Jenkins G.,Howard University |
Kucera P.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research |
Joseph E.,Howard University |
Fuentes J.,Pennsylvania State University |
And 16 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2010
During 15 August through 30 September 2006 (Special Observing Period 3, SOP3), key weather measurements are obtained from ground and aircraft platforms during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign. Key measurements are aimed at investigating African easterly waves (AEWs) and mesoscale convective systems in a coastal environment as they transition to the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Ground and aircraft instruments include polarimetric radar, a coarse and a high-density rain gauge network, surface chemical measurements, 12 m meteorological measurement, broadband IR, solar and microwave measurements, rawinsonde, aircraft dropsonde, lidar, and cloud radar measurements. Ground observations during SOP3 show that Senegal was influenced by 5 squall lines, 6 Saharan air layer intrusions, and 10 AEWs. Downstream tropical cyclones developed were associated with the passage of four AEWs. FA-20 aircraft measurements of microphysical aspects of 22 September squall line and several nondeveloping AEWs over the extreme eastern Atlantic Ocean are presented. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
McCreadie H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Menvielle M.,LATMOS Laboratoire Atmospheres Milieux
Annales Geophysicae | Year: 2010
The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. There is no doubt as to the scientific merit of the index which is not discussed here. What is in doubt is the methodology of the derivation of the index by different groups. The Polar Cap index (PC: PCN, northern; PCS, southern) described in Troshichev et al. (2006) and Stauning et al. (2006), both termed the "unified PC index", and the PCN index routinely derived at DMI are inspected using only available published literature. They are found to contain different derivation procedures, thus are not unified. The descriptions of the derivation procedures are found to not be adequate to independently derive the PC indices. © Author(s) 2010.