Research Center la Selva

Antioquia, Colombia

Research Center la Selva

Antioquia, Colombia
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Diaz-Montilla A.E.,Research Center La Selva | Gonzalez R.,University of Valle | Solis M.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Saldamando-Benjumea C.I.,National University of Colombia
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2015

Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major pest of fruits in the family Solanaceae in the Western Hemisphere. The objectives of this study were to determine whether life zone or host plant explained morphological variation in females, and if so, if there was evidence of sexual selection driving diversification in this species. We collected larvae feeding on cultivated (Capsicum annuum L., Solanum betaceum Cavanilles, Solanum lycopersicum Lamarck, Solanum melongena L., and Solanum quitoense Lamarck) and wild species (Solanum atropurpureum Schrank, Solanum acerifolium Dunal, Solanum crinitum Lamarck, and Solanum hirtum Vahl) of Solanceae in Colombia. The genitalia traits of 547 reared females were measured and correlations with host plant fruit size were estimated. Six female genitalia morphological characters, apophysis posterioris, apophysis anterioris, ostium bursae, ductus bursae length, corpus bursae, and the seventh abdominal segment were measured. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis classified individuals based on female morphological similarity and clustered them into four main groups according to host plant: 1) S. aceriflolium; 2) S. quitoense, S. lycopersicum, C. annuum and S. hirtum; 3) S. atroporpureum; 4) S. melongena, S. crinitum and S. betaceum. In this unique study, we found that variation in female genitalia size is directly correlated with the size of its host fruit, which suggests a mechanism for reproductive isolation and divergence of the four host races. Ours is one of the first studies that shows female genitalia morphology is correlated with species of host plants and represents a valuable contribution to the study of sexual selection in the evolution of insects. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

Diaz M A.E.,Research Center La Selva | Solis A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Brochero H.L.,National University of Colombia
Revista Colombiana de Entomologia | Year: 2011

Neoleucinodes elegantalis is an insect considered the most serious pest for production and commercialization of solanaceous fruits and vegetables. This study updates the geographic distribution of N. elegantalis in relation to the major agricultural production areas of Solanum lycopersicum, S. melongena, S. betaceum, S. quitoense, and Capsicum annuum in Colombia. The geographic occurrence of the species is expanded to 18 departments distributed across cold, warm, and temperate climates categorized in six of the Holdridge life zones, corresponding to tropical dry forest (bs-T), montane dry forest (bs-PM), montane rain forest (bh-PM), very humid forest (bmh-PM), lower montane wet forest (bh-MB) and lower montane wet forest (bmh-MB).

Diaz-Montilla A.E.,Research Center la Selva | Suarez-Baron H.G.,Aereo | Gallego-Sanchez G.,Aereo | Saldamando-Benjumea C.I.,National University of Colombia | Tohme J.,Aereo
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to examine the population structure of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in relation to host plant association and ecological Holdridge zones. Adult collections were made in cultivated and wild Solanaceae species in 13 departments of Colombia. Sequencing of 658 bp of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase 1 on 103 individuals produced 25 haplotypes. Haplotypes Hl, H2, H4, and H7 were the most frequent and were geographically separated by the Andean mountains. We obtained an FST = 0.57 (P < 0.0001), where most of the genetic differentiation (42.64%) was between individuals within each department. Pairwise FST analysis produced higher genetic values between geographically separated departments than between closely related sites. H2 and H7 apparently behave as generalist populations, as they were found in different habitats and different hosts. The most divergent populations of N. elegantalis were found in southern Colombia, at a location were Solanun quitoense might have originated. Host plant association and environmental factors such as Holdridge life zones are playing an important role in the differentiation of N. elegantalis. Population structuring in N. elegantalis indicates that integrated pest management strategies used to control this species should consider the genetic differentiation of the species at different locations in Colombia. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.

Mascarin G.M.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | Guarin-Molina J.H.,Research Center La Selva | Arthurs S.P.,University of Florida | Humber R.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2016

We report an endemic entomopathogenic fungus, known in Brazil as the 'salmão' fungus and identified here as Colletotrichum nymphaeae (Sordariomycetes: Glomerellales), infecting populations of citrus orthezia scale, Praelongorthezia praelonga. The seasonal prevalence of this pathogen in P. praelonga populations was investigated in three commercial citrus groves maintained under different pesticide regimes. Two citrus groves included inundative releases of another insect pathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium longisporum. Natural epizootics were consistently observed, with up to 84% infection rates being recorded during the warm rainy season. Temporal progression of C. nymphaeae-induced disease varied among the three pesticide regimes. Low infection levels from C. nymphaeae were associated with intensive application of broad spectrum pesticides. However, the prevalence of C. nymphaeae followed a density-dependent pattern with insect host abundance, irrespective of the pesticide regime. High proportions of Lecanicillium-infected insects were observed following infection peaks of C. nymphaeae and both fungi together contributed to 95% overall mortality of citrus orthezia during the wet season. Hence, the combined effect of both fungi considerably improves the biological control of citrus orthezia. We also surmise that the host abundance, environmental conditions, and application frequency of chemical pesticides in citrus groves exert a great influence in the seasonal prevalence of C. nymphaeae-induced disease. Altogether, these results suggest that C. nymphaeae is an important pathogen of P. praelonga and indicate that frequent use of synthetic pesticides may delay or reduce fungal epizootics. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society.

