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Verrières-le-Buisson, France

Balssa F.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | Fischer M.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | Bonnaire Y.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques
Steroids | Year: 2011

5α-Estrane-3β,17α-diol is the major metabolite of nandrolone in horse urine. The presence of 5α-estrane-3β,17α- diol in female and gelding urines is prohibited by Racing Rules and its natural presence in male urine led regulation authorities to establish a concentration threshold of 45 ng/mL. This paper describes a rapid, simple and stereoselective synthesis of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol, providing horseracing laboratories with an essential reference material for their antidoping performance. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Balssa F.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | Fischer M.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | Bonnaire Y.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques
Steroids | Year: 2014

5(10)-Estrene-3β,17α-diol is an essential reference material for doping analysis in horse-racing laboratories. It is used to detect misuse, for doping purpose, of the pregnancy status in the mare. Its stereoselective synthesis from 17β-estradiol-3-methyl ether (prepared from estrone or 17β-estradiol) was performed in four steps: (1) Mitsunobu inversion of the 17β-alcohol; (2) Birch reduction of the aromatic ring; (3) stereoselective reduction of the 3-ketone via Noyori asymmetric transfer hydrogenation; (4) chemoenzymatic purification. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Decloedt A.I.,Ghent University | Bailly-Chouriberry L.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | Vanden Bussche J.,Ghent University | Garcia P.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | And 3 more authors.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2016

To ensure fair competition and to protect the horse's welfare, horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, regulatory authorities list all substances that are not allowed in competition, including most anabolic-androgenic steroids. As zero-tolerance is retained, the question arose whether the consumption of mouldy feed could lead to the excretion of steroids, due to the biotransformation of plant phytosterols to steroids. A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analytical method, previously validated according to AORC (Association of Official Racing Chemists) and EC (European Commission) guidelines, was used to measure steroids in different sample types. Multiple mouldy feed samples were tested for the presence of steroids. The effect of digestion was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse's hindgut in batch incubations. In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were mouldy. Mouldy corn however showed to contain up to 3.0 ± 0.4 µg/kg AED (4-androstenedione), the main testosterone precursor. This concentration increased when mouldy corn (with added phytosterols) was digested in vitro. An herbal phytosupplement also showed to contain α-testosterone. These results demonstrate that it is important to caution against the consumption of any feed or (herbal) supplement of which the detailed ingredients and quantitative analysis are unknown. The consumption of mouldy corn should especially be avoided, not only from a horse health and welfare point of view, but also to avoid possible inadvertent positive doping results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Decloedt A.,Ghent University | Bailly-Chouriberry L.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | Bussche J.V.,Ghent University | Garcia P.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolicandrogenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method. Low limits of detection (0.2 ng/mL), good reproducibility (percentage of standard deviation (%RSD)<10 %), high recovery (94.6 to 117.1 %), selectivity and specificity, and a linear response (confirmed with R2>0.99 and lack-of-fit analysis) were obtained for all included AASs. With this method, urine samples of 105 guaranteed untreated horses (47 geldings, 53 mares, and 5 stallions serving as a control) were screened for β-boldenone and five related natural steroids : androstadienedione (ADD), androstenedione (AED), alphatestosterone (αT), beta-testosterone (βT), and progesterone (P). Progesterone, β-testosterone, and α-testosterone were detected in more than half of the horses at low concentrations (<2 ng/mL). Occasionally, not only testosterone and progesterone but also low concentrations of AED, ADD, and boldenone (Bol) were found (0.5-5 ng/mL). © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015. Source


Bailly-Chouriberry L.,Laboratoire des Courses Hippiques | Noguier F.,Skuldtech | Manchon L.,Skuldtech | Piquemal D.,Skuldtech | And 3 more authors.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2010

Recombinant human erythropoietins (rHuEPOs) are glycoproteins drugs, produced by the pharmaceutical industry to restore production of red blood cells by stimulating human bone marrow for which this pathology has been diagnosed. It is suspected that the semolecules are diverted as doping agents in horse racing to enhance oxygen transport and aerobic power in racehorses. Although indirect double-blotting or direct liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods have been developed to confirm the presence of rHuEPO in a sample, the short detection time (48 h) is still a problem for doping control. In this context, gene profiling investigation through Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) has been conducted on seven thoroughbreds treated with Eprex®. This functional genomic method has been performed from total blood cells collected from each animal to assess the mRNA expression consecutive to rHuEPO injections. Sample pooling was chosen as a powerful, cost-effective, and rapid means of identifying the most common and specific changes in terms of gene expression profile and to eliminate individual variation. Consequently, three SAGE libraries were constructed, before, during, and after Eprex. treatment. More than 71440 mRNA signatures were observed and subjected to statistical analysis; 49 differentially expressed genes were identified and analyzed by qPCR. From the selected gene list, were defined as potential biomarkers in terms of their low inter-individual variation and capacity as strong markers of rHuEPO administration up to 60 days after the beginning of the doping period. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed to the horseracing industry to prevent rHuEPO abuse. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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