Melbourne, Australia
Melbourne, Australia

La Trobe University is an Australian public university with its flagship campus, the largest metropolitan campus in the country, located in Melbourne, Victoria. The University was established in 1964 following the assent of the La Trobe University Act by Victorian Parliament on 9 December of that year, becoming the third university in the State. While not sharing the architectural aesthetics of its sandstone peers, at its core La Trobe, as much as Monash, was 'among the last of the old universities in Australia.' In 2014 it was ranked in the top 100 universities under 50 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.La Trobe’s flagship campus is located in the Melbourne suburb of Bundoora with two other major campuses located in the regional Victorian city of Bendigo and in the twin border cities of Albury-Wodonga. The University also has two smaller regional campuses in Mildura and Shepparton, as well as three minor CBD campuses with two in Melbourne on Franklin Street and Collins Street, and one on York Street in Sydney.La Trobe offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses across its two colleges of Arts, Social Science and Commerce and Science, Health and Engineering . ASSC consists of the four schools of Business, Education, Humanities and Social science, and Law, while SHE consists of the nine schools of Allied Health, Applied Systems Biology, Cancer Medicine, Engineering and Mathematical science, Life science, Molecular science, Nursing and Midwifery, Psychology and Public Health and Rural Health.La Trobe is considered to be particularly strong in the area of arts and humanities; this was reflected in the 2014 QS World University Rankings where it was ranked in the top 200 international universities for Arts and Humanities. It was ranked 38th in the world in the fields of archaeology, ancient history and classics, while sociology, communication, media studies and linguistics all scored in the top 100. It was also ranked in the top 100 universities for arts and humanities in the 2014-15 Times Higher Education World University Rankings. La Trobe also features a strong MBA program which has been ranked in the top 200 Business Schools by QS Global Rankings since 2010. In 2014 the La Trobe MBA was ranked 14th in Asia, 4th in Australia and 2nd in Victoria by QS Global Rankings.In terms of research quality, the university exhibits strength in the areas of arts and humanities, and biological and biotechnical science. In 2012 La Trobe was ranked 3rd in Victoria in the Australian Research Council's Excellence in Research for Australia report.For most of its history La Trobe has been socially regarded as a bastion of left-wing and progressive thought within Australia, largely emanating from strong student activism at the university during the 1960s and 1970s. While not as prevalent as it was in the 20th century, it is a reputation that is still held to this day. Wikipedia.

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La Trobe University | Date: 2016-08-15

The present disclosure provides proteins comprising antibody antigen binding domains that bind to Fn14 and uses thereof. The present disclosure also provides methods for treating wasting disorders, such as cachexia.

Spencer M.J.S.,RMIT University | Spencer M.J.S.,La Trobe University
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2012

