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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

As part of ASME 4th joint US-European Fluid Engineering Division Summer Meeting, which took place in Chicago in August 2014, a symposium was held on Urban Fluid Mechanics, spanning from urban issues such as climate and heat island effect, to small city-scale effects, such as the flow around isolated buildings. The aim of the present note is to make a synthesis of the presentations, in order to highlight current trends of research and issues. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Berge A.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Berge A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Rocher V.,SIAAP | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200. μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100. μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems for such conurbations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Lordel S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Lordel S.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Chapuis-Hugon F.,ESPCI ParisTech | Eudes V.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Pichon V.,ESPCI ParisTech
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Two molecularly imprinted silicas (MISs) were synthesized and used as selective sorbents for the extraction of nitroaromatic explosives in post-blast samples. The synthesis of the MISs was carried out with phenyltrimethoxysilane as monomer, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) as template and triethoxysilane as cross-linker by a sol-gel approach in two molar ratios: 1/4/20 and 1/4/30 (template/monomer/cross-linker). Non-imprinted silica sorbents were also prepared following the same procedures without introducing the template. An optimized procedure dedicated to the selective treatment of aqueous samples was developed for both MISs for the simultaneous extraction of the template and other nitroaromatic compounds commonly used as explosives. The capacity of the MISs was measured by the extraction of increasing amounts of 2,4-DNT in pure water and is higher than 3.2 mg/g of sorbent for each MIS. For the first time, four nitroaromatic compounds were selectively extracted and determined simultaneously with extraction recoveries higher than 79%. The potential of these sorbents was then highlighted by their use for the clean-up of post-blast samples (motor oil, post-mortem blood, calcined fragments, etc.). The results were compared to those obtained using a conventional sorbent, thus demonstrating the interest of the use of these MISs as selective sorbents. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Lordel-Madeleine S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Lordel-Madeleine S.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Eudes V.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Pichon V.,ESPCI ParisTech
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

In a previous work, a molecularly imprinted silica (MIS) sorbent was synthesized for the selective extraction of nitroaromatic explosives from real samples. This MIS packed in a cartridge was used for an off-line solid phase extraction procedure mainly based on hydrophobic and π-π interactions. In this work, the MIS was packed in a precolumn to be connected online with a reversed-phase LC system and a diode array detector. For this, the chromatographic conditions were first studied to obtain the separation of 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and tetryl. An optimized procedure dedicated to the selective treatment of aqueous samples was then developed with the MIS for the simultaneous extraction of the nitroaromatic compounds commonly used as explosives. Finally, the four nitrotoluenes were selectively extracted and determined simultaneously with extraction recoveries higher than 90 % using the online device composed of the MIS coupled with a diphenyl chromatographic column. The potential of this sorbent was highlighted by its use for the cleanup of simulated post-blast samples. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Berge A.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Berge A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Cladiere M.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2012

Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE) are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are used in detergents, paints, herbicides, pesticides, emulsifiers, wetting and dispersing agents, antistatic agents, demulsifiers, and solubilizers. Many studies have reported the occurrence of alkylphenols in different environmental matrices, though none of these studies have yet to establish a comprehensive overview of such compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes APE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from the atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrence of compounds has been assessed for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [WWTP], atmosphere, and the natural environment), data are examined in order to understand the fate of APE in the environment and establish their geographical and historical trends. From this database, it is clear that the environment in Europe is much more contaminated by APE compared to North America and developing countries, although these APE levels have been decreasing in the last decade. APE concentrations in the WWTP effluent of developed countries have decreased by a factor of 100 over the past 30 years. This study is aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes that influence the fate and transport of these contaminants in the environment. In industrial countries, the concentrations observed in waterways now represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution in these countries, whereas sediment analyses conducted in developing countries show an increase in APE content over the last several years. Finally, similar trends have been observed in samples drawn from Europe and North America. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

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