La Timone University Hospital of Marseille

Rue Saint Pierre, France

La Timone University Hospital of Marseille

Rue Saint Pierre, France
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Voller S.,University of Munster | Hempel G.,University of Munster | Wurthwein G.,University of Munster | Boddy A.V.,Northumbria University | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2016

Following the publication of our paper regarding a population-based model of doxorubicin pharmacokinetics in children in Clinical Pharmacokinetics last year (Voller et al. 54:1139–1149, 2015), we have received many inquiries on the practical clinical consequences of this model; however, a population-based model is only one of the aspects to be taken into account when developing dosing algorithms. In addition, any new method of dose calculation would need clinical validation and, subsequently, a new clinical trial. However, such a trial, especially with regard to burden to the children involved, requires optimal preparation and the selection of the best hypotheses. The European Paediatric Oncology Off-Patent Medicines Consortium (EPOC), represented by the authors, would therefore like to initiate an interdisciplinary discussion on the clinical and pharmacological goals for dose calculation. This current opinion summarizes the existing knowledge on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of doxorubicin. Our aim was to define the clinical needs as precisely as possible, with the intention of stimulating discussion between the clinical pediatric oncologist and the pediatric pharmacologist. By doing so, we hope to define surrogates for best practice of a common doxorubicin dose in children. The intent is for a trial to validate a rational dose calculation rule, leading to a regulatory process and subsequent labeling. © 2016 The Author(s)

PubMed | Laboratoire Of Pharmacocinetique La Timone University Hospital Of Marseille, La Timone University Hospital of Marseille and Oncopharmacology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of clinical pharmacology | Year: 2015

5-FU is the backbone of most regimens in digestive oncology. Administration of standard 5-FU leads to 15-30% of severe side effects, and lethal toxicities are regularly reported with fluoropyrimidine drugs. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is a pharmacogenetic syndrome responsible for most cases of life-threatening toxicities upon 5-FU intake, and pre-treatment checking for DPD status should help to reduce both incidence and severity of side effects through adaptive dosing strategies.We have used a simple method for rapidly establishing the DPD phenotype of patients with cancer and used it prospectively in 59 routine patients treated with 5-FU-based therapy for digestive cancers. No patient with total DPD deficiency was found but 23% of patients exhibited poor metabolizer phenotype, and one patient was phenotyped as profoundly deficient. Consequently, 5-FU doses in poor metabolizer patients were cut by an average 35% as compared with non deficient patients (2390 1225 mg vs. 3653 1371 mg, P < 0.003, t-test).Despite this marked reduction in 5-FU dosing, similar efficacy was achieved in the two subsets (clinical benefit: 40 vs. 43%, stable disease: 40 vs. 37%, progressive disease: 20% in both subsets, P = 0.893, Pearsons chi-square). No difference in toxicities was observed (P = 0.104, Fishers exact test). Overall, only 3% of early severe toxicities were recorded, a value markedly lower than the 15-30% ones usually reported with 5-FU.This feasibility study shows how simplified DPD-based adaptive dosing of 5-FU can reduce sharply the incidence of treatment-related severe toxicities while maintaining efficacy as part of routine clinical practice in digestive oncology.

PubMed | Annaba University, EL OKBI Public Hospital, Mohamed 1st University, Oncopharmacology Unit and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Biomarker insights | Year: 2016

Shifting from the historical TNM paradigm to the determination of molecular and genetic subtypes of tumors has been a major improvement to better picture cancerous diseases. The sharper the picture is, the better will be the possibility to develop subsequent strategies, thus achieving higher efficacy and prolonged survival eventually. Recent studies suggest that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA Receptor (uPAR), and plasmino-gen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may play a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Consistent with their role in cancer dissemination, high levels of uPA, PAI-1, and uPAR in multiple cancer types correlate with dismal prognosis. In this respect, upfront determination of uPA and PAI-1 as invasion markers has further opened up the possibilities for individualized therapy of breast cancer. Indeed, uPA and PAI-1 could help to classify patients on their risk for metastatic spreading and subsequent relapse, thus helping clinicians in their decision-making process to propose, or not propose, adjuvant therapy. This review covers the implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of uPA and PAI-1, and therefore how they could be major actors in the development of a precision medicine in breast cancer.

