Ita, Brazil

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The Giant of Amazon basin, pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, is the largest scaled freshwater fish in the world. Pirarucu cultivation has recently started, driven by the decline in natural populations and high market value. Currently, there are no reliable methods for sexual differentiation in this species other than direct examination of gonads, which requires dissection of specimens. A non-lethal and less invasive method for sexual identification is highly desirable in order to properly group broodstock for mating and offspring production. We utilized laparoscopic examination in anesthetized pirarucu to differentiate between male and female individuals. This method allowed for the observation and differentiation of the reproductive organs within an individual. Our results suggest that laparoscopy is an efficient method for sex differentiation in pirarucu causing minimal stress to the fish.


Noriega C.E.D.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Araujo M.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Lefevre N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Lefevre N.,Labomar Inc.
Estuaries and Coasts | Year: 2013

The spatial and temporal variations of the flux of CO2 were determined during 2007 in the Recife estuarine system (RES), a tropical estuary that receives anthropogenic loads from one of the most populated and industrialized areas of the Brazilian coast. The RES acts as a source of nutrients (N and P) for coastal waters. The calculated CO2 fluxes indicate that the upstream inputs of CO2 from the rivers are largely responsible for the net annual CO2 emission to the atmosphere of +30 to +48 mmol m-2 day-1, depending on the CO2 exchange calculation used, which mainly occurs during the late austral winter and early summer. The observed inverse relationship between the CO2 flux and the net ecosystem production (NEP) indicates the high heterotrophy of the system (except for the months of November and December). The NEP varies between -33 mmol m-2 day-1 in summer and -246 mmol m-2 day-1 in winter. The pCO2 values were permanently high during the study period (average ~4,700 μatm) showing a gradient between the inner (12,900 μatm) and lower (389 μatm) sections on a path of approximately 30 km. This reflects a state of permanent pollution in the basin due to the upstream loading of untreated domestic effluents (N/P = 1,367:6 μmol kg-1 and pH = 6.9 in the inner section), resulting in the continuous mineralization of organic material by heterotrophic organisms and thereby increasing the dissolved CO2 in estuarine waters. © 2013 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.


Dos Vieira R.H.S.F.,Labomar Inc. | Carvalho E.M.R.,Labomar Inc. | Carvalho F.C.T.,Labomar Inc. | Sousa O.V.,Labomar Inc. | Rodrigues D.P.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2010

This study aimed to test the susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the water, bottom sediments and individuals cultivated in shrimp farm ponds, to antibiotics belonging to different families, namely B-Lactams: Imipenem (IPM; 10 μg), Ampicillin (AMP; 10 μg), Cephalothin (CEP; 30 μg), Cefoxitin (FOX; 30 μg), Ceftriaxone (CRO; 30 μg); Tetracycline: Tetracycline (TCY; 30 μg); Aminoglycosides: Gentamicin (GEN; 10 μg), Amikacin (AMK; 30 μg); Chloramphenicol: Chloramphenicol (CHO; 30 μg); Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin (CIP; 5 μg); Nitrofurans: Nitrofurantoin (NIT; 300 μg); Sulfonamides: Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT; 30 μg); Quilononas: Nalidixic Acid (NAL; 30 μg). In the laboratory, the method of dissemination (Test Kirby-Bauer) was performed in order to fulfill the antibiogram tests. The results showed high indices of resistance to Imipenem, Cephalothin and Ampicillin. Chloramphenicol, Nitrofurantoin, Cefoxitin, Ceftiaxone and Ciprofloxacin have displayed the highest index of sensitive strains. The antibiotic resistance index (ARI) and the multiple resistance index (MAR) varied within the ranges of 0.068-0.077 and 0.15-0.39, respectively. More than 90.5% of strains of Escherichia coli showed a variety of resistance profiles to the tested antibiotics. The high indices of resistance may be a consequence of indiscriminate use of antibiotics, but also the transfer of resistance through mobile genetic elements found in shrimp farms. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Castro I.B.,Grande Rio University | Rocha-Barreira C.A.,Labomar Inc. | Fernandez M.A.,University Estadual Do Rio Of Janeiro Uerj | Bigatti G.,CONICET
Marine Biology Research | Year: 2012

A bioassay to study differential specific responses in imposex development due to marine organotin pollution was done by transplanting specimens of the gastropods Stramonita haemastoma and Stramonita rustica from an imposex-free area to a marina with high marine traffic inside a ship repair yard, a place where local populations of S. haemastoma were known to show high indices of imposex. Three hundred sexually mature, imposex-free specimens of each species were kept in cages for 120 days, and samples of 30 individuals were periodically analysed for imposex development. Shell length, penis length and vas deferens development were recorded and imposex development indices (% imposex, RPLI and VDSI) were calculated. Our results indicated that imposex induction in S. haemastoma is faster and more sensitive than in S. rustica. Imposex incidence in S. haemastoma could be a useful tool for monitoring marine pollution by organotin compounds in harbours along the Brazilian coast. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Vieira R.H.S.F.,Labomar Inc. | Costa R.A.,Federal University of Ceará | Menezes F.G.R.,Federal University of Ceará | Silva G.C.,Federal University of Ceará | And 3 more authors.
Current Microbiology | Year: 2011

