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Cordier E.,University of Reunion Island | Cordier E.,La Reunion Virtuelle | Leze J.,University of Reunion Island | Join J.-L.,University of Reunion Island
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2013

Tide gauge and meteorological data were used to analyze tidal fluctuations and relative sea level (RSL) variability in the microtidal fringing reef of La Saline, at La Reunion, Western Indian Ocean, for 58 days during late summer 2005. Harmonic analysis was applied to evidence tidal constituents and to predict tidal variations in the open ocean and in the fringing reef. The predicted signals were compared to assess the intratidal and supratidal variability as well as the synoptic response of the RSL in the reef. Finally, the non-tidal fluctuations of the signal recorded in the fringing reef were correlated with the external forcing data (wind and wave). The results show that the tide in the reef is reduced and delayed, compared to the tide of the open ocean. The neap-spring tidal cycle in the fringing reef appears more synchronized on the tropical cycle (27.32 days) of the Moon, rather than its synodic cycle (29.52 days). Due to the shallowness of the fringing reef, nonlinear bottom-friction interactions induce an amplification of compound tides, the fortnightly (Msf) and monthly (Mm) long-period tides (LPT), which have a major influence on the relative sea surface elevations variations. They cause relative high and low RSL reaching ±10. cm in the fringing reef, which are significantly different from the sea level in the open ocean. It appears that the contribution of the external forcing to the RSL fluctuations in the fringing reef will largely depend on these high and low sea levels. Our results demonstrate that the orbital moon cycles and the LPT cannot be neglected in upcoming studies of narrow microtidal fringing reefs, involving sea level variations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Allyn J.,Intensive Care Unit | Vandroux D.,Intensive Care Unit | Jabot J.,Intensive Care Unit | Brulliard C.,Intensive Care Unit | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Critical Care | Year: 2015

Purpose: The purpose was to determine prognosis of patients presenting extreme acidosis (pH <. 7) on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and to identify mortality risk factors. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients who presented with extreme acidosis within 24 hours of admission to a polyvalent ICU in a university hospital between January 2011 and July 2013. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis were used. Results: Among the 2156 patients admitted, 77 patients (3.6%) presented extreme acidosis. Thirty (39%) patients suffered cardiac arrest before admission. Although the mortality rate predicted by severity score was 93.6%, death occurred in 52 cases (67.5%) in a median delay of 13 (5-27) hours. Mortality rate depended on reason for admission, varying between 22% for cases linked to diabetes mellitus and 100% for cases of mesenteric infarction (P = .002), cardiac arrest before admission (P < .001), type of lactic acidosis (P = .007), high Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (P = .008), and low serum creatinine (P = .012). Conclusions: Patients with extreme acidosis on admission to ICU have a less severe than expected prognosis. Whereas mortality is almost 100% in cases of cardiac arrest before admission, mortality is much lower in the absence of cardiac arrest before admission, which justifies aggressive ICU therapies. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Khoyratty S.,University of Reunion Island | Khoyratty S.,Institut Universitaire de France | Khoyratty S.,La Reunion Virtuelle | Dupont J.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | And 11 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Background: The objective of the work was to characterize fungal endophytes from aerial parts of Vanilla planifolia. Also, to establish their biotransformation abilities of flavor-related metabolites. This was done in order to find a potential role of endophytes on vanilla flavors. Results: Twenty three MOTUs were obtained, representing 6 fungal classes. Fungi from green pods were cultured on mature green pod based media for 30 days followed by 1H NMR and HPLC-DAD analysis. All fungi from pods consumed metabolized vanilla flavor phenolics. Though Fusarium proliferatum was recovered more often (37.6 % of the isolates), it is Pestalotiopsis microspora (3.0 %) that increased the absolute amounts (quantified by 1H NMR in μmol/g DW green pods) of vanillin (37.0 × 10-3), vanillyl alcohol (100.0 × 10-3), vanillic acid (9.2 × 10-3) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (87.9 × 10-3) by significant amounts. Conclusions: All plants studied contained endophytic fungi and the isolation of the endophytes was conducted from plant organs at nine sites in Réunion Island including under shade house and undergrowth conditions. Endophytic variation occured between cultivation practices and the type of organ. Given the physical proximity of fungi inside pods, endophytic biotransformation may contribute to the complexity of vanilla flavors. © Khoyratty et al.

Palama T.L.,University of Reunion Island | Palama T.L.,Leiden University | Khatib A.,University Putra Malaysia | Khatib A.,Leiden University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Large phenotypic variation has been observed between the cultivated vanillas since a single genetic source of Vanilla planifolia was spread to the Indian Ocean and the Indonesia in the 19th century. In order to differentiate the cultivated vanilla plants, genetic studies have been conducted in the past on the plants grown in various regions such as the French island, La Réunion. However, the genetic difference was not big enough to differentiate diverse accessions of V. planifolia. In this study, metabolomics, in which genetic variation could be amplified, was employed to delve into the variation between the cultivated vanilla plants. To obtain a broad view of the metabolome, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to the analysis of V. planifolia green pods. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the data showed that the accessions could be differentiated according to their glucovanillin and glucosides A and B contents. Furthermore, a correlation between the glucovanillin content and the pod length, number of flower and growth capacity of the accessions has been observed from the multivariate data analysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bernard J.-C.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Pecaud L.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Onde G.,La Reunion Virtuelle | Bryden B.,La Reunion Virtuelle
Information Psychiatrique | Year: 2015

Psychosocial rehabilitation care for people suffering from a severe chronic disorder is important. There are standardized beneficial tools such as cognitive remediation. However, psychosocial rehabilitation cannot be reduced to protocols. As an alternative mental health approach, it needs to remain focused on the individual. In this perspective, the rehabilitation psychiatric unit, at the Saint Paul hospital of the Réunion Island, is now using a studio apartment in the city for short time situation scenarios. This flat is now available to help in-patient users. This is a support tool for a graduated transition to the city. In this article we present this innovative tool as well as the first users accounts.

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