The diversity of natural enemies for Neoleucinodes elegantalis depends on the host plant and the ecological environment where these plants are grown. Eggs and pupae of N. elegantalis were collected and keep under controlled conditions until the emergence of parasitoids associated to these stages. Parasitoids of larvae were recovered in brood chambers from infested fruits. The highest diversity of species, abundance and wide distribution of hymenopteran parasitoid larvae and pupae were registered on lulo (Solanum quitoense). The most important larval parasitoids were the braconids: Apanteles sp., Bracon spp. (two morphospecies), and Chelonus sp., also the fly Lixophaga sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). As parasitoids for pupae, Ichneumonidae, Eulophidae and Chalcididae families were registered. The most abundant were Ichneumonidae species, with Pimpla sanguinipes and, species belonging to the genera Lymeon sp. and Neotheronia sp. Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and mostly Trichospilus diatraea in Eulophidae were found infesting pupae of N. elegantalis. On tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), the most abundant, more frequently collected, and widely distributed parasitoid was Copidosoma sp. (Encyrtidae). The egg parasitoid Trichogramma sp. (Trichogrammatidae) was found only on table tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). We describe the parasitic behavior observed in the field and, the geographic distribution of parasitoids. We discuss about conservation practices in solanaceous crops.

Velasquez M.A.,Research Center La Selva | Passaro C.P.,Research Center La Selva | Lara-Guzman O.J.,University of Antioquia | Alvarez R.,University of Antioquia | Londono J.,University of Antioquia
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Generally, citrus fruits are waxed in the postharvest stage to restore the natural wax removed in the washing procedure and to improve the appearance of the fruit, providing luster. Nowadays, in Colombia, the waxes employed in this step of citrus fruits are imported, which represents a high cost for producers and marketers. On the other hand, the citrus industry generates about 50,000 tons of waste annually just in the coffee region of Colombia, which is undervalued and put to limited use. In this regard, an edible coating, based on pectin and essential oils, would be a solution to the under-utilization of the waste and the import of waxes and would also provide a safe product for consumers and reduce the impact on the environment. In this study, the effect of an edible coating (EC) made of pectin and essential oils on the postharvest quality of 'Valencia' oranges was evaluated. The fungistatic activity of the coat was evaluated at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of essential oils (EO) in fruits inoculated with Penicillium sp. in three conditions of storage: direct marketing, cold storage and USA quarantine simulation. The EC at 1% of EO was also applied in a commercial packing line of citrus and studied after different storage conditions. The EC with 1.5% of EO extended the shelf life of the fruits at 23°C with a controlled decay of 83%. Nevertheless, at low temperatures, there was no control of the fungus, as with the other commercial waxes studied. The EC did not affect the internal fruit quality in a detrimental way, although the control of weight loss must be improved. In general, the EC could be applied in a commercial packing line and the fruits could be stored for 1 week at 25°C with an acceptable weight loss and for 2 weeks at 7°C plus 7 days at 25°C with a weight loss control of 0.9%.

Bravo K.,University of Antioquia | Sepulveda-Ortega S.,Research Center La Selva | Lara-Guzman O.,University of Antioquia | Navas-Arboleda A.A.,Research Center La Selva | Osorio E.,University of Antioquia
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued for its organoleptic properties and bioactive compounds. Considering that the presence of phenolics and ascorbic acid could contribute to its functional capacity, it is important to investigate the quality parameters, bioactive contents and functional properties with respect to genotype and ripening time. In this study the genotype effect was evaluated in 15 cultivars for two different harvest times. Changes during maturation were recorded in two commercial cultivars within seven levels of maturity. RESULTS: Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phenolic content and ORAC value were mainly affected by harvest time and that ascorbic acid content and DPPH level were mainly affected by genotype. In addition, acidity, phenolic content, ORAC value and inhibition of LDL oxidation decreased with maturity, but soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, β-carotene content and DPPH-scavenging activity were higher in mature fruits. CONCLUSION: The phenolic content, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant properties of Cape gooseberry fruit were strongly affected by cultivar, harvest time and maturity state. Consequently, the harvest time must be scheduled carefully to gain the highest proportion of bioactive compounds according to the specific cultivar and the environment where it is grown. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

Montilla A.E.D.,Research Center La Selva | Jacas J.A.,Jaume I University | Palacios Palacios X.,University of Cauca | Pena J.E.,University of Florida
Biological Control | Year: 2013

A classical biological control program was initiated in Florida USA in 1997 against Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), an exotic root weevil. Florida citrus trees are affected by other weevil pests, i.e., Pachnaeus spp., which have their own indigenous parasitoid fauna. One of these parasitoids, Brachyufens osborni (Dozier) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), recognized and accepted D. abbreviatus eggs for oviposition. However, it failed to develop in these eggs. The eggs of this weevil display a physiological defensive response against B. osborni immature stages that prevents development beyond the second larval instar. This response though does not occur in the indigenous Pachnaeus litus Germar. The defensive response was likely cellular in nature. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | Research Center La Selva, University of Florida, Embrapa Arroz e Feijao, University of Sao Paulo and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: | Journal: Data in brief | Year: 2016

We describe symptoms of mycosis induced by two native fungal entomopathogens of the citrus orthezia scale, Praelongorthezia praelonga (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), an important pest of citrus orchards. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled Seasonal prevalence of the insect pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum nymphaeae in Brazilian citrus groves under different chemical pesticide regimes [1]. The endemic fungal pathogen, C. nymphaeae, emerges through the thin cuticular intersegmental regions of the citrus orthezia scale body revealing orange salmon-pigmented conidiophores bearing conidial masses, as well as producing rhizoid-like hyphae that extend over the citrus leaf. By contrast, nymphs or adult females of this scale insect infected with Lecanicillium longisporum exhibit profuse outgrowth of bright white-pigmented conidiophores with clusters of conidia emerging from the insect intersegmental membranes, and mycosed cadavers are commonly observed attached to the leaf surface by hyphal extensions. These morphological differences are important features to discriminate these fungal entomopathogens in citrus orthezia scales.

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