salem I.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2010

This trial investigated effects of cactus incorporation in the diet of the late pregnant-early suckling ewe on mammary gland secretions, blood metabolites, ovarian activity and lamb growth. Thirty-four single bearing ewes of the Barbarine breed aged 4.4 ± 1.7 years that were oestrus synchronised were selected. Animals were allocated to either barley treatment (n = 17) with daily feeding of 1.5 kg of oaten hay, 0.33 kg of barley and 0.11 kg of soybean meal per ewe or to a cactus treatment (n = 17), with feeding of 1.5 kg of oaten hay, 3 kg of cactus cladodes and 0.14 kg of soybean meal per ewe. The trial lasted approximately 60 days and started 4 weeks before lambing and continued until 30 days postpartum. Plasma concentrations of phosphorus, total protein, glucose and insulin before and after lambing slightly differed between ewes in both treatment groups and were more affected by time relative to lambing. Ewes fed cactus had higher (P < 0.05) plasma levels of calcium than their counterparts fed barley. Colostrum production did not differ between feeding regimes. The colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations averaged 160 and 149 g/l (S.E.M. = 12.9) in the barley and cactus groups, respectively. Milk yield at day 10 and 30 from birth was not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). Milk yield at 30 days was 1030 and 1041 g/day (S.E.M. = 96.9) for barley and cactus, respectively. Lamb live weight at 10 days of age was, respectively, 6.2 and 6.8 kg (S.E.M. = 0.23) for barley and cactus and identical (9.5 kg) at 30 days of age. The feeding regime did not affect ovarian activity at 30 days from lambing. It is concluded that cactus can totally replace barley grain in the diet of late pregnant-early suckling Barbarine ewes without affecting mammary secretions, resumption of ovarian activity or lamb growth. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Aouadi D.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Luciano G.,University of Catania | Vasta V.,University of Catania | Nasri S.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95. days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400. mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<. 0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7. days of aerobic storage. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zoghlami Khelil A.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Hassen H.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Benyoussef S.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Seed germination of two pasture legumes was tested under dark conditions at three alternating temperatures of 5-20,15-20, 20-35°C and constant 20°C. Duration of the alternating temperatures was 12h. The seedling counts were checked every day during four weeks. Species differed significantly in germination response to temperature. A. hamosus was more sensitive to temperature than C. scorpioides. The temperature of 20-35°C was more favourable for the germination of A. hamosus than constant 20°C which markedly reduced its germination. The interaction between accessions and temperatures for total germination was significant in both species. In A hamosus, almost 50% of germination was achieved by all accessions by the first week at alternating 20-35°C temperature while in C. scorpioides, average total germination was significantly low (4%) even by the 28th day. A total rate of 11 and 9% of germination were recorded by two accessions from Ouesslatia (210) and Agareb (19), respectively. A considerable variation for germination was observed among accessions of both species. Temperature requirements for seed germination of the studied species suggest why they are relatively easy or difficult to establish in the field. A. hamosus, with very small seeds required relatively high alternating temperature for germination than C. scorpioides which was insensitive to temperature and has relatively bigger seeds. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


PubMed | University of Catania and Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2014

The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage.

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