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Berge A.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Berge A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Cladiere M.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2012

Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE) are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are used in detergents, paints, herbicides, pesticides, emulsifiers, wetting and dispersing agents, antistatic agents, demulsifiers, and solubilizers. Many studies have reported the occurrence of alkylphenols in different environmental matrices, though none of these studies have yet to establish a comprehensive overview of such compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes APE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from the atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrence of compounds has been assessed for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [WWTP], atmosphere, and the natural environment), data are examined in order to understand the fate of APE in the environment and establish their geographical and historical trends. From this database, it is clear that the environment in Europe is much more contaminated by APE compared to North America and developing countries, although these APE levels have been decreasing in the last decade. APE concentrations in the WWTP effluent of developed countries have decreased by a factor of 100 over the past 30 years. This study is aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes that influence the fate and transport of these contaminants in the environment. In industrial countries, the concentrations observed in waterways now represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution in these countries, whereas sediment analyses conducted in developing countries show an increase in APE content over the last several years. Finally, similar trends have been observed in samples drawn from Europe and North America. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Berge A.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Berge A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Rocher V.,SIAAP | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200. μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100. μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems for such conurbations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Berge A.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Berge A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Cladiere M.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sarazin C.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Sarazin C.,Chimie Paristech | Sarazin C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Sarazin C.,CNRS Physical Chemistry of Electrolytes and Interfacial Nanosystems | And 8 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2013

In order to train scientist field investigators after terrorist attacks, the laboratory of the Prefecture de Police of Paris simulated a suicide bombing attack in a bus. After collection of the residues, analyses were carried out to determine the composition of the original explosive charge. This article focuses on the combined use, for the first time, of three new capillary electrophoresis methods for the determination of inorganic anions and cations, and carbohydrates in two representative extracts. Capillary electrophoresis appears as an effective tool to identify and quantify the compounds in real extracts and is fully complementary to chromatographic methods. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lordel S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Lordel S.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Chapuis-Hugon F.,ESPCI ParisTech | Eudes V.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Pichon V.,ESPCI ParisTech
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Two molecularly imprinted silicas (MISs) were synthesized and used as selective sorbents for the extraction of nitroaromatic explosives in post-blast samples. The synthesis of the MISs was carried out with phenyltrimethoxysilane as monomer, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) as template and triethoxysilane as cross-linker by a sol-gel approach in two molar ratios: 1/4/20 and 1/4/30 (template/monomer/cross-linker). Non-imprinted silica sorbents were also prepared following the same procedures without introducing the template. An optimized procedure dedicated to the selective treatment of aqueous samples was developed for both MISs for the simultaneous extraction of the template and other nitroaromatic compounds commonly used as explosives. The capacity of the MISs was measured by the extraction of increasing amounts of 2,4-DNT in pure water and is higher than 3.2 mg/g of sorbent for each MIS. For the first time, four nitroaromatic compounds were selectively extracted and determined simultaneously with extraction recoveries higher than 79%. The potential of these sorbents was then highlighted by their use for the clean-up of post-blast samples (motor oil, post-mortem blood, calcined fragments, etc.). The results were compared to those obtained using a conventional sorbent, thus demonstrating the interest of the use of these MISs as selective sorbents. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Lordel S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Lordel S.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Chapuis-Hugon F.,ESPCI ParisTech | Eudes V.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Pichon V.,ESPCI ParisTech
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

