Laboratoire dAnatomie Pathologique

France

Laboratoire dAnatomie Pathologique

France

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Gerami P.,Northwestern University | Barnhill R.L.,Laboratoire dAnatomie Pathologique | Beilfuss B.A.,Northwestern University | Leboit P.,University of California at San Francisco | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2010

Pagetoid proliferation of single melanocytic cells or small nests of melanocytes may be seen in a variety of melanocytic neoplasms including pagetoid spitz nevi, de novo epithelioid melanocytic dysplasia, and melanoma. Distinction of these entities may be difficult as there is considerable clinical and histologic overlap in these entities. Patient outcome and management may be significantly influenced by the pathologists' impression. In this study, we collected 24 cases of superficial melanocytic neoplasms with prominent pagetoid melanocytosis. We allowed 3 experienced consultant dermatopathologists to independently evaluate these entities and score them from 1 to 4, with 1 being totally benign and 4 being melanoma. In addition, we performed fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) using a new melanoma FISH assay targeting 6p25, 6q23, Cep6, and 11q13. We found strong interobserver reliability in the diagnosis in 71% of cases, whereas 29% showed considerable discordance. We found that FISH accurately identified as malignant 5 of 7 cases which had a consensus diagnosis of melanoma. None of the cases with a consensus diagnosis of benign were FISH positive. Two of 11 cases considered indeterminate by the judges were positive by FISH. One of these 2 cases showed definitive histologic changes of melanoma on later complete re-excision. There is considerable discordance in superficial melanocytic neoplasm with prominent pagetoid melanocytosis even among expert consultants. There is likely a subset of such cases where FISH can play a significant role as a diagnostic aid. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Pineau P.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Volinia S.,Ohio State University | McJunkin K.,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory | Marchio A.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

MicroRNA (miRNAs) are negative regulators of gene expression and can function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Expression patterns of miRNAs and their role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still poorly understood. We profiled miRNA expression in tissue samples (104 HCC, 90 adjacent cirrhotic livers, 21 normal livers) as well as in 35 HCC cell lines. A set of 12 miRNAs (including miR-21, miR-221/222, miR-34a, miR-519a, miR-93, miR-96, and let-7c) was linked to disease progression from normal liver through cirrhosis to full-blown HCC. miR-221/222, the most upregulated miRNAs in tumor samples, are shown to target the CDK inhibitor p27 and to enhance cell growth in vitro. Conversely, these activities can be efficiently inhibited by an antagomiR specific for miR-221. In addition, we show, using a mouse model of liver cancer, that miR-221 overexpression stimulates growth of tumorigenic murine hepatic progenitor cells. Finally, we identified DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4), a modulator of mTOR pathway, as a bona fide target of miR-221. Taken together, these data reveal an important contribution for miR-221 in hepatocarcinogenesis and suggest a role for DDIT4 dysregulation in this process. Thus, the use of synthetic inhibitors of miR-221 may prove to be a promising approach to liver cancer treatment.


Maynadie M.,University of Burgundy | Girodon F.,University of Burgundy | Manivet-Janoray I.,University of Burgundy | Mounier M.,University of Burgundy | And 3 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2011

Background Epidemiological data on myeloid malignancies are very rare in the literature due to a lack of registration by cancer registries until 2000. The Registry of Hematologic Malignancies of the Côte d'Or Department in France has, however, steadfastly registered data on cases occurring in the Department since 1980, resulting, to date, in a database of over 5,000 cases classified according to the ICD-O-3 classification, following the most recent World Health Organization classification criteria. Design and Methods Twenty-five years of data on myeloid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndromes were analyzed. World population standardized incidence rates were calculated as were as observed and relative survival. Results Incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants/year were 2.5 for acute myeloid leukemia, 1.3 for myelodysplastic syndromes, 3.2 for myeloproliferative neoplasms and 0.6 for myelodysplastic/ myeloproliferative syndromes. It was found that the incidence rate of myelodysplastic syndromes increased significantly over the period. The median overall survival is 8.9 months for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, 33.8 months for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, 91.7 months for those with myeloproliferative neoplasms and 26.6 months for patients with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndromes. Observed and relative 20-year survival rates are, respectively, 12% and 13% in acute myeloid leukemia, 2% and 6% in myelodysplastic syndromes and 20% and 34% in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Conclusions These population-based data on myeloid malignancies are the first data collected over such a long period and provide interesting information for clinicians and public health authorities, particularly given the paucity of other long-term, population-based data from cancer registries. © 2011 Ferrata Storti Foundation.


