Laboratoire dentomologie medicale

Yaoundé, Cameroon

Laboratoire dentomologie medicale

Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Sandeu M.M.,IRD Montpellier | Sandeu M.M.,Laboratoire dentomologie medicale | Abate L.,IRD Montpellier | Tchioffo M.T.,IRD Montpellier | And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Progress in malaria control has led to a significant reduction of the malaria burden. Interventions that interrupt transmission are now needed to achieve the elimination goal. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) that aim to prevent mosquito infections represent promising tools and several vaccine candidates targeting different stages of the parasite's lifecycle are currently under development. A mosquito-midgut antigen, the anopheline alanyl aminopeptidase (AnAPN1) is one of the lead TBV candidates; antibodies against AnAPN1 prevent ookinete invasion. In this study, we explored the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum in mosquitoes fed with anti-AnAPN1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) vs. untreated controls, and investigated whether the parasite genetic content affects or is affected by antibody treatment. Exposure to anti-AnAPN1 mAbs was efficient at blocking parasite transmission and the effect was dose-dependent. Genetic analysis revealed a significant sib-mating within P. falciparum infra-populations infecting one host, as measured by the strong correlation between Wright's FIS and multiplicity of infection. Treatments also resulted in significant decrease in FIS as a by-product of drop in infra-population genetic diversity and concomitant increase of apparent panmictic genotyping proportions. Genetic differentiation analyses indicated that mosquitoes fed on a same donor randomly sampled blood-circulating gametocytes. We did not detect trace of selection, as the genetic differentiation between different donors did not decrease with increasing mAb concentration and was not significant between treatments for each gametocyte donor. Thus, there is apparently no specific genotype associated with the loss of diversity under mAb treatment. Finally, the anti-AnAPN1 mAbs were effective at reducing mosquito infection and a vaccine aiming at eliciting anti-AnAPN1 mAbs has a strong potential to decrease the burden of malaria in transmission-blocking interventions without any apparent selective pressure on the parasite population. © 2016


Tchioffo M.T.,IRD Montpellier | Tchioffo M.T.,Laboratoire dEntomologie Medicale | Abate L.,IRD Montpellier | Boissiere A.,IRD Montpellier | And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Malaria transmission relies on the successful development of Plasmodium parasites in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Within the mosquito midgut, malaria parasites encounter a resident bacterial flora and parasite-bacteria interactions modulate Plasmodium development. The mechanisms by which the bacteria interact with malaria parasites are still unknown. The intestinal microbiota could regulate immune signaling pathways or produce bacterial compounds that block Plasmodium development. In this study, we characterized Escherichia coli strains previously isolated from the Anopheles mosquito midgut and investigated the putative role of two E. coli clones, 444ST95 and 351ST73, on parasite development. Sporogonic development was significantly impacted by exposure to clone 444ST95 whereas prevalence and intensity of infection were not different in mosquitoes challenged with 351ST73 as compared to control mosquitoes. This result indicates midgut bacteria exhibit intra-specific variation in their ability to inhibit Plasmodium development. Expression patterns of immune genes differed between mosquitoes challenged with 444ST95 and 351ST73 and examination of the luminal midgut surface by transmission electron microscopy revealed distinct effects of bacterial exposure on midgut epithelial cells. The 444ST95 clone strongly affected mosquito survival and parasite development and this could be associated to the Hemolysin F or other toxins released by the bacteria. Further studies will be needed to decipher the virulence factors and to determine their contribution to the observed phenotype of the 444ST95 E. coli strain that belongs to the epidemiological ST95 clonal group responsible for extra intestinal infections in human and other animals. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | IRD Montpellier, Laboratoire dEntomologie Medicale, Toulouse 1 University Capitole, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and University of Douala
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Malaria transmission relies on the successful development of Plasmodium parasites in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Within the mosquito midgut, malaria parasites encounter a resident bacterial flora and parasite-bacteria interactions modulate Plasmodium development. The mechanisms by which the bacteria interact with malaria parasites are still unknown. The intestinal microbiota could regulate immune signaling pathways or produce bacterial compounds that block Plasmodium development. In this study, we characterized Escherichia coli strains previously isolated from the Anopheles mosquito midgut and investigated the putative role of two E. coli clones, 444ST95 and 351ST73, on parasite development. Sporogonic development was significantly impacted by exposure to clone 444ST95 whereas prevalence and intensity of infection were not different in mosquitoes challenged with 351ST73 as compared to control mosquitoes. This result indicates midgut bacteria exhibit intra-specific variation in their ability to inhibit Plasmodium development. Expression patterns of immune genes differed between mosquitoes challenged with 444ST95 and 351ST73 and examination of the luminal midgut surface by transmission electron microscopy revealed distinct effects of bacterial exposure on midgut epithelial cells. The 444ST95 clone strongly affected mosquito survival and parasite development and this could be associated to the Hemolysin F or other toxins released by the bacteria. Further studies will be needed to decipher the virulence factors and to determine their contribution to the observed phenotype of the 444ST95E. coli strain that belongs to the epidemiological ST95 clonal group responsible for extra intestinal infections in human and other animals.