Gas sensor devices have traditionally comprised thin films of metal oxides, with tin oxide, zinc oxide and indium oxide being some of the most common materials employed. With the recent discovery of novel metal oxide nanostructures, sensors comprising nano-arrays or single nanostructures have shown improved performance over the thin films. The improved response of the nanostructures to different gases has been primarily attributed to the highly single crystalline surfaces as well as large surface area of the nanostructures. In this paper the properties of clean and defected quasi one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including hexagonal and triangular nanowires, nanotubes and facetted nanotubes are reviewed. The adsorption of atoms and molecules on the ZnO nanostructures are also reviewed and the findings are compared to studies examining similar reactions on nanostructured metal oxide surfaces for sensing purposes. While both experimental and theoretical approaches have been employed to examine gas sensor reactions, this review focuses on studies that employ electronic structure calculations, which primarily concentrate on using density functional theory. Computational studies have been useful in elucidating the reaction mechanism, binding strength, charge transfer as well as other electronic and structural properties of the nanomaterials and the gas-sensor interaction. Despite these studies there are still significant areas of research that need to be pursued that will assist in the link between theoretical and experimental findings, as well as advancing the current chemical and physical understanding of these novel materials. A summary and outlook for future directions of this exciting area of research is also provided. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Taft A.,La Trobe University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Intimate partner violence (IPV) damages individuals, their children, communities, and the wider economic and social fabric of society. Some governments and professional organisations recommend screening all women for intimate partner violence rather than asking only women with symptoms (case-finding); however, what is the evidence that screening interventions will increase identification, and referral to support agencies, or improve women's subsequent wellbeing and not cause harm? To assess the effectiveness of screening for intimate partner violence conducted within healthcare settings for identification, referral to support agencies and health outcomes for women. We searched the following databases in July 2012: CENTRAL (2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1948 to September Week June Week 3 2012), EMBASE (1980 to Week 28 2012), MEDLINE In-Process (3 July 2012), DARE (2012, Issue 2), CINAHL (1937 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to June Week 4 2012), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current) and ASSIA (1987 to October 2010). In addition we searched the following trials registers: metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (to July 2012), and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP),, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register to August 2010. We also searched the reference lists of articles and websites of relevant organisations. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials assessing the effectiveness of IPV screening where healthcare professionals screened women face-to-face or were informed of results of screening questionnaires, compared with usual care ( which included screening for other purposes). Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the trials and undertook data extraction. For binary outcomes, we calculated a standardised estimation of the risk ratio (RR) and for continuous data, either a mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD). All are presented with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We included 11 trials that recruited 13,027 women overall. Six of 10 studies were assessed as being at high risk of bias.When data from six comparable studies were combined (n = 3564), screening increased identification of victims/survivors (RR 2.33; 95% CI 1.40 to 3.89), particularly in antenatal settings (RR 4.26; 95% CI 1.76 to 10.31).Only three studies measured referrals to support agencies (n = 1400). There is no evidence that screening increases such referrals, as although referral numbers increased in the screened group, actual numbers were very small and crossed the line of no effect (RR 2.67; 95% CI 0.99 to 7.20).Only two studies measured women's experience of violence after screening (one at three months, the other at six, 12 and 18 months after screening) and found no significant reduction of abuse.Only one study measured adverse effects and data from this study suggested that screening may not cause harm. This same study showed a trend towards mental health benefit, but the results did not reach statistical significance.There was insufficient evidence on which to judge whether screening increases take up of specialist services, and no studies included economic evaluation. Screening is likely to increase identification rates but rates of referral to support agencies are low and as yet we know little about the proportions of false measurement (negatives or positives). Screening does not appear to cause harm, but only one study examined this outcome. As there is an absence of evidence of long-term benefit for women, there is insufficient evidence to justify universal screening in healthcare settings. Studies comparing screening versus case finding (with or without advocacy or therapeutic interventions) for women's long-term wellbeing would better inform future policies in healthcare settings.

