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Ekouevi D.K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ekouevi D.K.,University of Lome | Avettand-Fenoel V.,Laboratoire Of Virologie | Avettand-Fenoel V.,University of Paris Descartes | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Plasma HIV-1 RNA monitoring is one of the standard tests for the management of HIV-1 infection. While HIV-1 RNA can be quantified using several commercial tests, no test has been commercialized for HIV-2 RNA quantification. We studied the relationship between plasma HIV-2 viral load (VL) and CD4 count in West African patients who were either receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) or treatment-naïve. © 2015 Ekouévi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Mourez T.,University Of Normandie | Mourez T.,University of Rouen | Mourez T.,Laboratoire Associe Au Center National Of Reference Du Vih | Simon F.,University Paris Diderot | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

The AIDS pandemic that started in the early 1980s is due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) groupM(HIV-M), but apart from this major group, many divergent variants have been described (HIV-1 groups N, O, and P and HIV-2). The four HIV-1 groups arose from independent cross-species transmission of the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) SIVcpz, infecting chimpanzees, and SIVgor, infecting gorillas. This, together with human adaptation, accounts for their genomic, phylogenetic, and virological specificities. Nevertheless, the natural course of non-M HIV infection seems similar to that of HIV-M. The virological monitoring of infected patients is now possible with commercial kits, but their therapeutic management remains complex. All non-M variants were principally described for patients linked to Cameroon, where HIV-O accounts for 1% of all HIV infections; only 15 cases of HIV-N infection and 2 HIV-P infections have been reported. Despite improvements in our knowledge, many fascinating questions remain concerning the origin, genetic evolution, and slow spread of these variants. Other variants may already exist or may arise in the future, calling for close surveillance. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date summary of the current knowledge on these pathogens, including the historical background of their discovery; the latest advances in the comprehension of their origin and spread; and clinical, therapeutic, and laboratory aspects that may be useful for the management and the treatment of patients infected with these divergent viruses. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Vessiere A.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun | Rousset D.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun | Kfutwah A.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun | Leoz M.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To define a routine algorithm for the specific diagnosis and complete follow-up of HIV-1 group O (HIV-O) infections in Cameroun. METHODS: During 18 months, samples referred to Centre Pasteur du Cameroun for HIV testing or viral monitoring were screened for HIV-O infection with an in-house serotyping assay. HIV-O viral load was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the LTR gene and resistance genotyping was performed on pol and env sequences. RESULTS: Of the 7030 samples tested, 78 HIV-O infections (1.1%) were identified, including 7 M and O dually seroreactive samples (9%). All treatment-naive patients and 59% of the patients receiving HAART had detectable viral loads. Analysis of pol sequences from 15 treatment-naive patients revealed a high number of polymorphisms in the protease region, with natural residues implicated in genotypic resistance to tipranavir and saquinavir for HIV-1 group M according to the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites virales algorithm. Six patients (40%) harbored the 181C mutation conferring natural resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Among antiretroviral-treated patients, major resistance mutations described for HIV-1 group M were found. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-O prevalence remains relatively low in Cameroun. The cocirculation of groups M and O in this country leads to replicative dual infections. HIV-O-infected patients in this region can now benefit from effective and specific tools for a complete monitoring of infection. However, further studies are needed to understand long-term response to antiretrovirals of these complex variants. Copyright © 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Leoz M.,Laboratoire Of Virologie | Leoz M.,University of Rouen | Feyertag F.,University of Manchester | Kfutwah A.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun | And 11 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2015

Unlike the pandemic form of HIV-1 (group M), group O viruses are endemic in west central Africa, especially in Cameroon. However, little is known about group O’s genetic evolution, and why this highly divergent lineage has not become pandemic. Using a unique and large set of group O sequences from samples collected from 1987 to 2012, we find that this lineage has evolved in successive slow and fast phases of diversification, with a most recent common ancestor estimated to have existed around 1930 (1914–1944). The most rapid periods of diversification occurred in the 1950s and in the 1980s, and could be linked to favourable epidemiological contexts in Cameroon. Group O genetic diversity reflects this two-phase evolution, with two distinct populations potentially having different viral properties. The currently predominant viral population emerged in the 1980s, from an ancient population which had first developed in the 1950s, and is characterized by higher growth and evolutionary rates, and the natural presence of the Y181C resistance mutation, thought to confer a phenotypic advantage. Our findings show that although this evolutionary pattern is specific to HIV-1 group O, it paralleled the early spread of HIV-1 group M in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Both viral lineages are likely to have benefited from similar epidemiological contexts. The relative role of virological and social factors in the distinct epidemic histories of HIV-1 group O and M needs to be reassessed. © 2015 Leoz et al.

Sauter D.,University of Ulm | Hotter D.,University of Ulm | Van Driessche B.,Free University of Brussels | Sturzel C.M.,University of Ulm | And 10 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2015

NF-κB is essential for effective transcription of primate lentiviral genomes and also activates antiviral host genes. Here, we show that the early protein Nef of most primate lentiviruses enhances NF-κB activation. In contrast, the late protein Vpu of HIV-1 and its simian precursors inhibits activation of NF-κB, even in the presence of Nef. Although this effect of Vpu did not correlate with its ability to interact withβ-TrCP, it involved the stabilization of IκB and reduced nuclear translocation of p65. Interestingly, however, Vpu did not affect casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of p65. Lack of Vpu was associated with increased NF-κB activation and induction of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in HIV-1-infected Tcells. Thus, HIV-1 and its simian precursors employ Nef to boost NF-κB activation early during the viral life cycle to initiate proviral transcription, while Vpu is used to downmodulate NF-κB-dependent expression of ISGs at later stages. © 2015 The Authors.

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