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Vanhaecke L.,Ghent University | Gowik P.,EC Community Reference Laboratory for Residues | Le Bizec B.,LA Boratoire dEtudes des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments LABERCA | Van Ginkel L.,Institute of Food Safety | And 3 more authors.
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2011

In this paper, the past, present, and (possible) future of the European analytical criteria for residues are described. The elaboration of the revision of Commission Decision 93/256/EC was a long process starting in 1996 and ending with the formation of a European Commission (EC) working group in 1998. This working group took account of developments in scientific and technical knowledge at that time and produced a draft version of the revision within 6 months. The revision, finally published in 2002 (2002/657/EC), includes new ideas on the identification of analytes and the criteria for performance assessment as well as validation procedures. Currently (2009), the evolution in analytical equipment and progress in scientific research, accompanied by recent European regulatory changes, demands an update or revision of the 2002/657/EC.

Babut M.,IRSTEA | Mathieu A.,IRSTEA | Pradelle S.,IRSTEA | Marchand P.,LABERCA | And 2 more authors.
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems | Year: 2012

The 2006 european directive on polychlorodibenzodioxins and related compounds in foodstuffs prompted in France a nationwide monitoring study of freshwater fish contamination by these compounds. A database covering about 300 sites (2848 samples of 36 fish species) was obtained from this study. This database was used to explore congener pattern distributions, in order to identify typical sources and the impact of biotransformation on these sources. Fish ecological traits and fish size are the main factors explaining the overall PCB contamination in the two pre-identified categories of species (high or low propensity to accumulate hydrophobic compounds). Lipid content is also an influencing factor, but its relationship to other factors remains uncertain. Species show distinct congener patterns, related more to their physiology than to ecological traits. Spatial patterns were studied on selected sites having more than five individuals analysed - either chub (Squalius cephalus) or barbel (Barbus barbus), the most widespread species in the database -. We identified six patterns, which mainly differed in the respective proportions of congeners potentially biotransformed by fish. No connection to typical sources, e.g. technical mixtures, was identified. These patterns instead represent an ageing path of the initial mixtures; they could be used for setting remediation priorities. © ONEMA, 2013.

Pinel G.,LABERCA | Rambaud L.,LABERCA | Monteau F.,LABERCA | Elliot C.,Queen's University of Belfast | Le Bizec B.,LABERCA
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

17β-Nandrolone (17β-NT) is one of the most recurrent forbidden anabolic steroid used in meat producing animals breeding. Because efficient control must both take into account metabolic patterns and associated kinetics of elimination, the metabolism of 17β-NT in bovines has already been investigated and is well documented, but only focussing on its main metabolites (i.e. 17α-nandrolone, 19-noretiocholanolone and 19-norandrostenedione). The goal of the present study was to enlarge this panel of 17β-NT metabolites, especially through the urinary estranediols fraction in order to perform a more global steroid profiling upon 17β-nortestosterone laureate ester administration in calves. A GC-MS/MS method has been developed to monitor and quantify 5 estranediols isomers including 5α-estrane-3β,17β-diol (abb), 5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol (bab), 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol (aba), 5α-estrane-3α,17β-diol (aab) and 5β-estrane-3α,17α-diol (baa). Their urinary elimination kinetics have been established allowing detection of 4 estranediols up to several days after administration. All animals demonstrated homogeneous patterns of elimination both from a qualitative (metabolite profile) and quantitative point of view (elimination kinetics in urine). 5α-Estrane-3β,17α-diol (aba) was found as the major metabolite with concentrations up to 100μgL-1. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Miege C.,IRSTEA | Peretti A.,IRSTEA | Labadie P.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Labadie P.,University of Bordeaux 1 | And 7 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

The main objective of this study was to collect new data on the occurrence, levels of priority and emerging organic compounds in freshwater fish sampled in the Rhone River. The 34 studied contaminants included alkylphenols, bisphenol A, polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE), perfluorinated compounds, hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD), hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD). About 50 fish samples (individual specimens or pooled fish) were collected from three sites located upstream and downstream of the Lyon metropolitan area in the Rhone River (France). Four species were caught at each site, namely: the barbel (Barbus barbus), the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the chub (Squalius cephalus). Some contaminants were quantified in all the 32 fish samples analysed: 4-nonylphenol, α-HBCD, the six PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorodecanoic acid. Twenty three of the 32 samples had a concentration of PFOS above the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) (up to six times higher than the EQS), and all the 32 samples had concentrations of PBDE above the EQS (up to 4,000 times higher, with the sum of six PBDE varying from 4.5 to 182 ng/g dry weight). Clearly, the interest to consider PFOS and HBCD as new priority substances is confirmed. In contrast, the pertinence of a priority status for HCBD, which was never quantified in our study, might have to be reconsidered in the future. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

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