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Michel V.,CNRS Prehistoric, Antique and Middle Age Studies | Shen G.,Nanjing Normal University | Shen C.-C.,National Taiwan University | Wu C.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Refined radio-isotopic dating techniques have been applied to Orgnac 3, a Late Acheulean and Early Middle Palaeolithic site in France. Evidence of Levallois core technology appeared in level 4b in the middle of the sequence, became predominant in the upper horizons, and was best represented in uppermost level 1, making the site one of the oldest examples of Levallois technology. In our dating study, fourteen speleothem samples from levels 7, 6 and 5b, were U/Th-dated. Four pure calcite samples from the speleothem PL1 (levels 5b, 6) yield ages between 265 ± 4 (PL1-3) and 312 ± 15 (PL1-6) thousand years ago (ka). Three samples from the top of a second stalagmite, PL2, yield dates ranging from 288 ± 10 ka (PL2-1) to 298 ± 17 ka (PL2-3). Three samples from the base of PL2 (level 7) yield much younger U/Th dates between 267 and 283 ka. These dates show that the speleothems PL1 and PL2 are contemporaneous and formed during marine isotope stage (MIS) 9 and MIS 8. Volcanic minerals in level 2, the upper sequence, were dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method, giving a weighted mean of 302.9 ± 2.5 ka (2Σ) and an inverse isochron age of 302.9 ± 5.9 ka (2Σ). Both 40Ar/39Ar dating of volcanic sanidines and U/Th dating of relatively pure and dense cave calcites are known to be well established. The first parallel application of the two geochronometers to Orgnac 3 yields generally consistent results, which point to the reliability of the two methods. The difference between their age results is discussed. © 2013 Michel et al.


PubMed | Laboratoire Departemental Of Prehistoire Du Lazaret, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nanjing Normal University, National Taiwan University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

Refined radio-isotopic dating techniques have been applied to Orgnac 3, a Late Acheulean and Early Middle Palaeolithic site in France. Evidence of Levallois core technology appeared in level 4b in the middle of the sequence, became predominant in the upper horizons, and was best represented in uppermost level 1,making the site one of the oldest examples of Levallois technology. In our dating study, fourteen speleothem samples from levels 7, 6 and 5b, were U/Th-dated. Four pure calcite samples from the speleothem PL1 (levels 5b, 6) yield ages between 265 4 (PL1-3) and 312 15 (PL1-6) thousand years ago (ka). Three samples from the top of a second stalagmite, PL2, yield dates ranging from 288 10 ka (PL2-1) to 298 17 ka (PL2-3). Three samples from the base of PL2 (level 7) yield much younger U/Th dates between 267 and 283 ka. These dates show that the speleothems PL1 and PL2 are contemporaneous and formed during marine isotope stage (MIS) 9 and MIS 8. Volcanic minerals in level 2, the upper sequence, were dated by the (40)Ar/(39)Ar method, giving a weighted mean of 302.9 2.5 ka (2) and an inverse isochron age of 302.9 5.9 ka (2). Both (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of volcanic sanidines and U/Th dating of relatively pure and dense cave calcites are known to be well established. The first parallel application of the two geochronometers to Orgnac 3 yields generally consistent results, which point to the reliability of the two methods. The difference between their age results is discussed.


Deufemia V.,University of Salerno | Paolino L.,University of Salerno | De Lumley H.,Laboratoire Departemental Of Prehistoire Du Lazaret
Proceedings - International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, ICTAI | Year: 2012

Petroglyphs are images carved into a rock surface by prehistoric people using a symbolic or ritual language. Although they constitute an historical patrimony of inestimable value, little efforts have been devoted to the development of automated tools for their classification and interpretation. In this work we present a new algorithm for recognizing petroglyphs within scenes composed of several engraved figures. The proposal combines an unsupervised recognizer, Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), with a fuzzy visual language parser. The first classifies the petroglyph symbols extracted from a scene by using Radon transform as shape descriptor. The latter exploits the archeological knowledge about recurring patterns within scenes to solve ambiguous interpretations. The algorithm has been evaluated on a set of 50 petroglyph scenes, containing about 500 carved symbols from Mount Bego rock art site, and achieved very promising results. © 2012 IEEE.