Tchioffo M.T.,IRD Montpellier | Tchioffo M.T.,Laboratoire dEntomologie Medicale | Boissiere A.,IRD Montpellier | Churcher T.S.,Imperial College London | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The development of Plasmodium falciparum within the Anopheles gambiae mosquito relies on complex vector-parasite interactions, however the resident midgut microbiota also plays an important role in mediating parasite infection. In natural conditions, the mosquito microbial flora is diverse, composed of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. We report here the isolation of culturable midgut bacteria from mosquitoes collected in the field in Cameroon and their identification based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We next measured the effect of selected natural bacterial isolates on Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence and intensity over multiple infectious feedings and found that the bacteria significantly reduced the prevalence and intensity of infection. These results contrast with our previous study where the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae positively correlated with P. falciparum infection (Boissière et al. 2012). The oral infection of bacteria probably led to the disruption of the gut homeostasis and activated immune responses, and this pinpoints the importance of studying microbe-parasite interactions in natural conditions. Our results indicate that the effect of bacterial exposure on P. falciparum infection varies with factors from the parasite and the human host and calls for deeper dissection of these parameters for accurate interpretation of bacterial exposure results in laboratory settings. Copyright: © 2013 Tchioffo et al.


Chauvin P.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Menard S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Iriart X.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Iriart X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Objectives: To determine, 6 years after the adoption of intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in Cameroon, (i) the polymorphism and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) gene mutations associated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance and (ii) the consequences of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use in the selection of pfdhfr/pfdhps alleles. Methods: Pfdhfr and pfdhps genes from P. falciparum isolates collected in Yaoundé (Cameroon) from pregnant women with symptomatic malaria before taking IPTp-SP [SP2 group (control) (n=51)] or afterwards [SP+ group (n=49)] were sequenced. Results: The pfdhfr N51I, C59R, S108N triple mutant had a prevalence close to 100% (96/100) and no mutations at codons 50 and 164 were detected in either of the groups. The most frequent pfdhps mutation was A437G with a prevalence of 76.5% (39/51) in the SP2 group, which was significantly higher in pregnant women who took sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine [95.9% (47/49)] (P=0.012). Our study confirmed the presence of the pfdhps K540E mutation in Cameroon, but it remained rare. The prevalence of pfdhps A581G and A613S mutations had increased [5.9% (3/51) and 11.8% (6/51) in the control group, respectively] since the last studies in 2005. Surprisingly, the new pfdhps I431V mutation was detected, at a prevalence of 9.8% (5/51), and was found to be associated with other pfdhfr/pfdhps alleles to form an octuple N51I, C59R, S108N/I431V, S436A, A437G, A581G, A613S mutant. Conclusions: Significant changes were found in pfdhps polymorphism. In particular, we observed several parasites carrying eight mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps genes, which are very susceptible to having a high level of resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. © The Author 2015.


Tchioffo M.T.,IRD Montpellier | Tchioffo M.T.,Laboratoire dentomologie medicale | Boissiere A.,IRD Montpellier | Abate L.,IRD Montpellier | And 10 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to the breeding site, indicating that some bacteria are acquired from the environment. Our results revealed temporal variations in the bacterial community structure, possibly as a result of the mosquito physiological changes. The abundance of Serratia significantly correlated with P. falciparum infection both in the midgut and salivary glands of malaria challenged mosquitoes, which suggests that interactions occur between microbes and parasites. These bacteria may represent promising targets for vector control strategies. Overall, this study points out the importance of characterizing bacterial communities in malaria mosquito vectors. © 2016 Tchioffo, Boissière, Abate, Nsango, Bayibéki, Awono-Ambéné, Christen, Gimonneau and Morlais.


PubMed | University of Douala, University of Florida, IRD Montpellier, CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Progress in malaria control has led to a significant reduction of the malaria burden. Interventions that interrupt transmission are now needed to achieve the elimination goal. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) that aim to prevent mosquito infections represent promising tools and several vaccine candidates targeting different stages of the parasites lifecycle are currently under development. A mosquito-midgut antigen, the anopheline alanyl aminopeptidase (AnAPN1) is one of the lead TBV candidates; antibodies against AnAPN1 prevent ookinete invasion. In this study, we explored the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum in mosquitoes fed with anti-AnAPN1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) vs. untreated controls, and investigated whether the parasite genetic content affects or is affected by antibody treatment. Exposure to anti-AnAPN1 mAbs was efficient at blocking parasite transmission and the effect was dose-dependent. Genetic analysis revealed a significant sib-mating within P. falciparum infra-populations infecting one host, as measured by the strong correlation between Wrights F