Pasquier E.,University of New South Wales | Pasquier E.,Metronomics Global Health Initiative | Ciccolini J.,Aix - Marseille University | Carre M.,Aix - Marseille University | And 10 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2011

Recent clinical evidence revealed that the use of beta-blockers such as propranolol, prior to diagnosis or concurrently with chemotherapy, could increase relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients. We therefore hypothesized that propranolol may be able to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy either through direct effects on cancer cells or via anti-angiogenic mechanisms. In vitro proliferation assay showed that propranolol (from 50-100 μM) induces dose-dependent anti-proliferative effects in a panel of 9 human cancer and "normal" cell lines. Matrigel assays revealed that propranolol displays potent anti-angiogenic properties at non-toxic concentrations (<50 μM) but exert no vascular-disrupting activity. Combining chemotherapeutic drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or paclitaxel, with propranolol at the lowest effective concentration resulted in synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects on cell proliferation in vitro depending on the cell type and the dose of chemotherapy used. Interestingly, breast cancer and vascular endothelial cells were among the most responsive to these combinations. Furthermore, Matrigel assays indicated that low concentrations of propranolol (10 - 50 μM) potentiated the anti-angiogenic effects of 5-FU and paclitaxel. Using an orthotopic xenograft model of triple-negative breast cancer, based on injection of luciferase-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells in the mammary fat pad of nude mice, we showed that propranolol, when used alone, induced only transient anti-tumor effects, if at all, and did not increase median survival. However, the combination of propranolol with chemotherapy resulted in more profound and sustained anti-tumor effects and significantly increased the survival benefits induced by chemotherapy alone (+19% and +79% in median survival for the combination as compared with 5-FU alone and paclitaxel alone, respectively; p<0.05). Collectively our results show that propranolol can potentiate the anti-angiogenic effects and antitumor efficacy of chemotherapy. The current study, together with retrospective clinical data, strongly suggests that the use of propranolol concurrently with chemotherapy may improve the outcome of breast cancer patients, thus providing a strong rationale for the evaluation of this drug combination in prospective clinical studies. © Pasquier et al.

Benzekry S.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Pasquier E.,Metronomics Global Health Initiative | Pasquier E.,Aix - Marseille University | Pasquier E.,Childrens Cancer Institute | And 11 more authors.
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2015

Oncology has benefited from an increasingly growing number of groundbreaking innovations over the last decade. Targeted therapies, biotherapies, and the most recent immunotherapies all contribute to increase the number of therapeutic options for cancer patients. Consequently, substantial improvements in clinical outcomes for some disease with dismal prognosis such as lung carcinoma or melanoma have been achieved. Of note, the latest innovations in targeted therapies or biotherapies do not preclude the use of standard cytotoxic agents, mostly used in combination. Importantly, and despite the rise of bioguided (a.k.a. precision) medicine, the administration of chemotherapeutic agents still relies on the maximum tolerated drug (MTD) paradigm, a concept inherited from theories conceptualized nearly half a century ago. Alternative dosing schedules such as metronomic regimens, based upon the repeated and regular administration of low doses of chemotherapeutic drugs, and adaptive therapy (i.e. modulating the dose and frequency of cytotoxics administration to control disease progression rather than eradicate it at all cost) have emerged as possible strategies to improve response rates while reducing toxicities. The recent changes in paradigm in the way we theorize cancer biology and evolution, metastatic spreading and tumor ecology, alongside the recent advances in the field of immunotherapy, have considerably strengthened the interest for these alternative approaches. This paper aims at reviewing the recent evolutions in the field of theoretical biology of cancer and computational oncology, with a focus on the consequences these changes have on the way we administer chemotherapy. Here, we advocate for the development of model-guided strategies to refine doses and schedules of chemotherapy administration in order to achieve precision medicine in oncology. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Pasquier E.,University of New South Wales | Pasquier E.,Metronomics Global Health Initiative | Street J.,University of New South Wales | Pouchy C.,University of New South Wales | And 12 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: The use of b-blockers for the management of hypertension has been recently associated with significant clinical benefits in cancer patients. Herein, we investigated whether b-blockers could be used in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of neuroblastoma. Methods: Seven b-blockers were tested for their antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic properties alone, and in combination with chemotherapy in vitro; the most potent drug combinations were evaluated in vivo in the TH-MYCN mouse model of neuroblastoma. Results: Three b-blockers (i.e., carvedilol, nebivolol and propranolol) exhibited potent anticancer properties in vitro and interacted synergistically with vincristine, independently of P-glycoprotein expression. b-blockers potentiated the anti-angiogenic, antimitochondrial, antimitotic and ultimately pro-apoptotic effects of vincristine. In vivo, b-blockers alone transiently slowed tumour growth as compared with vehicle only (P<0.01). More importantly, when used in combination, b-blockers significantly increased the tumour regression induced by vincristine (P<0.05). This effect was associated with an increase in tumour angiogenesis inhibition (P<0.001) and ultimately resulted in a four-fold increase in median survival, as compared with vincristine alone (P<0.01). Conclusion: b-blockers can increase treatment efficacy against neuroblastoma, and their combination with chemotherapy may prove beneficial for the treatment of this disease and other drug-refractory cancers. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

