Bad Kissingen, Germany
Bad Kissingen, Germany

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Poeppl W.,Medical University of Vienna | Poeppl W.,Military Hospital Vienna | Weiler M.,Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports | Burgmann H.,Medical University of Vienna | And 8 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013

The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70 % ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp. - data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking - the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Schnyder M.,Institute of Parasitology | Stebler K.,Institute of Parasitology | Naucke T.J.,University of Hohenheim | Naucke T.J.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Angiostrongylus vasorum is a potentially fatal canine nematode. Due to the high variability of clinical signs and the often chronic and subtle course of the infections, the diagnosis is particularly challenging. A rapid in-clinic assay (Angio Detect™ Test, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA) for the serological detection of circulating antigen and intended for routine in-clinic diagnosis has been evaluated. Methods. Sensitivity was calculated with sera from 39 naturally infected dogs confirmed by Baermann-Wetzel analysis, while sera of 38 experimentally infected dogs were used for follow-up analyses, of which 10 were treated with imidacloprid/ moxidectin. Cross-reactivity was tested with a total of 123 samples from dogs with proven parasitic infections with Toxocara canis (n = 21), Ancylostoma caninum (n = 4), Crenosoma vulpis (n = 18), Oslerus osleri (n = 3), Eucoleus aerophilus, (n = 6), Dirofilaria immitis (n = 28), Dirofilaria repens (n = 20), Acantocheilonema reconditum (n = 10) or Dipetalonema dracunculoides (n = 10) or multiple infections (n = 3). All sera were tested with the Angio Detect™ Test and with an ELISA for detection of circulating antigen of A. vasorum. Results: The sensitivity of the Angio Detect™ Test was 84.6% (95% C.I. 69.5 - 94.1%), while specificity was 100% (95% C.I. 97.6 - 100%). The sensitivity of the ELISA (94.9%, 95% C.I. 82.7 - 99.3%) was comparable with previous evaluations. In experimentally infected dogs, earliest positive results with the Angio Detect™ Test were observed 9 weeks post inoculation and 5 weeks later all sera were Angio Detect™ Test positive. After anthelmintic treatment, seropositive dogs turned negative again within 3 to 7 weeks after treatment. The evaluation of the colour intensity of the test strips confirmed the delay of approximately 3-4 weeks for antigen detection by the Angio Detect™ Test compared to the ELISA and its correlation with the time after infection. Conclusions: This study provided evidence of a good sensitivity and a very high specificity of the rapid device Angio Detect™ Test for detection of circulating A. vasorum antigen in dogs with suspected canine angiostrongylosis, representing a very simple and useful tool to be broadly applied in veterinary practices. The rapid detection of infected dogs is a key point for initiating an indispensable and urgent therapy. © 2014 Schnyder et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Marschang R.E.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG | Heckers K.O.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG | Heynol V.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG | Weider K.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG | Behncke H.,Import Export Peter Hoch GmbH
Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere - Heimtiere | Year: 2015

Objective: First description of a herpesvirus in West African mud turtles. Materials and methods: A herpesvirus was detected in two clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusios castaneus) by PCR during a quarantine exam. The animals had been imported from Togo, West Africa to Germany for the pet trade. Results: Analysis of a portion of the genome of the detected virus showed that it is a previously unknown virus related to other chelonid herpesviruses. The virus was named pelomedusid herpesvirus 1. Discussion: This case highlights the importance of testing for infectious agents during quarantine, even in clinically healthy animals. © Schattauer 2015.


Ball I.,University of Hohenheim | Hoferer M.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt | Marschang R.E.,University of Hohenheim | Marschang R.E.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation | Year: 2014

A cell line was established from whole 6-8-week-old central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) embryos. Cells were mid-sized and showed an elongated and polymorphic form. The cell line grew in a monolayer and has been serially passaged for 17 passages at time of publication. This cell line has been used with samples from adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive bearded dragons, and 2 virus isolates have been obtained so far. The isolates show a clear cytopathic effect in inoculated cells. Both virus isolates have been serially passaged on this cell line, and have been identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and show 100% nucleotide identity to the corresponding region of an agamid adenovirus. Electron microscopic examination of supernatant from infected cells demonstrated the presence of nonenveloped particles, with a diameter of approximately 80 nm in both virus isolates. © 2014 The Author(s).


