Laboratoire DEcologie Alpine

Grenoble, France

Laboratoire DEcologie Alpine

Grenoble, France
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Seitzinger S.P.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences | Svedin U.,Resilience | Crumley C.L.,Uppsala University | Steffen W.,Resilience | And 24 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2012

Cities are rapidly increasing in importance as a major factor shaping the Earth system, and therefore, must take corresponding responsibility. With currently over half the world's population, cities are supported by resources originating from primarily rural regions often located around the world far distant from the urban loci of use. The sustainability of a city can no longer be considered in isolation from the sustainability of human and natural resources it uses from proximal or distant regions, or the combined resource use and impacts of cities globally. The world's multiple and complex environmental and social challenges require interconnected solutions and coordinated governance approaches to planetary stewardship. We suggest that a key component of planetary stewardship is a global system of cities that develop sustainable processes and policies in concert with its non-urban areas. The potential for cities to cooperate as a system and with rural connectivity could increase their capacity to effect change and foster stewardship at the planetary scale and also increase their resource security. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012.


Mazel F.,Laboratoire dEcologie Alpine | Guilhaumon F.,Montpellier University | Mouquet N.,Montpellier University | Devictor V.,Montpellier University | And 8 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2014

Aim: To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them with 'classical' hotspots based on species richness (SR) alone. Location: Global. Methods: SR, PD and FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using the distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework incorporating the relative species coverage in each ecoregion. We built large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each facet of diversity. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. Results: While ignoring relative species coverage led to a fairly good congruence between biome-scale top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harbouring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and FD did not match with the top-ranked ecoregions defined by SR. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than SR as a function of area. Main conclusions: The fact that PD/FD reach their maximum value faster than SR could suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it has been quantified at a global scale and should have important consequences for conservation. Incorporating relative species coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity led to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail to preserve those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at a global scale. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Redding D.W.,Simon Fraser University | Redding D.W.,University College London | Mazel F.,Laboratoire DEcologie Alpine | Mooers A.O.,Simon Fraser University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Conservation planning needs to account for limited resources when choosing those species on which to focus attention and resources. Currently, funding is biased to small sections of the tree of life, such as raptors and carnivores. One new approach for increasing the diversity of species under consideration considers how many close relatives a species has in its evolutionary tree. At least eleven different ways to measure this characteristic on phylogenies for the purposes of setting speciesspecific priorities for conservation have been proposed. We find that there is much redundancy within the current set, with three pairs of metrics being essentially identical. Non-redundant metrics represent different trade-offs between the unique evolutionary history represented by a species verses its average distance to all other species. Depending on which metric is used, species priority lists can differ as much as 85% for the top 100 species. We call for some consensus on the theory behind these metrics and suggest that all future developments are compared to the current published set, and offer scripts to aid such comparisons.


PubMed | Laboratoire dEcologie Alpine, Simon Fraser University and University College London
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Conservation planning needs to account for limited resources when choosing those species on which to focus attention and resources. Currently, funding is biased to small sections of the tree of life, such as raptors and carnivores. One new approach for increasing the diversity of species under consideration considers how many close relatives a species has in its evolutionary tree. At least eleven different ways to measure this characteristic on phylogenies for the purposes of setting species-specific priorities for conservation have been proposed. We find that there is much redundancy within the current set, with three pairs of metrics being essentially identical. Non-redundant metrics represent different trade-offs between the unique evolutionary history represented by a species verses its average distance to all other species. Depending on which metric is used, species priority lists can differ as much as 85% for the top 100 species. We call for some consensus on the theory behind these metrics and suggest that all future developments are compared to the current published set, and offer scripts to aid such comparisons.


PubMed | Laboratoire dEcologie Alpine
Type: | Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2012

Mosquitoes are vectors of several major human diseases and their control is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Resistance of mosquitoes to organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids led to a regain of interest for the use of neonicotinoid insecticides in vector control. The present study investigated the molecular basis of neonicotinoid resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. A strain susceptible to insecticides was selected at the larval stage with imidacloprid. After eight generations of selection, larvae of the selected strain (Imida-R) showed a 5.4-fold increased tolerance to imidacloprid while adult tolerance level remained low. Imida-R larvae showed significant cross-tolerance to other neonicotinoids but not to pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates. Transcriptome profiling identified 344 and 108 genes differentially transcribed in larvae and adults of the Imida-R strain compared to the parental strain. Most of these genes encode detoxification enzymes, cuticle proteins, hexamerins as well as other proteins involved in cell metabolism. Among detoxification enzymes, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) and glucosyl/glucuronosyl transferases (UDPGTs) were over-represented. Bioassays with enzyme inhibitors and biochemical assays confirmed the contribution of P450s with an increased capacity of the Imida-R microsomes to metabolize imidacloprid in presence of NADPH. Comparison of substrate recognition sites and imidacloprid docking models of six CYP6s over-transcribed in the Imida-R strain together with Bemisia tabaci CYP6CM1vQ and Drosophila melanogaster CYP6G1, both able to metabolize imidacloprid, suggested that CYP6BB2 and CYP6N12 are good candidates for imidacloprid metabolism in Ae. aegypti. The present study revealed that imidacloprid tolerance in mosquitoes can arise after few generations of selection at the larval stage but does not lead to a significant tolerance of adults. As in other insects, P450-mediated insecticide metabolism appears to play a major role in imidacloprid tolerance in mosquitoes.

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