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Seguin V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Lemauviel-Lavenant S.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Garon D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Bouchart V.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | And 6 more authors.
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2010

Pulmonary diseases such as recurrent airway obstruction have become a major concern in the horse industry. Airborne dust, including aeroallergens from forages, is suspected to be the main factor in its aetiology. Hypothesizing that grassland flora could affect hay hygienic quality, and therefore have implications for the respiratory health of horses, we compared five single-species hays (Trifolium repens, Lolium perenne, Alopecurus geniculatus, Poa trivialis and Holcus lanatus). Multi-species hay from Normandy, and different commercial forages (single-species haylage, multi-species haylage, Crau hay and hay from Swiss mixing), chosen to represent current horse forages, were also investigated. Dust, moulds, pollens and endotoxins were different among forage types, while mycotoxins were not detected in any of the forage types. Holcus lanatus hay was the dustiest among the single-species hays but also the least contaminated by moulds. A particular mould profile was associated with each plant species. The four commercial forages appeared to have a better hygienic quality than the multi-species hay. Among commercial forages, the single-species haylage was the least dusty but also the most contaminated by moulds. Overall the results suggest that the hygienic quality of equine forages could be improved by an appropriate choice of grassland species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Seguin V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lemauviel-Lavenant S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Garon D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Bouchart V.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | And 6 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

It is now widely recognized that an environmental approach to the prevention of equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO), resulting from recurrent exposure to dust and aeroallergens, requires closer consideration. The aims of this study were to quantify the dust and aeroallergens in hays in order to characterize the health quality of hay, to identify the most variable parameters and determine which climatic factors and agricultural practices improve the health quality of hay. Hays were experimentally produced from a homogeneous grassland by applying different agricultural practices and rainfall amounts. Treatment effects were evaluated by dust and aeroallergen quantifications and identifications. The highest fungal contamination in airborne particles and dust contamination during late harvest, occurred when hay moisture remained high during (rainfall after cut) or after the making process (baled at 75% DM). Eurotium amstelodami and Eurotium repens were mainly found in all hays, while Aspergillus fumigatus was mostly found in hays showing the highest colony forming units (CFUs). Barn drying increased dust content and haylages produced the lowest level of airborne particles. The highest levels of endotoxins were found in the hay harvested at 75% of dry matter and the hay exposed to a rainfall after cut. The presence of zearalenone was only detected in these two low quality hays. Overall results suggest that better agricultural practices for hay making can be adopted and may be used in combination to significantly improve the health quality of hay, leading to a lower long-term exposure of horses. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Seguin V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Garon D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Lemauviel-Lavenant S.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Lanier C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: Improving the hygienic quality of forages for horse nutrition seems to be a reasonable target for decreasing the prevalence of pulmonary diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of different agricultural practices on the main aero-allergens contained in forages, including breathable dust, fungi, mycotoxins and pollens. Results: Results showed that the late harvest of hay, a second crop or a haylage production provides a good alternative to increase hygienic quality by reducing fungi contamination and breathable dust content. Barn drying of hay, while having no effect on breathable dust, similarly reduced fungi contamination. In contrast, when hay was harvested at a lower dry mass content (750 g DM kg -1 versus 850 g DM kg -1), both breathable dust and fungi contaminations were increased, which could at least be reversed by adding propionic acid just before baling. Zearalenone was detected in different hays, and even in one case, in breathable dust. Conclusion: Overall, our data suggest that different approaches can be used to increase forage hygienic quality for horse feeding and thus reduce their exposure to factors involved in equine pulmonary disease. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Pottier D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Andre V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Rioult J.-P.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Bourreau A.,Bureau dexpertise A. Bourreau | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2014

For some years, the degradation of homes by the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans increased. This study described, for the first time, the fungal contamination in homes located in Low-Normandy (France) and damaged by Serpula lacrymans. Wood-decaying fungi, airborne molds, fungal species growing on building materials were investigated by cultural and molecular methods. Mycotoxins in the air were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS and the mutagenicity of fungal aerosols was also evaluated using the Ames test. The results showed that Serpula lacrymans was detected in the air for one third of homes with sometimes the co-occurrence of other ligninolytic basidiomycetes species like Donkioporia expansa. Various molds in the air and on materials (117 and 103 species, respectively) were also identified indicating the complexity of indoor mycoflora. Certain recurrent species like Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium fellutanum were observed both on building materials and in the air. The presence of cellulolytic molds in fungal aerosols and on building materials could be used as an indicator of home degradation. Airborne culturable fungal levels were measured up to 5.8x105 Colony Forming Units (CFU) per cubic meter of the air (CFU/m3) depending on the home. Fungal concentrations also depended on the type of collector (filter or liquid) and were significantly correlated with the median of particles between 2-15 μm in size. Two mycotoxins (alternariol and/or ochratoxin A) were observed in 4 homes but no mutagenic activity was found. © Author(s) 2014.

Lanier C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Richard E.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Heutte N.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Picquet R.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg-1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 102 to 6.2 × 105 cfu m-3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons (P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season (P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 103 to 1.7 106 cfu m-3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons (P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m-3, 1.09 μg m-3 and 2.97 μg m-3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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