Ertl R.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Korb M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Langbein-Detsch I.,Laboklin GmbH and Co KG | Klein D.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Virology Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are a large group of dsDNA viruses that can infect humans and several animal species. The two human GHVs, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are known for their oncogenic properties in individuals with immunodeficiency. Recently, the first feline GHV, Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) was discovered and frequently found in domestic cats in Australia, Singapore and the USA. FcaGHV1 is more likely to be detected in cats co-infected with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Findings: The prevalence of FcaGHV1 in pet cats from Germany and Austria was 16.2 % (95 % CI∈=∈12.38-20.02). The odds for GHV infection were greater for FIV positive (OR∈=∈4.5), male (OR∈=∈13.32) and older (OR∈=∈2.36) cats. Furthermore, FcaGHV1 viral loads were significantly higher in FIV-infected cats compared to matched controls. Conclusions: GHV infections are common in domestic cats in Central Europe. The worldwide distribution of FcaGHV1 can be assumed. A potential role as a co-factor in FIV-induced pathogeneses is supported. © 2015 Ertl et al.


Naucke T.J.,Parasitus Ex E.V. | Naucke T.J.,University of Hohenheim | Naucke T.J.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG | Amelung S.,Kleintierpraxis Amelung | Lorentz S.,Parasitus Ex E.V.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania (L.) infantum. Transmission of L. infantum to dogs (and humans) is mainly through the bite of infected sandflies, but the parasite can also be transmitted vertically, venereally and through blood transfusions of infected donors. Additionally, the direct dog-to-dog transmission through bites or wounds is suspected. Results: In December 2015, a female eight-year-old Jack-Russell-Terrier was tested positive for CanL in Germany (ELISA 74, IFAT 1:4.000). The dog had never been in an endemic area, had never received a blood transfusion and had never been used for breeding. Another female Jack-Russell-Terrier (born 2009 in Spain) was kept in the same household between 2011 and 2012. That dog was imported to Germany in 2011 and was tested positive for leishmaniosis in 2012. The Spanish-born dog had received several bite wounds, i.a. in the neck, during fights with the German-born Terrier. Conclusion: This may be the first report of transmission of L. infantum through bite wounds from a naturally infected dog in Germany. © 2016 Naucke et al.


Menn B.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Lorentz S.,Parasitus Ex E.V. | Naucke T.J.,Parasitus Ex E.V. | Naucke T.J.,University of Hohenheim | Naucke T.J.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2010

Background. With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results. 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%), followed by L. infantum (12.2%) and E. canis (10.1%). Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR), 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions. The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German data are similar in terms of multiple pathogen infection to the data recorded for dogs from Portugal. Based on these findings the importation of dogs from endemic predominantly Mediterranean regions to Germany as well as travelling with dogs to these regions carries a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Thus we would conclude that pet owners seek advice of the veterinarians prior to importing a dog from an endemic area or travel to such areas. In general, it might be advisable to have a European recording system for translocation of dogs. © 2010 Menn et al.


Riesenberg A.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Riesenberg A.,Food and Veterinary Institute Oldenburg | Fessler A.T.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Erol E.,University of Kentucky | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the MICs of 32 antimicrobial agents for 200 isolates of Rhodococcus equi of animal origin by applying a recently described broth microdilution protocol, and to investigate isolates with distinctly elevated rifampicin MICs for the genetic basis of rifampicin resistance. Methods: The study included 200 R. equi isolates, including 160 isolates from horses and 40 isolates from other animal sources, from the USA and Europe. MIC testing of 32 antimicrobial agents or combinations thereof followed a recently published protocol. A novel PCR protocol for the joint amplification of the three rpoB regions in which rifampicin resistance-mediating mutations have been reported was applied to isolates with elevated rifampicin MICs. The amplicons were sequenced and screened for mutations. Results: Susceptibility testing revealed a rather uniform distribution of MICs for most of the antimicrobial agents tested. The lowest MICs were seen for clarithromycin, rifampicin and imipenem. Six isolates (3%) exhibited distinctly higher MICs of rifampicin than the remaining 194 isolates. In five of these six isolates, single bp exchanges, which resulted in the amino acid exchanges Gln513Leu, Asp516Val, His526Asp or Ser531Leu, were detected in the rifampicin resistance-determining region 1 of the rpoB gene, with Gln513Leu representing a novel substitution for R. equi. Conclusions: This study shows the MIC distribution of 32 antimicrobial agents for a large collection of R. equi isolates of animal origin from two continents. Isolates that exhibited distinctly elevated MICs of rifampicin were only rarely detected. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Naucke T.J.,University of Hohenheim | Naucke T.J.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG | Lorentz S.,Parasitus Ex E.V | Rauchenwald F.,Bayer Austria Ges.m.b.H | Aspock H.,Medical University of Vienna
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

During an entomology survey in July 2009 and July 2010, 4 males and 22 females of Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii were caught in southeastern Carinthia. These are the first documented records of the occurrence of Phlebotominae in Austria. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Naucke T.J.,Parasitus Ex E.V. | Naucke T.J.,University of Hohenheim | Naucke T.J.,Laboklin GmbH and Co. KG | Lorentz S.,Parasitus Ex E.V.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L.) infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings. The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72). The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78). Conclusions: Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany. © 2012 Naucke and Lorentz; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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