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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

De Pablos L.M.,University of Granada | Gonzalez G.,University of Granada | Rodrigues R.,Laboratoire des Pathogenes Emergents | Garcia Granados A.,University of Granada | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products

The action of maslinic acid (2α,3β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid) (1), a pentacyclic derivative present in the pressed fruits of the olive (Olea europaea), has been studied against the tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. The capability of tachyzoites to infect Vero cells treated with 1 was affected. The LD50 values were 58.2 μM for the isolated tachyzoites and 236 μM for the noninfected Vero cells. Zymograms of the T. gondii proteases incubated with 1 showed a dosage-dependent inhibition of some of the proteases. The parasites treated with 1 showed gliding motility and ultrastructural alterations. The present findings suggest that protease activity of the parasite required for cell invasion is the action target for maslinic acid (1). © 2010 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy. Source

Thammavong C.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale | Paboriboune P.,Center Christophe Merieux of Laos | Bouchard B.,Center Christophe Merieux of Laos | Harimanana A.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

BACKGROUND: Laos has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and a slowly increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Sputum smear microscopy is the only method currently available for routine screening of pulmonary TB, although it only detects one in three cases among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Bleach treatment of sputum samples (bleach method) has been shown to significantly improve the sensitivity of the test; however, its effectiveness in PLWH remains to be determined in Laos. OBJECTIVES: To determine the performance of the bleach method as a diagnostic tool for pulmonary TB in PLWH and to assess its cost-effectiveness in Laos. RESULTS: Of 174 sputum samples collected from 92 patients, 29 were culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 17 patients. The sensitivity of the direct method and the bleach method was respectively 59% and 93%, and specificity was 100% for both methods. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for screening an additional case was US$17.40. CONCLUSION: The bleach method is simple, cheap, easy to perform and cost-effective in PLWH. Its implementation in laboratories involved in routine screening of pulmonary TB among PLWH would allow practitioners to start the treatment of this life-threatening co-infection earlier. © 2011 The Union. Source

Iem V.,Village Capital | Somphavong S.,Village Capital | Somphavong S.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale | Buisson Y.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale | And 8 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases

Background: It is estimated that Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) ranks fifth among the seven countries most affected by TB in the WHO Western Pacific Region. However, because of late implementation of mycobacterial culture, no study on resistance to anti-TB drugs had been performed yet. The objective of this study was to document drug resistance rate among patients hospitalized for pulmonary TB in threeprovinces of Lao PDR.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three sites, one central and two regional hospitals, from April to November 2010. For each TB suspected patient sputum smear microscopy and culture on Lowenstein-Jensen media were performed. GenoType® MTBDRplus assay was used to test the susceptibility to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP), GenoType® MTBDRsl for second-line drugs and GenoType® Mycobacterium CMAS for non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM).Results: Out of 104 positive culture on Lowenstein-Jensen, 87 (83.6%) were M. tuberculosis and 17 (16.4%) were NTM. Of 73 new TB cases, 5 isolates (6.8%) were resistant to INH. Of 14 previously treated cases, 2 isolates (14.3%) were resistant to INH and one isolate was XDR.Conclusion: Despite an overall rate of resistance still moderate, the frequency of mutations conferring INH monoresistance and identification of the first strain of XDR require strengthening surveillance of drug resistant tuberculosis in Lao PDR. © 2013 Iem et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bagnaud-Baule A.,bioMerieux | Bagnaud-Baule A.,Laboratoire des Pathogenes Emergents | Reynard O.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Perret M.,Laboratoire des Pathogenes Emergents | And 8 more authors.

Each year, during winter months, human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with epidemics of bronchiolitis resulting in the hospitalization of many infants. Bronchiolitis is an acute illness of the lower respiratory tract with a consequent inflammation of the bronchioles. The rapid onset of inflammation suggests the innate immune response may have a role to play in the pathogenesis of this hMPV infection. Since, the matrix protein is one of the most abundant proteins in the Paramyxoviridae family virion, we hypothesized that the inflammatory modulation observed in hMPV infected patients may be partly associated with the matrix protein (M-hMPV) response. By western blot analysis, we detected a soluble form of M-hMPV released from hMPV infected cell as well as from M-hMPV transfected HEK 293T cells suggesting that M-hMPV may be directly in contact with antigen presenting cells (APCs) during the course of infection. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy allowed determining that M-hMPV was taken up by dendritic cells (moDCs) and macrophages inducing their activation. Furthermore, these moDCs enter into a maturation process inducing the secretion of a broad range of inflammatory cytokines when exposed to M-hMPV. Additionally, M-hMPV activated DCs were shown to stimulate IL-2 and IFN-γ production by allogeneic T lymphocytes. This M-hMPV-mediated activation and antigen presentation of APCs may in part explain the marked inflammatory immune response observed in pathology induced by hMPV in patients. © 2011 Bagnaud-Baule et al. Source

Fragnoud R.,bioMerieux | Fragnoud R.,Laboratoire des Pathogenes Emergents | Paranhos-Baccala G.,Laboratoire des Pathogenes Emergents | Bedin F.,bioMerieux

Dengue is an endemic viral disease present in inter-tropical countries. If dengue is usually benign, more severe forms (severe dengue [SD]) may lead to serious complications. The prognosis of SD is currently unreliable. To improve the prognosis, it could be necessary to know the key elements of the pathogenicity of the SD. Many hypotheses have been developed to explain a higher pathogenicity in SD patients. Numerous studies have highlighted the role of the host immune response and of the infecting virus strain. The development of these hypothesis allows to have a better understanding of the pathogenesis and consequently, to provide prognostic candidate-markers of SD, these markers being either associated with the host or with the virus. The present review proposes to paint a non-exhaustive picture of the most important hypothesis of dengue pathogenicity as well as potential prognostic markers of severe forms of dengue. Source

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