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Castell A.L.,Nice University Hospital Center | Hieronimus S.,Nice University Hospital Center | Lascols O.,Laboratoire Communications Of Biologie Et Genetique Moleculaires | Fournier T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Fenichel P.,Nice University Hospital Center
Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2012

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor protein gamma (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor involved in adipocyte differentiation, energy homoeostasis and fat storage, can lead, in rare cases of coding mutations, to familial partial lipodystrophy type 3 (FPLD3) with severe insulin resistance. PPARγ is also highly expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. It has a key role in trophoblast invasion, as shown by studies in vitro, but its precise role during placentation remains to be elucidated, and fetomaternal outcomes of FPLD3 pregnancies also need to be assessed. This report is of a novel missense heterozygous mutation of PPARγ identified during pregnancy in a young diabetic woman who, at 3. weeks of amenorrhoea, prematurely delivered a baby who died 24. h later. Histopathological analysis revealed important vascular placental abnormalities. The presence of the PPARγ mutation in placental tissues in the absence of fetal malformations and maternal hypertension suggests that FPLP3 pregnancies may be at high-risk, especially if the fetus has inherited the mutation. It also supports a physiological role for PPARγ during placentation. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source


Gandotra S.,University of Cambridge | Le Dour C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Bottomley W.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Cervera P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 17 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

Perilipin is the most abundant adipocyte-specific protein that coats lipid droplets, and it is required for optimal lipid incorporation and release from the droplet. We identified two heterozygous frameshift mutations in the perilipin gene (PLIN1) in three families with partial lipodystrophy, severe dyslipidemia, and insulin-resistant diabetes. Subcutaneous fat from the patients was characterized by smaller-than-normal adipocytes, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis. In contrast to wild-type perilipin, mutant forms of the protein failed to increase triglyceride accumulation when expressed heterologously in preadipocytes. These findings define a novel dominant form of inherited lipodystrophy and highlight the serious metabolic consequences of a primary defect in the formation of lipid droplets in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Hirsch P.,HOpital Saint Antoine | Hirsch P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Tang R.,HOpital Saint Antoine | Tang R.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 10 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2012

ATP-binding cassette transporter (and specially P-glycopro-tein) activity is a well known prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia, but when compared to other molecular markers its prognostic value has not been well studied. Here we study relationships between this activity, fms-like tyrosine kinase 3(FLT3/ITD), nucleophosmin(NPM1), CAAT-enhancer binding protein alpha(CEBPα), and brain and acute leukemia cytoplasmic protein (BAALC), in 111 patients with normal cytogenetics who underwent the same treatment, and evaluate its prognostic impact. Independent factors for survival were age (P=0.0126), ATP-binding cassette transporter activity (P=0.018) and duplications in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (P=0.0273). In the 66 patients without fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 duplication and without nucleophosmin mutation, independent prognostic factors for complete remission achievement and survival were age and ATP-binding cassette transporter activity. In conclusion, ATP-binding cassette transporter activity remains an independent prognostic factor, and could assist treatment decisions in patients with no nucleophosmin mutation and no fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 duplication. © 2012 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source


Thauvin-Robinet C.,University of Burgundy | Auclair M.,Institute National Of La Sante Et Of La Recherche Medicale Unite Mixte Of Recherche S938 | Auclair M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Auclair M.,Institut Universitaire de France | And 36 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Short stature, hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay (SHORT) syndrome is a developmental disorder with an unknown genetic cause and hallmarks that include insulin resistance and lack of subcutaneous fat. We ascertained two unrelated individuals with SHORT syndrome, hypothesized that the observed phenotype was most likely due to de novo mutations in the same gene, and performed whole-exome sequencing in the two probands and their unaffected parents. We then confirmed our initial observations in four other subjects with SHORT syndrome from three families, as well as 14 unrelated subjects presenting with syndromic insulin resistance and/or generalized lipoatrophy associated with dysmorphic features and growth retardation. Overall, we identified in nine affected individuals from eight families de novo or inherited PIK3R1 mutations, including a mutational hotspot (c.1945C>T [p.Arg649Trp]) present in four families. PIK3R1 encodes the p85α, p55α, and p50α regulatory subunits of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases (PI3Ks), which are known to play a key role in insulin signaling. Functional data from fibroblasts derived from individuals with PIK3R1 mutations showed severe insulin resistance for both proximal and distal PI3K-dependent signaling. Our findings extend the genetic causes of severe insulin-resistance syndromes and provide important information with respect to the function of PIK3R1 in normal development and its role in human diseases, including growth delay, Rieger anomaly and other ocular affections, insulin resistance, diabetes, paucity of fat, and ovarian cysts. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source


Perovanovic J.,Center for Genetic Medicine Research | Perovanovic J.,George Washington University | Dell'Orso S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Gnochi V.F.,Center for Genetic Medicine Research | And 13 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2016

The nuclear envelope protein lamin A is encoded by the lamin A/C (LMNA) gene, which can contain missense mutations that cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) (p.R453W). We fused mutated forms of the lamin A protein to bacterial DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) to define euchromatic-heterochromatin (epigenomic) transitions at the nuclear envelope during myogenesis (using DamID-seq). Lamin A missense mutations disrupted appropriate formation of lamin A-associated heterochromatin domains in an allele-specific manner-findings that were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) in murine H2K cells and DNA methylation studies in fibroblasts from muscular dystrophy patient who carried a distinct LMNA mutation (p.H222P). Observed perturbations of the epigenomic transitions included exit from pluripotency and cell cycle programs [euchromatin (open, transcribed) to heterochromatin (closed, silent)], as well as induction of myogenic loci (heterochromatin to euchromatin). In muscle biopsies from patients with either a gain- or change-of-function LMNA gene mutation or a loss-of-function mutation in the emerin gene, both of which cause EDMD, we observed inappropriate loss of heterochromatin formation at the Sox2 pluripotency locus, which was associated with persistent mRNA expression of Sox2. Overexpression of Sox2 inhibited myogenic differentiation in human immortalized myoblasts. Our findings suggest that nuclear envelopathies are disorders of developmental epigenetic programming that result from altered formation of lamina-associated domains. Source

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