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Ouji A.,University of Tunis | Rouaissi M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Abdellaoui R.,Laboratoire dEcologie Pastorale | el Gazzah M.,University of Tunis
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

A collection of nine Tunisian faba bean (Vicia faba) populations belonging to three botanical classes (Var. minor, var. equina and var. major) was evaluated using twenty seven agro-morphological traits. Analysis of variance, correlation coefficients and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed based on MVSP 3.13 program. Significant differences between populations were noted for most agromorphological traits in four main groups. The first group, positively correlated to the two axes, is represented by 'Bachaar' belonging to V. faba. var. minor, the second group, including V. faba. var. minor population ('Massri' and 'Badï'), is positively correlated to the PC1 and negatively correlated to the PC2 while the third group, is composed of two V. faba var. major ('Malti' and 'Batata') and were positively and negatively correlated to the PC2 and PC1, respectively. Finally, the fourth group negatively correlated to the two axes, gathers the remaining population ('Chahbi', 'Chemlali', 'Aguadulce' and 'Super Aguadulce'). The dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance of the 9 populations using UPGMA method, show some genetic drift between populations. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Tarhouni M.,Laboratoire dEcologie Pastorale | Ben Hmida W.,Laboratoire dEcologie Pastorale | Neffati M.,Laboratoire dEcologie Pastorale
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2015

El Ouara natural region (southern dry area of Tunisia) is characterized by harsh climatic conditions (high temperature, low rainfall). It is the preferred destination of many herds disturbing local ecosystems and loosing many palatable plant species. These climatic stresses and human disturbances affect the local natural vegetation communities. Conservation management has been imposed in order to preserve the national floristic heritage and biodiversity. Among the proposed techniques was the creation of Sidi Toui national park since 1991. This study aims to assess changes of flora life forms strategies (Raunkiaer, Noy-Meir and Grime types) inside and outside the park from 1990 to 2011. The Raunkiaer biologic spectrum is considered as a flora adaptation strategy to the climatic conditions. Noy-Meir classified plants on the basis of their photosynthetic activity during the dry season (arido-passive and arido-active species). The C-S-R Grime model gathered plants to three groups (Competitive (C), Stress-tolerant (S) and Ruderal (R)). The quadrat point method was used to evaluate the natural vegetation status. Main results are (i) Chameaphytes and Hemicryptophytes cover increased at the beginning and decreased after long period of protection, (ii) Therophytes dominate inside the park after 20years of protection, (iii) Arido-active species are sensible to human disturbance and long protection effects and (iv) the protection period decreased the cover of S, CS and CRS species and increased the RS ones. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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