Besnard M.,Center Hospitalier Of Polynesie Francaise Chpf | Eyrolle-Guignot D.,Service d'obstetrique | Guillemette-Artur P.,Service de radiologie | Lastere S.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Medicale | And 9 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2016

We detected an unusual increase in congenital cerebral malformations and dysfunction in fetuses and newborns in French Polynesia, following an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), from October 2013 to March 2014. A retrospective review identified 19 cases, including eight with major brain lesions and severe microcephaly, six with severe cerebral lesions without microcephaly and five with brainstem dysfunction without visible malformations. Imaging revealed profound neurological lesions (septal and callosal disruption, ventriculomegaly, abnormal neuronal migration, cerebellar hypoplasia, occipital pseudocysts, brain calcifications). Amniotic fluid was drawn from seven cases at gestation weeks 20 to 29. ZIKV RNA was detected by RT-PCR and infectious ZIKV isolates were obtained in four of five microcephalic, but not in two non-microcephalic cases with severe brain lesions. Medical termination of pregnancy was performed in eleven cases; two cases with brainstem dysfunction died in the first months of life; six cases are alive, with severe neurological impairment. The results show that four of seven tested fetuses with major neurological injuries were infected with ZIKV in utero. For other non-microcephalic, congenital abnormalities we were not able to prove or exclude ZIKV infection retrospectively. The unusual occurrence of brain malformations or dysfunction without microcephaly following a ZIKV outbreak needs further studies. © 2016, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All Rights Reserved.


Marion E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Marion E.,Institute Pasteur Korea | Song O.-R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Song O.-R.,Institute Pasteur Korea | And 23 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2014

Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer, causes extensive skin lesions, which despite their severity are not accompanied by pain. It was previously thought that this remarkable analgesia is ensured by direct nerve cell destruction. We demonstrate here that M. ulcerans-induced hypoesthesia is instead achieved through a specific neurological pathway triggered by the secreted mycobacterial polyketide mycolactone. We decipher this pathway at the molecular level, showing that mycolactone elicits signaling through type 2 angiotensin II receptors (AT2Rs), leading to potassium-dependent hyperpolarization of neurons. We further validate the physiological relevance of this mechanism with in vivo studies of pain sensitivity in mice infected with M. ulcerans, following the disruption of the identified pathway. Our findings shed new light on molecular mechanisms evolved by natural systems for the induction of very effective analgesia, opening up the prospect of new families of analgesics derived from such systems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Ratziu V.,Hopital Pitie Salpetriere | Ratziu V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Charlotte F.,Laboratoire dAnatomie Pathologique | Bernhardt C.,Hopital Pitie Salpetriere | And 6 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

Short-term trials of glitazones in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) yielded controversial histological results. Longer treatment might result in additional improvement. After a 1-year randomized trial, 53 patients underwent a control liver biopsy and were enrolled in an open-label extension trial of rosiglitazone (RSG), 8 mg/day for 2 additional years. In all, 44 completed the extension phase including 40 with a third liver biopsy. Of these, 22 received placebo (PLB) in the randomized phase (PLB-RSG), and 18 RSG (RSG-RSG). During the 2-year extension phase serum insulin decreased by 26%, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) by 30%, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by 24%. However, there was no significant change in the mean NASH activity score (NAS) (3.8 ± 2.11 versus 3.68 ± 1.8), ballooning score, fibrosis stage (1.76 ± 1.18 versus 1.85 ± 1.19), or area of fibrosis by micromorphometry (4.43% ± 0.68 to 5.54% ± 0.68). In the PLB-RSG group steatosis significantly decreased after 2 years of RSG (median decrease of 15%); in the RSG-RSG group, after an initial decline in the first year of 20%, 2 additional years of RSG did not result in further improvement. Likewise, there was no improvement in the NAS score, ballooning, intralobular inflammation, fibrosis stage, or area of fibrosis with 2 additional years of RSG in the RSG-RSG group. Conclusion: Rosiglitazone has a substantial antisteatogenic effect in the first year of treatment without additional benefit with longer therapy despite a maintained effect on insulin sensitivity and transaminase levels. This suggests that improving insulin sensitivity might not be sufficient in NASH and that additional targets of therapy for liver injury should be explored. Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Gachard N.,Limoges University Hospital Center | Parrens M.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Soubeyran I.,Institute Bergonie | Petit B.,Limoges University Hospital Center | And 15 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2013