McDonald S.J.,La Trobe University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Policies for timing of cord clamping vary, with early cord clamping generally carried out in the first 60 seconds after birth, whereas later cord clamping usually involves clamping the umbilical cord more than one minute after the birth or when cord pulsation has ceased. The benefits and potential harms of each policy are debated. To determine the effects of early cord clamping compared with late cord clamping after birth on maternal and neonatal outcomes We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (13 February 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing early and late cord clamping. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data. We included 15 trials involving a total of 3911 women and infant pairs. We judged the trials to have an overall moderate risk of bias. Maternal outcomes: No studies in this review reported on maternal death or on severe maternal morbidity. There were no significant differences between early versus late cord clamping groups for the primary outcome of severe postpartum haemorrhage (risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.65; five trials with data for 2066 women with a late clamping event rate (LCER) of ~3.5%, I(2) 0%) or for postpartum haemorrhage of 500 mL or more (RR 1.17 95% CI 0.94 to 1.44; five trials, 2260 women with a LCER of ~12%, I(2) 0%). There were no significant differences between subgroups depending on the use of uterotonic drugs. Mean blood loss was reported in only two trials with data for 1345 women, with no significant differences seen between groups; or for maternal haemoglobin values (mean difference (MD) -0.12 g/dL; 95% CI -0.30 to 0.06, I(2) 0%) at 24 to 72 hours after the birth in three trials. Neonatal outcomes: There were no significant differences between early and late clamping for the primary outcome of neonatal mortality (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.04 to 3.41, two trials, 381 infants with a LCER of ~1%), or for most other neonatal morbidity outcomes, such as Apgar score less than seven at five minutes or admission to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. Mean birthweight was significantly higher in the late, compared with early, cord clamping (101 g increase 95% CI 45 to 157, random-effects model, 12 trials, 3139 infants, I(2) 62%). Fewer infants in the early cord clamping group required phototherapy for jaundice than in the late cord clamping group (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.96, data from seven trials, 2324 infants with a LCER of 4.36%, I(2) 0%). Haemoglobin concentration in infants at 24 to 48 hours was significantly lower in the early cord clamping group (MD -1.49 g/dL, 95% CI -1.78 to -1.21; 884 infants, I(2) 59%). This difference in haemoglobin concentration was not seen at subsequent assessments. However, improvement in iron stores appeared to persist, with infants in the early cord clamping over twice as likely to be iron deficient at three to six months compared with infants whose cord clamping was delayed (RR 2.65 95% CI 1.04 to 6.73, five trials, 1152 infants, I(2) 82%). In the only trial to report longer-term neurodevelopmental outcomes so far, no overall differences between early and late clamping were seen for Ages and Stages Questionnaire scores. A more liberal approach to delaying clamping of the umbilical cord in healthy term infants appears to be warranted, particularly in light of growing evidence that delayed cord clamping increases early haemoglobin concentrations and iron stores in infants. Delayed cord clamping is likely to be beneficial as long as access to treatment for jaundice requiring phototherapy is available.

Vaux D.L.,La Trobe University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2011

When cells kill themselves, they usually do so by activating mechanisms that have evolved specifically for that purpose. These mechanisms, which are broadly conserved throughout the metazoa, involve two processes: activation in the cytosol of latent cysteine proteases (termed caspases), and disruption of mitochondrial functions. These processes are linked in a number of different ways. While active caspases can cleave proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane, and cleave and thereby activate certain pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, proteins released from the mitochondria can trigger caspase activation and antagonise IAP family proteins. This review will focus on the pro-apoptotic molecules that are released from the mitochondria of cells endeavouring to kill themselves. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria: the deadly organelle. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Makarevich R.A.,La Trobe University
Journal of Geophysical Research A: Space Physics | Year: 2014

A comprehensive data set comprising 3 years of E-region backscatter observations by the entire Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) of coherent high-frequency (HF) radars is analyzed statistically. The average spectral characteristics are examined for both morning and evening short-range echoes to develop a simple criterion for separating E- and F-region HF backscatter. Different E-region echo populations are considered for all 16 auroral radars with half of the radars detecting substantial numbers of echoes with Doppler velocities above the nominal value of the ion-acoustic speed Cs of 350-450 ms-1. The high-velocity echoes with Doppler velocity distributions that are asymmetric about zero velocity are examined separately for velocities near and well above the nominal Cs. Indicators of the total numbers of echoes near the Cs are shown to decrease from radar to radar as the radar's boresite direction approaches an L-shell angle of 90°. The very high-velocity echoes, on the other hand, are predominantly seen by the two most zonally looking radars. These echoes are typically observed at greater slant ranges than echoes both below and near the Cs and both their occurrence and velocity are independent of the direction of observation. Moreover, their velocity polarity is inconsistent with that of the plasma convection component. The observations provide further support for the idea that the auroral decameter-scale irregularities with unusually high phase velocities independent of the flow angle are generated through nonlinear mode coupling processes.

