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Villeneuve-la-Rivière, France

Rossez Y.,University of Lille Nord de France | Rossez Y.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Gosset P.,University of Lille Nord de France | Gosset P.,Groupe Hospitalier Of Linstitut Catholique Lillois | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric mucosa is a necessary prerequisite for the pathogenesis of H. pylori-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc motif (also known as N,N'-diacetyllactosediamine [lacdiNAc]) carried by MUC5AC gastric mucins as the target for bacterial binding to the human gastric mucosa. The expression of LacdiNAc carried by gastric mucins was correlated with H. pylori localization, and all strains tested adhered significantly to this motif. Proteomic analysis and mutant construction allowed the identification of a yet uncharacterized bacterial adhesin, LabA, which specifically recognizes lacdiNAc. These findings unravel a target of adhesion for H. pylori in addition to moieties recognized by the well-characterized adhesins BabA and SabA. Localization of the LabA target, restricted to the gastric mucosa, suggests a plausible explanation for the tissue tropism of these bacteria. These results pave the way for the development of alternative strategies against H. pylori infection, using adherence inhibitors. © The Author 2014.

Dupont E.,Laboratoire dActivite Physique | Cieniewski-Bernard C.,Laboratoire dActivite Physique | Bastide B.,Laboratoire dActivite Physique | Stevens L.,Laboratoire dActivite Physique
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2011

Our aim was to analyze the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in the regulation of muscle mass and slow-to-fast phenotype transition during hindlimb unloading (HU). For that purpose, we studied, in rat slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles, the time course of anabolic PI3K-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin, catabolic PI3K-AKT-forkhead box O (FOXO), and MAPK signaling pathway activation after 7, 14, and 28 days of HU. Moreover, we performed chronic low-frequency soleus electrostimulation during HU to maintain exclusively contractile phenotype and so to determine more precisely the role of these signaling pathways in the modulation of muscle mass. HU induced a downregulation of the anabolic AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 4E-binding protein 1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β targets, and an upregulation of the catabolic FOXO1 and muscle-specific RING finger protein-1 targets correlated with soleus muscle atrophy. Unexpectedly, soleus electrostimulation maintained 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 4E-binding protein 1, FOXO1, and muscle-specific RING finger protein-1 to control levels, but failed to reduce muscle atrophy. HU decreased ERK phosphorylation, while electrostimulation enabled the maintenance of ERK phosphorylation similar to control level. Moreover, slow-to-fast myosin heavy chain phenotype transition and upregulated glycolytic metabolism were prevented by soleus electrostimulation during HU. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the processes responsible for gradual disuse muscle plasticity in HU conditions involved both PI3-AKT and MAPK pathways. Moreover, electrostimulation during HU restored PI3K-AKT activation without counteracting soleus atrophy, suggesting the involvement of other signaling pathways. Finally, electrostimulation maintained initial contractile and metabolism properties in parallel to ERK activation, reinforcing the idea of a predominant role of ERK in the regulation of muscle slow phenotype. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

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