Molecularly imprinted sorbents were synthesized and used as selective extraction sorbents for the analysis of nitroaromatic explosives. Their synthesis by radical polymerization using organic monomers and by sol-gel approach using organosilanes was considered to develop a selective sorbent. The sol-gel approach with phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS) as monomer and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) as template gave the most promising results. An optimized procedure adapted to the selective treatment of aqueous samples was then developed and applied to various target explosives. For the first time four nitroaromatic compounds were retained on the molecularly imprinted silica (MIS) with extraction recoveries between 29% and 81%, while only low recoveries were obtained on the non-imprinted sorbent, thus highlighting the high degree of selectivity. The MIS was then used for the clean-up of a sample containing motor oil spiked with 2,4-DNT and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT). The results were compared with those obtained using a conventional sorbent (Oasis HLB). The cleanest chromatogram obtained using the MIS emphasized the high potential of the MIS as selective sorbent. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Sarazin C.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Sarazin C.,ESPCI ParisTech | Delaunay N.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Varenne A.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

Fast, selective, and sensitive analysis of inorganic anions is compulsory for the identification of explosives in post-blast or environmental samples. For the last twenty years, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become a valuable alternative to ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of inorganic-based explosives because of its low running costs and its simplicity of use. This article focuses on the development and validation of a CE method for the simultaneous analysis of 10 anions (chloride, nitrite, nitrate, thiosulphate, perchlorate, chlorate, thiocyanate, carbonate, sulphate, and phosphate) which can be found in post-blast residues, plus for the first time azide anion, possibly present in the composition of detonators, and the internal standard (formate) in 20 min total runtime. Intermediate precisions were 2.11% for normalized areas and 0.72% for normalized migration times. Limits of detection close to 0.5 ppm for all anions were obtained with the use of preconcentration techniques, thanks to a fast and simple sample preparation allowing the analysis of a large variety of matrices with the developed generic CE method. The matrix effects were statistically studied for the first time in the explosive field for different matrices, containing interfering anions and cations, sometimes at high levels. In fact, no significant matrix effect occurred (tests with blank matrix extracts of soil, cloth, glass, plastic, paper, cotton, and metal). Finally, analyses of real post-blast residues and real detonator extracts were performed. The CE results were compared with those obtained with the IC method used routinely and showed excellent correlation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Lordel-Madeleine S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Lordel-Madeleine S.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Eudes V.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Pichon V.,ESPCI ParisTech
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

In a previous work, a molecularly imprinted silica (MIS) sorbent was synthesized for the selective extraction of nitroaromatic explosives from real samples. This MIS packed in a cartridge was used for an off-line solid phase extraction procedure mainly based on hydrophobic and π-π interactions. In this work, the MIS was packed in a precolumn to be connected online with a reversed-phase LC system and a diode array detector. For this, the chromatographic conditions were first studied to obtain the separation of 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and tetryl. An optimized procedure dedicated to the selective treatment of aqueous samples was then developed with the MIS for the simultaneous extraction of the nitroaromatic compounds commonly used as explosives. Finally, the four nitrotoluenes were selectively extracted and determined simultaneously with extraction recoveries higher than 90 % using the online device composed of the MIS coupled with a diphenyl chromatographic column. The potential of this sorbent was highlighted by its use for the cleanup of simulated post-blast samples. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sarazin C.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Sarazin C.,Chimie Paristech | Delaunay N.,Chimie Paristech | Varenne A.,Chimie Paristech | And 3 more authors.
Separation and Purification Reviews | Year: 2010

For 20 years, the upsurge of terrorist threat on Western countries and the appearance of new environmental policies have been generating an important demand for the detection and identification of explosives. Sensitive, fast, and cheap analysis methods of explosives and their residues on the bombing site or in environmental samples (water, soil ) are necessary for the security of citizens or local residents. Within this context, electrophoresis, in capillary or in microchip format, displays attractive features. This article is an overview of the different applications of capillary and microchip electrophoresis for the analysis of organic- or inorganic-based explosives and their residues. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


As part of ASME 4th joint US-European Fluid Engineering Division Summer Meeting, which took place in Chicago in August 2014, a symposium was held on Urban Fluid Mechanics, spanning from urban issues such as climate and heat island effect, to small city-scale effects, such as the flow around isolated buildings. The aim of the present note is to make a synthesis of the presentations, in order to highlight current trends of research and issues. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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