Pasquier E.,University of New South Wales | Pasquier E.,Metronomics Global Health Initiative | Tuset M.-P.,University of New South Wales | Street J.,University of New South Wales | And 8 more authors.
Angiogenesis | Year: 2013

The anti-angiogenic activity of chemotherapy is both dose- and schedule-dependent. While conventional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy exerts only mild and reversible anti-angiogenic effects, low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy was developed to specifically target tumour angiogenesis. However, the long-term effects of either MTD or LDM chemotherapy on vascular endothelial cells have never been investigated. Here, we demonstrated that repeated exposure to MTD and LDM chemotherapy differentially impact on the angiogenic potential and chemosensitivity of immortalized endothelial cells. Repeated MTD vinblastine treatment of vascular endothelial cells led to an increased proliferation rate and resistance to paclitaxel. In contrast, repeated LDM treatment with vinblastine or etoposide impaired the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells and increased their chemosensitivity. This effect was associated with a significant decrease in βII- and βIII-tubulin expression. Functional analysis using siRNA showed that silencing the expression of βIII-tubulin in endothelial cells significantly decreased their capacity to form vascular structures and increased their sensitivity to the anti-angiogenic and vascular-disrupting effects of chemotherapy, whereas silencing βII-tubulin expression had no effect. Collectively our results show that LDM chemotherapy impairs the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells while increasing their chemosensitivity - an effect at least in part mediated by the down-regulation of βIII-tubulin expression. Furthermore, our study suggests that βIII-tubulin represents an attractive therapeutic target to increase the anti-angiogenic effects of chemotherapy and overall anti-tumour efficacy. © 2012 The Author(s).

Serdjebi C.,Aix - Marseille University | Seitz J.-F.,La Timone University Hospital of Marseille | Ciccolini J.,Aix - Marseille University | Duluc M.,La Timone University Hospital of Marseille | And 5 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2013

Background: Gemcitabine is a mainstay in the treatment of biliary and pancreatic cancers, with limited efficacy in most settings. The gemcitabine elimination pattern is primarily driven by deamination in the liver by CDA. CDA is affected by genetic polymorphisms, leading to marked variations in activity and, subsequently, to erratic drug plasma exposures in patients administered with standard dosage. CDA deficiency has been a rising concern with gemcitabine since several studies have proven that poor metabolizer patients experience life-threatening toxicities upon drug intake. In theory, ultrarapid metabolizer (UM) patients should be conversely at risk of treatment failure, although thus far few studies have addressed this issue in digestive oncology. Patients & methods: A pilot study was conducted on 40 pancreatic cancer patients, all treated with gemcitabine-based therapy. CDA status was primarily established on a phenotypic basis determined by measurement of residual CDA enzymatic activity in serum. Additionally, a search for c208G>A and c79A>C polymorphisms was carried out. Results: No patients carrying c208G>A polymorphisms were found, and only heterozygous c79A>C patients were observed. Eight out of the 40 patients (i.e., 20%) were identified as UM, with CDA activities over 6 U/mg. CDA activity was significantly different between progressive disease patients and patients with controlled disease (8.4 vs 3 U/mg; p < 0.001). Conversely, fewer gemcitabine-related severe toxicities were observed in UM patients. Conclusion: This pilot study strongly suggests that UM patients are nearly five-times more likely to have progressive disease than patients with normal or low CDA activities, and that beside molecular events at the tumor level, upstream deregulations affecting drug disposition should be taken into account. Original submitted 12 March 2013; Revision submitted 3 May 201. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

Ciccolini J.,Aix - Marseille University | Evrard A.,Caremeau University Hospital of Niames | M'Batchi L.,Caremeau University Hospital of Niames | Pourroy B.,La Timone University Hospital of Marseille | And 6 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2012

We describe here the case of a 7-year old girl with lymphoma who developed life-threatening toxicities upon cytarabine plus mercaptopurine. Surprisingly, initial investigations on canonical thiopurine methyltransferase genetic polymorphism proved to be negative. We focused next on deregulations affecting the CDA gene implicated in the liver disposition of cytarabine. This patient was homozygous for both the 79>C and the-31delC polymorphisms on the CDA gene and promoter, two genotypes with reported opposite effects on CDA phenotype. To determine the CDA status of this patient, additional functional testing was performed and eventually demonstrated that this patient was a poor metabolizer. This case demonstrates that besides affecting thiopurine methyltransferase, dysregulations with CDA should be screened to anticipate toxicities with the cytarabine plus mercaptopurine combination. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.

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