Mascardi V.,University of Genoa | Briola D.,University of Genoa | Locoro A.,University of Genoa | Grignani D.,University of Genoa | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2014

This paper presents the architecture of a holonic multi-agent system for rock art interpretation and discusses the results achieved within the "Indiana MAS" project. We show how the AgentSketch and the ImageRec holons belonging to the Indiana MAS, able to cope with hand drawn sketches and images respectively, have been tested in the domain of Mount Bego's prehistoric rock art (southern French Alps), and how the Ma-nent agent-based framework for the seamless integration of Digital Libraries has been plugged into Indiana MAS to provide text classification, as well as multilingual access to structured repositories. The way Indiana MAS holons cooperate in order to provide correct interpretations of ambiguous shapes is discussed by means of an example based on hypotheses recently advanced by archaeologists. © 2014.


Deufemia V.,University of Salerno | Paolino L.,University of Salerno | Polese G.,University of Salerno | Mascardi V.,University of Genoa | De Lumley H.,Laboratoire Departemental Of Prehistoire Du Lazaret
Proceedings: DMS 2014 - 20th International Conference on Distributed Multimedia Systems | Year: 2014

In this paper we exploit a volunteer-based information paradigm for archaeological aims. In particular, we present PetroAdvisor, a system supporting several fundamental activities to digitally preserve petroglyph sites. The system also uses a rewarding strategy in order to stimulate people participation to the project, so that those entering useful information gain free archaeological data, tips on excursions and tours, opinions and rating from previous tourists, and so forth. User provided information typically consists of petroglyph pictures, descriptions, and several useful metadata, such as geo-referenced information, petroglyph contours, and so forth, empowering the work of the archaeologists, and enabling them to tackle technology shortfalls. © 2014 by Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School.


Deufemia V.,University of Salerno | Mascardi V.,University of Genoa | Paolino L.,Link Campus University | Polese G.,University of Salerno | de Lumley H.,Laboratoire Departemental Of Prehistoire Du Lazaret
Journal of Visual Languages and Computing | Year: 2014

In this paper we exploit a volunteer-based paradigm for archeological aims. In particular, we present PetroAdvisor, a system supporting several fundamental activities to digitally preserve petroglyph sites. The system exploits a rewarding strategy to stimulate people participation to the project, so that those entering useful information gain free archeological data, tips on excursions and tours, opinions and rating from previous tourists, and so forth. User provided information typically consists of petroglyph pictures, descriptions, and several useful metadata, such as geo-referenced information, petroglyph contours, and so forth, which can potentially empower the work of the archeologists, enabling them to tackle technology shortfalls. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Hanquet C.,Laboratoire Departemental Of Prehistoire Du Lazaret | Hanquet C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Desclaux E.,Laboratoire Departemental Of Prehistoire Du Lazaret | Desclaux E.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Quaternaire | Year: 2011

The study of rodent faunas has widely contributed to the knowledge ot the evolution ot the palaeoenvironments during the Quaternary. The evolution of rodent associations found in the deposits of the Arago cave are dated between 600,000 and 400,000 years (MIS 14 to MIS 12); during their evolution mammalian communities arrived from eastern Europe, Siberia and the mountains of Central Asia (Ochotona pusilla, Citellus sp., Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis and Dicrostonyx torquatus), as well as from northern Europe (Microtus gr. oeconomus). Their migration can be related to a major climatic change that occurred during the early Middle Pleistocene. The faunal change can be correlated with the establishment of more pronounced glacial-interglacial periods, modulated by a 100 ka periodicity and resulting in the cyclic dispersal throughout western Europe of taxa having with warm-humid (intcrglacial) and cold-dry (glacial) affinities. Our comparative studies on the appearance of micromammal species specific of dry and cold environment in eastern, central, northern and Mediterranean Europe during this period have led us to believe that micromammals, especially rodents, have mostly reacted to the change of the climate at the end of the early Middle Pleistocene (MlS 14 to 12). The Arago cave, located near the Mediterranean Sea coast, at the eastern end of the Pyrenees has well recorded this faunal turnover, whereas Spain and Italy, which appear to have been less affected by the expansion of those faunas, due to geographical barriers. In conclusion, such geographical and ecological specificities must be taken into account for micromammal fauna comparisons during the Middle Pleistocene.


