Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France
Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

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El Malti R.,Laboratoire Cardiogenetique | Liu H.,Laboratoire Cardiogenetique | Liu H.,University of Lyon | Doray B.,Service de Genetique Medicale | And 23 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

The etiology of congenital heart defect (CHD) combines environmental and genetic factors. So far, there were studies reporting on the screening of a single gene on unselected CHD or on familial cases selected for specific CHD types. Our goal was to systematically screen a proband of familial cases of CHD on a set of genetic tests to evaluate the prevalence of disease-causing variant identification. A systematic screening of GATA4, NKX2-5, ZIC3 and Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) P311 Kit was setup on the proband of 154 families with at least two cases of non-syndromic CHD. Additionally, ELN screening was performed on families with supravalvular arterial stenosis. Twenty-two variants were found, but segregation analysis confirmed unambiguously the causality of 16 variants: GATA4 (1 x), NKX2-5 (6 x), ZIC3 (3 x), MLPA (2 x) and ELN (4 x). Therefore, this approach was able to identify the causal variant in 10.4% of familial CHD cases. This study demonstrated the existence of a de novo variant even in familial CHD cases and the impact of CHD variants on adult cardiac condition even in the absence of CHD. This study showed that the systematic screening of genetic factors is useful in familial CHD cases with up to 10.4% elucidated cases. When successful, it drastically improved genetic counseling by discovering unaffected variant carriers who are at risk of transmitting their variant and are also exposed to develop cardiac complications during adulthood thus prompting long-term cardiac follow-up. This study provides an important baseline at dawning of the next-generation sequencing era. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Guimier A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Guimier A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Gabriel G.C.,University of Pittsburgh | Tsang M.,University of Pittsburgh | And 53 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2015

Heterotaxy results from a failure to establish normal left-right asymmetry early in embryonic development. By whole-exome sequencing, whole-genome sequencing and high-throughput cohort resequencing, we identified recessive mutations in MMP21 (encoding matrix metallopeptidase 21) in nine index cases with heterotaxy. In addition, Mmp21-mutant mice and mmp21-morphant zebrafish displayed heterotaxy and abnormal cardiac looping, respectively, suggesting a new role for extracellular matrix remodeling in the establishment of laterality in vertebrates. © 2015 Nature America, Inc.


Guimier A.,University of Paris Descartes | Gordon C.T.,University of Paris Descartes | Godard F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ravenscroft G.,University of Western Australia | And 24 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Sudden unexpected death in infancy occurs in apparently healthy infants and remains largely unexplained despite thorough investigation. The vast majority of cases are sporadic. Here we report seven individuals from three families affected by sudden and unexpected cardiac arrest between 4 and 20 months of age. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous missense mutations in . PPA2 in affected infants of each family. . PPA2 encodes the mitochondrial pyrophosphatase, which hydrolyzes inorganic pyrophosphate into two phosphates. This is an essential activity for many biosynthetic reactions and for energy metabolism of the cell. We show that deletion of the orthologous gene in yeast (ppa2δ) compromises cell viability due to the loss of mitochondria. Expression of wild-type human . PPA2, but not . PPA2 containing the mutations identified in affected individuals, preserves mitochondrial function in . ppa2δ yeast. Using a regulatable (doxycycline-repressible) gene expression system, we found that the pathogenic . PPA2 mutations rapidly inactivate the mitochondrial energy transducing system and prevent the maintenance of a sufficient electrical potential across the inner membrane, which explains the subsequent disappearance of mitochondria from the mutant yeast cells. Altogether these data demonstrate that . PPA2 is an essential gene in yeast and that biallelic mutations in . PPA2 cause a mitochondrial disease leading to sudden cardiac arrest in infants. © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics.


PubMed | Center for Pediatric Genomic Medicine, University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne, French Atomic Energy Commission, Service de Cardiologie Pediatrique and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature genetics | Year: 2015

Heterotaxy results from a failure to establish normal left-right asymmetry early in embryonic development. By whole-exome sequencing, whole-genome sequencing and high-throughput cohort resequencing, we identified recessive mutations in MMP21 (encoding matrix metallopeptidase 21) in nine index cases with heterotaxy. In addition, Mmp21-mutant mice and mmp21-morphant zebrafish displayed heterotaxy and abnormal cardiac looping, respectively, suggesting a new role for extracellular matrix remodeling in the establishment of laterality in vertebrates.


PubMed | Center Intercommunal Poissy St Germain en Laye, Clinique Pasteur, Service de Cardiologie Pediatrique, Pediatrie Cardiologie and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of human genetics : EJHG | Year: 2016

The etiology of congenital heart defect (CHD) combines environmental and genetic factors. So far, there were studies reporting on the screening of a single gene on unselected CHD or on familial cases selected for specific CHD types. Our goal was to systematically screen a proband of familial cases of CHD on a set of genetic tests to evaluate the prevalence of disease-causing variant identification. A systematic screening of GATA4, NKX2-5, ZIC3 and Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) P311 Kit was setup on the proband of 154 families with at least two cases of non-syndromic CHD. Additionally, ELN screening was performed on families with supravalvular arterial stenosis. Twenty-two variants were found, but segregation analysis confirmed unambiguously the causality of 16 variants: GATA4 (1 ), NKX2-5 (6 ), ZIC3 (3 ), MLPA (2 ) and ELN (4 ). Therefore, this approach was able to identify the causal variant in 10.4% of familial CHD cases. This study demonstrated the existence of a de novo variant even in familial CHD cases and the impact of CHD variants on adult cardiac condition even in the absence of CHD. This study showed that the systematic screening of genetic factors is useful in familial CHD cases with up to 10.4% elucidated cases. When successful, it drastically improved genetic counseling by discovering unaffected variant carriers who are at risk of transmitting their variant and are also exposed to develop cardiac complications during adulthood thus prompting long-term cardiac follow-up. This study provides an important baseline at dawning of the next-generation sequencing era.


Posch M.G.,Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin | Posch M.G.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Waldmuller S.,Institute for Heart and Circulation Research | Muller M.,Institute for Heart and Circulation Research | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASDII) account for approximately 10% of all congenital heart defects (CHD) and are associated with a familial risk. Mutations in transcription factors represent a genetic source for ASDII. Yet, little is known about the role of mutations in sarcomeric genes in ASDII etiology. To assess the role of sarcomeric genes in patients with inherited ASDII, we analyzed 13 sarcomeric genes (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TCAP, TNNI3, MYH6, TPM1, MYL2, CSRP3, ACTC1, MYL3, TNNC1, and TTN kinase region) in 31 patients with familial ASDII using array-based resequencing. Genotyping of family relatives and control subjects as well as structural and homology analyses were used to evaluate the pathogenic impact of novel non-synonymous gene variants. Three novel missense mutations were found in the MYH6 gene encoding alpha-myosin heavy chain (R17H, C539R, and K543R). These mutations co-segregated with CHD in the families and were absent in 370 control alleles. Interestingly, all three MYH6 mutations are located in a highly conserved region of the alpha-myosin motor domain, which is involved in myosin-actin interaction. In addition, the cardiomyopathy related MYH6-A1004S and the MYBPC3-A833T mutations were also found in one and two unrelated subjects with ASDII, respectively. No mutations were found in the 11 other sarcomeric genes analyzed. The study indicates that sarcomeric gene mutations may represent a so far underestimated genetic source for familial recurrence of ASDII. In particular, perturbations in the MYH6 head domain seem to play a major role in the genetic origin of familial ASDII. © 2011 Posch et al.

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