Shields N.,La Trobe University
British journal of sports medicine | Year: 2012

The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity among children with disability. 10 electronic databases were searched from the earliest time available to September 2010 to identify relevant articles. Articles were included if they examined the barriers or facilitators to physical activity for children with disability and were written in English. Articles were excluded if they included children with an acute, transient or chronic medical condition, examined sedentary leisure activities, or societal participation in general. Two reviewers independently assessed the search yields, extracted the data and assessed trial quality. Data were analysed descriptively. 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. Barriers included lack of knowledge and skills, the child's preferences, fear, parental behaviour, negative attitudes to disability, inadequate facilities, lack of transport, programmes and staff capacity, and cost. Facilitators included the child's desire to be active, practising skills, involvement of peers, family support, accessible facilities, proximity of location, better opportunities, skilled staff and information. Personal, social, environmental, and policy and programme-related barriers and facilitators influence the amount of activity children with disability undertake. The barriers to physical activity have been studied more comprehensively than the facilitators.

Cumming G.,La Trobe University
Psychological Science | Year: 2014

We need to make substantial changes to how we conduct research. First, in response to heightened concern that our published research literature is incomplete and untrustworthy, we need new requirements to ensure research integrity. These include prespecification of studies whenever possible, avoidance of selection and other inappropriate data-analytic practices, complete reporting, and encouragement of replication. Second, in response to renewed recognition of the severe flaws of null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST), we need to shift from reliance on NHST to estimation and other preferred techniques. The new statistics refers to recommended practices, including estimation based on effect sizes, confidence intervals, and meta-analysis. The techniques are not new, but adopting them widely would be new for many researchers, as well as highly beneficial. This article explains why the new statistics are important and offers guidance for their use. It describes an eight-step new-statistics strategy for research with integrity, which starts with formulation of research questions in estimation terms, has no place for NHST, and is aimed at building a cumulative quantitative discipline. © The Author(s) 2013.

Deng G.,La Trobe University
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2011

Enhancement of contrast and sharpness of an image is required in many applications. Unsharp masking is a classical tool for sharpness enhancement. We propose a generalized unsharp masking algorithm using the exploratory data model as a unified framework. The proposed algorithm is designed to address three issues: 1) simultaneously enhancing contrast and sharpness by means of individual treatment of the model component and the residual, 2) reducing the halo effect by means of an edge-preserving filter, and 3) solving the out-of-range problem by means of log-ratio and tangent operations. We also present a study of the properties of the log-ratio operations and reveal a new connection between the Bregman divergence and the generalized linear systems. This connection not only provides a novel insight into the geometrical property of such systems, but also opens a new pathway for system development. We present a new system called the tangent system which is based upon a specific Bregman divergence. Experimental results, which are comparable to recently published results, show that the proposed algorithm is able to significantly improve the contrast and sharpness of an image. In the proposed algorithm, the user can adjust the two parameters controlling the contrast and sharpness to produce the desired results. This makes the proposed algorithm practically useful. © 2006 IEEE.

Barbaro J.,La Trobe University
Autism : the international journal of research and practice | Year: 2013

The Social Attention and Communication Study involved the successful implementation of developmental surveillance of the early markers of autism spectrum disorders in a community-based setting. The objective in the current study was to determine the most discriminating and predictive markers of autism spectrum disorders used in the Social Attention and Communication Study at 12, 18 and 24 months of age, so that these could be used to identify children with autism spectrum disorders with greater accuracy. The percentage of 'yes/no' responses for each behavioural marker was compared between children with autistic disorder (n = 39), autism spectrum disorder (n = 50) and developmental and/or language delay (n = 20) from 12 to 24 months, with a logistic regression also conducted at 24 months. Across all ages, the recurring key markers of both autistic disorder and autism spectrum disorder were deficits in eye contact and pointing, and from 18 months, deficits in showing became an important marker. In combination, these behaviours, along with pretend play, were found to be the best group of predictors for a best estimate diagnostic classification of autistic disorder/autism spectrum disorder at 24 months. It is argued that the identified markers should be monitored repeatedly during the second year of life by community health-care professionals.

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