Barsky D.,Center Europeen Of Recherches Prehistoriques Of Tautavel | Celiberti V.,Center Europeen Of Recherches Prehistoriques Of Tautavel | Cauche D.,Laboratoire Departemental Of Prehistoire Du Lazaret | Gregoire S.,Center Europeen Of Recherches Prehistoriques Of Tautavel | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2010

Lithics from Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 in Orce, Spain (respectively 1.3 and 1.2. Ma according to paleomagnetic and biochronological criteria) provide information about the oldest known European Mode 1 assemblages. At these sites, both located in what were swampy areas close to the eastern shores of the Baza paleo-lake, evidence points towards competition between hominins and hyenas to access large herbivore carcasses abandoned by other carnivores. To make their tools, hominins collected rocks available nearby such as limestone and flint. Distinctive groupings of rock type with typo-technological elements are clear: flint was largely exploited for flake production whereas limestone was reserved for percussion instruments and worked cobbles. These Spanish sites do not comprise true configured tools. Knapping strategies were adapted to raw material constraints and initial block form; the hard hammer on an anvil technique was frequently used to reduce small, cube-shaped flint matrixes and some larger limestone pieces. Technical systems were mainly unidirectional recurrent, although polyhedron shaped multiplatform cores were also produced by hard hammer technique. While evidence from the Near East attests to the presence of Mode 2 producing populations as early as 1.4. Ma, such assemblages do not appear in Europe until around 0.7. Ma. Given data from the Orce assemblages, how might the earliest hominin occupations of Europe be interpreted?. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Moyano I.T.,Museo Arqueologico y Etnologico de Granada | Barsky D.,Rovira i Virgili University | Cauche D.,Laboratoire Departemental Of Prehistoire Du Lazaret | Celiberti V.,Center Europeen Of Recherches Prehistoriques Of Tautavel | And 4 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

The Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 sites are located in the Guadix-Baza Basin in Orce (Andalusia, Spain) about 80 km from the Mediterranean Sea. The sites were accumulated in swampy areas near the paleo-lake Baza's eastern shoreline. There, hominins and hyenas competed for access to large herbivore carcasses abandoned by carnivores. The ages of the Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 sites have been evaluated from large and small mammal biochronology, magnetostratigraphy and also by ESR to around 1.4-1.2 Ma, respectively. Both sites have yielded fauna and lithic artefacts in situ. Systematic excavations at Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 have been underway since the 1990's and contribute to growing evidence of hominin presence in southern Europe well before 1 Ma.The two lithic assemblages show strong similarities. At both sites, the artefacts were knapped from tabular flint and limestone pebbles collected nearby. The assemblages are composed mainly of small, non modified flakes and angular fragments, as well as some cores. Larger limestone heavy duty tools and cores are also present. There are no standardized small or large tools. Stone knapping was carried out using hand held and bipolar-on-an-anvil reduction strategies in accordance with raw material constraints and probably also desired product morphology. The assemblages are characterized by widespread use of unidirectional knapping methods. Reduction strategies were progressively adapted as the cores evolved into different forms. The Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 stone tool assemblages express a variant of Oldowan or Mode 1 technology that may be considered to be more complex than that observed at some earlier African sites, mainly because of the systematic use of extended orthogonal knapping episodes producing multiplatform cores and the differential use of two types of raw materials for making small cutting tools and larger percussion instruments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Papaleo L.,Province of Genoa | Quercini G.,University of Maryland University College | Mascardi V.,University of Genoa | Ancona M.,University of Genoa | And 2 more authors.
ICAART 2011 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2011

This paper describes the joint effort of computer scientists, archaeologists, and historians for designing a multi-agent system that exploits ontologies for the semantic description of the Mount Bego petroglyphs, thus moving a step forward their preservation. Most components of the MAS have already been developed and tested, and their integration is under way.

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