PubMed | University of Douala, IRD Montpellier, French National Center for Scientific Research and Laboratoire dEntomologie Medicale
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2014

During their immature life stages, malaria mosquitoes are exposed to a wide array of microbes and contaminants from the aquatic habitats. Although prior studies have suggested that environmental exposure shapes the microbial community structure in the adult mosquito, most reports have focused on laboratory-based experiments and on a single mosquito epithelium, the gut. In this study, we investigated the influence of the breeding site on the development of the Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae microbiota in natural conditions. We characterized bacterial communities from aquatic habitats, at surface microlayer and subsurface water levels, to freshly emerge adult mosquitoes using multiplexed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and we separately analyzed the microbiota associated with the different epithelia of adult individual, midguts, ovaries and salivary glands. We found that the distribution of bacterial communities in the aquatic habitats differed according to the depth of water collections. Inter-individual variation of bacterial composition was large in larvae guts but adult mosquitoes from a same breeding site shared quite similar microbiota. Although some differences in bacterial abundances were highlighted between the different epithelia of freshly emerged An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, an intriguing feature from our study is the particular similarity of the overall bacterial communities. Our results call for further investigations on the bacterial population dynamics in the different tissues to determine the distinctive characteristics of each microbiota during the mosquito lifespan and to identify specific interactions between certain key phyla or species and the insect life history traits.


PubMed | British Petroleum, IRD Montpellier, French Institute of Health and Medical Research and Laboratoire dEntomologie Medicale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016

The spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in Southeast Asia is a major source of concern and the emergence of resistance in Africa would have dramatic consequences, by increasing malaria mortality and morbidity. It is therefore urgent to implement regular monitoring in sentinel sites in sub-Saharan Africa using robust and easy-to-implement tools. The prevalence of k13-propeller mutations and the phenotypic profiles are poorly known in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, the k13-propeller polymorphism was compared to both ex vivo susceptibility to DHA and early parasitological and clinical responses to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT).Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected in 2015 in Yaound (Cameroon) from patients treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine combination. Samples were analysed for their susceptibility to artemisinin using the k13-propeller sequencing, the ex vivo ring-stage survival assay, the in vivo parasite positive rate and the clinical statute at day 2.None of the collected isolates revealed the presence of resistance mutations in the k13-propeller sequence. The median ring-stage survival rate for all the 64 interpretable isolates after a 6-hour pulse of 700nM dihydroartemisinin was low, 0.49% (IQR: 0-1.3). Total parasite clearance was observed for 87.5% of patients and the remaining parasitaemic isolates (12.5%) showed a high reduction of parasite load, ranging from 97.5 to 99.9%. Clinical symptoms disappeared in 92.8% of cases.This study demonstrated the absence of k13-resistant genotypes in P. falciparum isolates from Cameroon. Only synonymous mutations were found with a low prevalence (4.3%). A good association between k13 genotypes and the ex vivo ring-stage survival assay or parasitological and clinical data was obtained. These results give a baseline for the long-term monitoring of artemisinin derivative efficacy in Africa.


PubMed | University of Douala, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Toulouse University Hospital Center, IRD Montpellier and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2015

To determine, 6 years after the adoption of intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in Cameroon, (i) the polymorphism and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) gene mutations associated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance and (ii) the consequences of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use in the selection of pfdhfr/pfdhps alleles.pfdhfr and pfdhps genes from P. falciparum isolates collected in Yaound (Cameroon) from pregnant women with symptomatic malaria before taking IPTp-SP [SP- group (control) (n=51)] or afterwards [SP+ group (n=49)] were sequenced.The pfdhfr N51I, C59R, S108N triple mutant had a prevalence close to 100% (96/100) and no mutations at codons 50 and 164 were detected in either of the groups. The most frequent pfdhps mutation was A437G with a prevalence of 76.5% (39/51) in the SP- group, which was significantly higher in pregnant women who took sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine [95.9% (47/49)] (P=0.012). Our study confirmed the presence of the pfdhps K540E mutation in Cameroon, but it remained rare. The prevalence of pfdhps A581G and A613S mutations had increased [5.9% (3/51) and 11.8% (6/51) in the control group, respectively] since the last studies in 2005. Surprisingly, the new pfdhps I431V mutation was detected, at a prevalence of 9.8% (5/51), and was found to be associated with other pfdhfr/pfdhps alleles to form an octuple N51I, C59R, S108N/I431V, S436A, A437G, A581G, A613S mutant.Significant changes were found in pfdhps polymorphism. In particular, we observed several parasites carrying eight mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps genes, which are very susceptible to having a high level of resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.

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