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Belguith-Hadriche O.,Laboratoire Of Biochimie | Bouaziz M.,University of Sfax | Jamoussi K.,Laboratoire Of Biochimie | Simmonds M.S.J.,Royal Botanic Gardens | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloro-methane) of fenugreek seeds were investigated in cholesterol-fed rats. Only the ethyl acetate extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet (HCD). Furthermore, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts. These results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of the fenugreek seeds had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and antioxidant activity in cholesterol-fed rats, whether this is partly due to the presence of flavonoïds in the extract needs further study. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bourogaa E.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Des Substances Naturelles | Bertrand J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Despeaux M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Jarraya R.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Des Substances Naturelles | And 8 more authors.
Leukemia Research | Year: 2011

In search for compounds able to reduce cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR), we studied effects of Hammada scoparia extracts on leukemic cells adherent or in suspension. We show that H. scoparia flavonoidic fraction and its compound rutin induce apoptosis specifically in adherent leukemic cells and abolish CAM-DR. Importantly, rutin inhibited survival of adherent leukemic progenitors (CD34 +38 -123 +) but spared normal progenitors (CD34 +38 -). The pro-apoptotic effects of rutin were correlated with a decrease of active GSK3β and inhibitors of GSK3β reproduced rutin-induced cytotoxicity. This study uncovers the potential of H. scoparia flavonoids and rutin to overcome CAM-DR in acute myeloid leukemia. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lambrechts M.M.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Adriaensen F.,University of Antwerp | Ardia D.R.,Franklin And Marshall College | Artemyev A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 52 more authors.
Acta Ornithologica | Year: 2010

The widespread use of artificial nestboxes has led to significant advances in our knowledge of the ecology, behaviour and physiology of cavity nesting birds, especially small passerines. Nestboxes have made it easier to perform routine monitoring and experimental manipulation of eggs or nestlings, and also repeatedly to capture, identify and manipulate the parents. However, when comparing results across study sites the use of nestboxes may also introduce a potentially significant confounding variable in the form of differences in nestbox design amongst studies, such as their physical dimensions, placement height, and the way in which they are constructed and maintained. However, the use of nestboxes may also introduce an unconsidered and potentially significant confounding variable due to differences in nestbox design amongst studies, such as their physical dimensions, placement height, and the way in which they are constructed and maintained. Here we review to what extent the characteristics of artificial nestboxes (e.g. size, shape, construction material, colour) are documented in the 'methods' sections of publications involving hole-nesting passerine birds using natural or excavated cavities or artificial nestboxes for reproduction and roosting. Despite explicit previous recommendations that authors describe in detail the characteristics of the nestboxes used, we found that the description of nestbox characteristics in most recent publications remains poor and insufficient. We therefore list the types of descriptive data that should be included in the methods sections of relevant manuscripts and justify this by discussing how variation in nestbox characteristics can affect or confound conclusions from nestbox studies. We also propose several recommendations to improve the reliability and usefulness of research based on long-term studies of any secondary hole-nesting species using artificial nestboxes for breeding or roosting.


Nciri R.,University Paul Sabatier | Nciri R.,Laboratoire dEcophysiologie Animale | Boujbiha M.A.,Laboratoire dEcophysiologie Animale | Jbahi S.,Laboratoire dEcophysiologie Animale | And 5 more authors.
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2015

Lithium modulates signals impacting on the cytoskeleton, a dynamic system contributing to neural plasticity at multiple levels. In this study, SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells were cultured in the absence (C) or in presence (Li) of a 0.5 mM Li2CO3 (i.e. 1 mM lithium ion) for 25–50 weeks. We investigated the effect of this treatment on (1) morphological changes of cells observed using Hemalun eosin staining assay, (2) cytoskeletal changes by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) staining of microtubules (α-tubulin) and heavy neurofilaments subunits (NF-H) and by measuring the expression rate changes of genes coding for receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), casein kinase2 (CK2) and thymosine beta-10 using cDNA arrays technology, (3) cell adhesion properties by IIF staining of β-catenin protein. Besides, we have tried to understand the molecular mechanism of lithium action that triggers changes in cytoskeleton and neurites outgrowth. Thus, we examined the effect of this treatment on glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) expression and activity using western blotting of GSK3 and phosphorylated β-catenin, a downstream GSK3 target protein. Our results showed that lithium treatment reduces axon length, increases axonal spreading, enhances neurites growth and neurites branching with an increase of growth cone size. Moreover, genes coding for CK2 and thymosine beta-10 were significantly up-regulated, however, that coding for RACK1 was down-regulated. The most interesting result in this work is that mechanism underlying lithium action was not related to the inhibition of GSK3 activity. In fact, neither expression rate nor activity of this protein was changed. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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