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Mirande M.,Laboratoire dEnzymologie et Biochimie Structurales
FEBS Letters | Year: 2010

Several lines of evidence led to the conclusion that mammalian ribosomal protein synthesis is a highly organized biological process in vivo. A wealth of data support the concept according to which tRNA aminoacylation, formation of the ternary complex on EF1A and delivery of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome is a processive mechanism where tRNA is vectorially transferred from one component to another. Polypeptide extensions, referred to as tRBDs (tRNA binding domains), are appended to mammalian and yeast aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The involvement of these domains in the capture of deacylated tRNA and in the sequestration of aminoacylated tRNA, suggests that cycling of tRNA in translation is mediated by the processivity of the consecutive steps. The possible origin of the tRBDs is discussed. © 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Source

Richardson K.,Waters Corporation | Denny R.,Waters Corporation | Hughes C.,Waters Corporation | Skilling J.,Maximum Entropy Data Consultants | And 12 more authors.
OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2012

A probability-based quantification framework is presented for the calculation of relative peptide and protein abundance in label-free and label-dependent LC-MS proteomics data. The results are accompanied by credible intervals and regulation probabilities. The algorithm takes into account data uncertainties via Poisson statistics modified by a noise contribution that is determined automatically during an initial normalization stage. Protein quantification relies on assignments of component peptides to the acquired data. These assignments are generally of variable reliability and may not be present across all of the experiments comprising an analysis. It is also possible for a peptide to be identified to more than one protein in a given mixture. For these reasons the algorithm accepts a prior probability of peptide assignment for each intensity measurement. The model is constructed in such a way that outliers of any type can be automatically reweighted. Two discrete normalization methods can be employed. The first method is based on a user-defined subset of peptides, while the second method relies on the presence of a dominant background of endogenous peptides for which the concentration is assumed to be unaffected. Normalization is performed using the same computational and statistical procedures employed by the main quantification algorithm. The performance of the algorithm will be illustrated on example data sets, and its utility demonstrated for typical proteomics applications. The quantification algorithm supports relative protein quantification based on precursor and product ion intensities acquired by means of data-dependent methods, originating from all common isotopically-labeled approaches, as well as label-free ion intensity-based data-independent methods. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012. Source

Papin C.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Papin C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Humbert O.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Humbert O.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 8 more authors.
FEBS Journal | Year: 2010

TIP49b (reptin) is an essential eukaryotic AAA+ ATPase involved in a variety of cellular processes, such as chromatin remodeling during double-strand break repair, transcriptional regulation, control of cell proliferation and small nucleolar RNA biogenesis. How it acts at the molecular level remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that both human TIP49b and its yeast orthologue, Rvb2p, cooperatively bind single-stranded DNA as monomers. Binding stimulates a slow ATPase activity and supports a 3'- to 5' DNA unwinding activity that requires a 3'-protruding tail ≥ 30 nucleotides. The data obtained indicate that DNA unwinding of 3'- to 5' junctions is also constrained by the length of flanking duplex DNA. By contrast, TIP49b hexamers were found to be inactive for ATP hydrolysis and DNA unwinding, suggesting that, in cells, protein factors that remain unknown might be required to recycle these into an active form. © 2010 FEBS. Source

Gorelik R.,Laboratoire dEnzymologie et Biochimie Structurales | Gautreau A.,Laboratoire dEnzymologie et Biochimie Structurales
Nature Protocols | Year: 2014

The mechanism by which cells control directional persistence during migration is a major question. However, the common index measuring directional persistence, namely the ratio of displacement to trajectory length, is biased, particularly by cell speed. An unbiased method is to calculate direction autocorrelation as a function of time. This function depends only on the angles of the vectors tangent to the trajectory. This method has not been widely used, because it is more difficult to compute. Here we discuss biases of the classical index and introduce a custom-made open-source computer program, DiPer, which calculates direction autocorrelation. In addition, DiPer also plots and calculates other essential parameters to analyze cell migration in two dimensions: it displays cell trajectories individually and collectively, and it calculates average speed and mean square displacements (MSDs) to assess the area explored by cells over time. This user-friendly program is executable through Microsoft Excel, and it generates plots of publication-level quality. The protocol takes ∼15 min to complete. We have recently used DiPer to analyze cell migration of three different mammalian cell types in 2D cultures: the mammary carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231, the motile amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and fish-scale keratocytes. DiPer can potentially be used not only for random migration in 2D but also for directed migration and for migration in 3D (direction autocorrelation only). Moreover, it can be used for any types of tracked particles: cellular organelles, bacteria and whole organisms. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. Source

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