To clarify the relationships between marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) and Waldenström macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas (WM/LPLs), immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene (IGHV) features were analyzed and the occurrence of MYD88 L265P mutations was identified in a series of 123 patients: 53 MZLs from the spleen (SMZLs), 11 from lymph nodes (NMZLs), 28 mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) lymphomas and 31 WM/LPLs. SMZLs were characterized by overrepresentation of IGHV1-2 gene rearrangements with a canonical motif, without selection pressure and with long CDR3 segments. NMZLs had increased frequencies of IGHV3 genes. The IGHV gene was unmutated in most cases, often with long CDR3 segments. MALT lymphomas were usually associated with a mutated IGHV gene, but with the absence of selection pressure. WM/LPLs were associated with an IGHV3-23 overrepresentation and high IGHV mutation rate, with features of selection pressure and short CDR3 segments. MYD88 L265P mutations were almost restricted exclusively to WM/LPL patients. Taken all diagnoses together, all patients with MYD88 L265P mutations had an immunoglobulin M peak and almost all patients except one had bone marrow infiltration. These results demonstrate that the history of antigen exposure of the four entities studied was different and MYD88 L265P was specifically associated with WM/LPLs. WM/LPL may thus be functionally associated with constitutive nuclear factor-κB activation. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Bienaime F.,University of Paris Descartes | Girard D.,Service de Biostatistique | Anglicheau D.,University of Paris Descartes | Canaud G.,University of Paris Descartes | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Kidney transplant recipients usually have low vitamin D levels, especially in the early posttransplantation period, but the association between vitamin D status with renal outcomes is not well described in this population. Here, we studied a prospective cohort of 634 kidney recipients who underwent transplantation at a single institution between January 2005 and June 2010. In this cohort, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations 3 months after transplantation did not predict early death or graft loss but were independently associated with lower measured GFR at 12 months (P=0.001) and higher risk for interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (P=0.01). In contrast, levels of calcium, phosphorus, calcitriol, parathyroid hormone, or fibroblast growth factor-23 were not consistently associated with any of the studied outcomes. In conclusion, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration measured 3 months after transplantation is an independent risk factor for interstitial fibrosis progression and is associated with a lower GFR 1 year after transplantation. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology.


Castillo-Rama M.,University of Pittsburgh | Sebagh M.,Laboratoire dAnatomie Pathologique | Sasatomi E.,University of Pittsburgh | Randhawa P.,University of Pittsburgh | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2013

Plasma cell hepatitis (PCH), also known as "de novo autoimmune" hepatitis, is an increasingly recognized, but suboptimally named and poorly understood, category of late allograft dysfunction strongly resembling autoimmune hepatitis (AIH): They share plasma-cell-rich necro-inflammatory activity on biopsy, autoantibodies and steroid responsiveness, but overlap with rejection is problematic. A retrospective study of clinical, serological, histopathological and IgG4 immunohistological features of PCH (n = 20) in liver allograft recipients, native liver AIH (n = 19) and plasma-cell-rich renal allograft rejection (n = 20) showed: (1) high frequency (44%) of HLA-DR15; (2) less female predominance (p = 0.03) and (3) n = 9/20 PCH recipients showed >25 IgG4+ plasma cells/high-power field (IgG4+ PCH) versus AIH (n = 1/19, p = 0.008) or plasma-cell-rich kidney rejection (n = 2/20, p = 0.03). The IgG4+ PCH (n = 9) subgroup showed lower alanine transaminase (ALT) (p < 0.01) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (p < 0.05) at index biopsy but (a) higher plasma cell number/percentage, (b) more aggressive-appearing portal/periportal and perivenular necro-inflammatory activity and (c) more severe portal/periportal fibrosis than IgG4- PCH (n = 11). Significant demographic, histopathologic and plasma cell phenotype differences between PCH and AIH suggest distinct pathogenic mechanisms for at least the IgG4+ PCH subgroup likely representing an overlap between allo- and auto-immunity. IgG4+ PCH was associated with fibrosis, but also highly responsive to increased immunosuppression. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.


Hill G.S.,Laboratoire dAnatomie Pathologique | Nochy D.,Laboratoire dAnatomie Pathologique | Nochy D.,University of Paris Descartes | Bruneval P.,Laboratoire dAnatomie Pathologique | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2011

In biopsies of renal allografts, arteriosclerosis is often more severe than expected based on the age of the donor, even without a history of rejection vasculitis. To determine whether preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) may contribute to the severity of arteriosclerosis, we examined protocol biopsies from patients with (n = 40) or without (n = 59) DSA after excluding those with any evidence of vasculitis. Among DSA-positive patients, arteriosclerosis significantly progressed between month 3 and month 12 after transplant (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 1.12 ± 0.10, P = 0.014); in contrast, among DSA-negative patients, we did not detect a statistically significant progression during the same time-frame (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 0.81 ± 0.10, P = not significant). Available biopsies at later time points supported a rate of progression of arteriosclerosis in DSA-negative patients that was approximately one third that in DSA-positive patients. Accelerated arteriosclerosis was significantly associated with peritubular capillary leukocytic infiltration, glomerulitis, subclinical antibody-mediated rejection, and interstitial inflammation. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that donor-specific antibodies dramatically accelerate post-transplant progression of arteriosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology.

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