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Chauvin P.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Menard S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Iriart X.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Iriart X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Objectives: To determine, 6 years after the adoption of intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in Cameroon, (i) the polymorphism and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) gene mutations associated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance and (ii) the consequences of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use in the selection of pfdhfr/pfdhps alleles. Methods: Pfdhfr and pfdhps genes from P. falciparum isolates collected in Yaoundé (Cameroon) from pregnant women with symptomatic malaria before taking IPTp-SP [SP2 group (control) (n=51)] or afterwards [SP+ group (n=49)] were sequenced. Results: The pfdhfr N51I, C59R, S108N triple mutant had a prevalence close to 100% (96/100) and no mutations at codons 50 and 164 were detected in either of the groups. The most frequent pfdhps mutation was A437G with a prevalence of 76.5% (39/51) in the SP2 group, which was significantly higher in pregnant women who took sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine [95.9% (47/49)] (P=0.012). Our study confirmed the presence of the pfdhps K540E mutation in Cameroon, but it remained rare. The prevalence of pfdhps A581G and A613S mutations had increased [5.9% (3/51) and 11.8% (6/51) in the control group, respectively] since the last studies in 2005. Surprisingly, the new pfdhps I431V mutation was detected, at a prevalence of 9.8% (5/51), and was found to be associated with other pfdhfr/pfdhps alleles to form an octuple N51I, C59R, S108N/I431V, S436A, A437G, A581G, A613S mutant. Conclusions: Significant changes were found in pfdhps polymorphism. In particular, we observed several parasites carrying eight mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps genes, which are very susceptible to having a high level of resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. © The Author 2015. Source

Tchioffo M.T.,IRD Montpellier | Tchioffo M.T.,Laboratoire dEntomologie Medicale | Boissiere A.,IRD Montpellier | Abate L.,IRD Montpellier | And 10 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to the breeding site, indicating that some bacteria are acquired from the environment. Our results revealed temporal variations in the bacterial community structure, possibly as a result of the mosquito physiological changes. The abundance of Serratia significantly correlated with P. falciparum infection both in the midgut and salivary glands of malaria challenged mosquitoes, which suggests that interactions occur between microbes and parasites. These bacteria may represent promising targets for vector control strategies. Overall, this study points out the importance of characterizing bacterial communities in malaria mosquito vectors. © 2016 Tchioffo, Boissière, Abate, Nsango, Bayibéki, Awono-Ambéné, Christen, Gimonneau and Morlais. Source

Tchioffo M.T.,IRD Montpellier | Tchioffo M.T.,Laboratoire dEntomologie Medicale | Boissiere A.,IRD Montpellier | Churcher T.S.,Imperial College London | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The development of Plasmodium falciparum within the Anopheles gambiae mosquito relies on complex vector-parasite interactions, however the resident midgut microbiota also plays an important role in mediating parasite infection. In natural conditions, the mosquito microbial flora is diverse, composed of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. We report here the isolation of culturable midgut bacteria from mosquitoes collected in the field in Cameroon and their identification based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We next measured the effect of selected natural bacterial isolates on Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence and intensity over multiple infectious feedings and found that the bacteria significantly reduced the prevalence and intensity of infection. These results contrast with our previous study where the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae positively correlated with P. falciparum infection (Boissière et al. 2012). The oral infection of bacteria probably led to the disruption of the gut homeostasis and activated immune responses, and this pinpoints the importance of studying microbe-parasite interactions in natural conditions. Our results indicate that the effect of bacterial exposure on P. falciparum infection varies with factors from the parasite and the human host and calls for deeper dissection of these parameters for accurate interpretation of bacterial exposure results in laboratory settings. Copyright: © 2013 Tchioffo et al. Source

Tchioffo M.T.,IRD Montpellier | Tchioffo M.T.,Laboratoire dEntomologie Medicale | Abate L.,IRD Montpellier | Boissiere A.,IRD Montpellier | And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Malaria transmission relies on the successful development of Plasmodium parasites in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Within the mosquito midgut, malaria parasites encounter a resident bacterial flora and parasite-bacteria interactions modulate Plasmodium development. The mechanisms by which the bacteria interact with malaria parasites are still unknown. The intestinal microbiota could regulate immune signaling pathways or produce bacterial compounds that block Plasmodium development. In this study, we characterized Escherichia coli strains previously isolated from the Anopheles mosquito midgut and investigated the putative role of two E. coli clones, 444ST95 and 351ST73, on parasite development. Sporogonic development was significantly impacted by exposure to clone 444ST95 whereas prevalence and intensity of infection were not different in mosquitoes challenged with 351ST73 as compared to control mosquitoes. This result indicates midgut bacteria exhibit intra-specific variation in their ability to inhibit Plasmodium development. Expression patterns of immune genes differed between mosquitoes challenged with 444ST95 and 351ST73 and examination of the luminal midgut surface by transmission electron microscopy revealed distinct effects of bacterial exposure on midgut epithelial cells. The 444ST95 clone strongly affected mosquito survival and parasite development and this could be associated to the Hemolysin F or other toxins released by the bacteria. Further studies will be needed to decipher the virulence factors and to determine their contribution to the observed phenotype of the 444ST95 E. coli strain that belongs to the epidemiological ST95 clonal group responsible for extra intestinal infections in human and other animals. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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