Between October 2008 and June 2009, 15 samples of 10 live oysters each (Crassostrea rhizophorae) measuring 8.31-10.71 cm were purchased from a restaurant on the seashore of Fortaleza, Brazil. The Vibrio count ranged from 75 (estimated) to 43,500 CFU/g. Fourteen species were identified among the 56 isolated Vibrio strains, with V. parahaemolyticus as the most prevalent. Two of the 17 V. parahaemolyticus strains were ureasepositive and tdh- and trh-positive on multiplex PCR, but neither produced β-hemolysis halos in Wagatsuma agar. Thus, fresh oysters served in natura in Fortaleza, Brazil, were found to contain Vibrio strains known to cause gastroenteritis in humans. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Moreira R.L.,Federal University of Ceará | da Costa J.M.,Federal University of Ceará | Teixeira E.G.,Federal University of Ceará | Moreira A.G.L.,Federal University of Ceará | And 3 more authors.
Archivos de Zootecnia | Year: 2011

The efficiency of a recirculation system for the cultivation of C. auratus, fed with natural and artificial diets was evaluated. The experiment consisted of four treatments with four replicates. The first two treatments used recirculation system and the last two static system. In the first and fourth treatment, animals were fed with brine shrimp biomass (50% CP), while in the second and third treatments a commercial flake ration (42% CP) was used. At the end of cultivation (60 days), water samples were taken from all experimental units and subjected to standard plate count for determining the density of mesophilic bacteria. Final weight (g), final length (cm), specific growth rate (% day -1) and weight gain (%) were significantly different (p<0.05) among tested diets, but the culture systems did not affect fish performance. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between systems for total ammonia and nitrite. Animals fed with brine shrimp biomass acquired more intense and brighter colors than those fed only with commercial flake food. The values of standard plate count of mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.0 × 10 3 to 1.1 × 10 4 CFU.ml -1. In this study we observed that C. auratus is a species tolerant to adverse water conditions, perhaps with increased stock densities, the recirculation system could play some positive role on the zootechnical performance of cultured animals.


Vieira G.H.F.,State University of Ceará | Mourao J.A.,State University of Ceará | Angelo A.M.,State University of Ceará | Costa R.A.,Federal University of Ceará | Vieira R.H.S.F.,Labomar Inc.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo | Year: 2010

Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera) and pods of soursop (Annona muricata) in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 μL were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment) and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm) against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. coli isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. coli isolated from tilapiafish, Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated.


Buruaem L.M.,Labomar Inc. | Buruaem L.M.,São Paulo State University | Hortellani M.A.,Brazilian Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN) | Sarkis J.E.,Brazilian Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN) | And 3 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2012

Sediment contamination by metals poses risks to coastal ecosystems and is considered to be problematic to dredging operations. In Brazil, there are differences in sedimentology along the Large Marine Ecosystems in relation to the metal distributions. We aimed to assess the extent of Al, Fe, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination in sediments from port zones in northeast (Mucuripe and Pecém) and southeast (Santos) Brazil through geochemical analyses and sediment quality ratings. The metal concentrations found in these port zones were higher than those observed in the continental shelf or the background values in both regions. In the northeast, metals were associated with carbonate, while in Santos, they were associated with mud. Geochemical analyses showed enrichments in Hg, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, and a simple application of international sediment quality guidelines failed to predict their impacts, whereas the use of site-specific values that were derived by geochemical and ecotoxicological approaches seemed to be more appropriate in the management of the dredged sediments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Labomar Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2012

Sediment contamination by metals poses risks to coastal ecosystems and is considered to be problematic to dredging operations. In Brazil, there are differences in sedimentology along the Large Marine Ecosystems in relation to the metal distributions. We aimed to assess the extent of Al, Fe, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination in sediments from port zones in northeast (Mucuripe and Pecm) and southeast (Santos) Brazil through geochemical analyses and sediment quality ratings. The metal concentrations found in these port zones were higher than those observed in the continental shelf or the background values in both regions. In the northeast, metals were associated with carbonate, while in Santos, they were associated with mud. Geochemical analyses showed enrichments in Hg, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, and a simple application of international sediment quality guidelines failed to predict their impacts, whereas the use of site-specific values that were derived by geochemical and ecotoxicological approaches seemed to be more appropriate in the management of the dredged sediments.


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