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Prieto R.,University of San Carlos | Pascual J.M.,La Princesa University Hospital | Subhi-Issa I.,University of San Carlos | Jorquera M.,University of San Carlos | And 2 more authors.
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Background: Recurrence of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) represents a frequent and unpredictable incident. Rapid tumor recurrence within a few months after surgery has been rarely reported. Nondefinitive predictive factors for rapid CP recurrence have been identified to date. We have systematically analyzed the tumor factors that presumably influence in CP recurrence. Methods: We present the histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of an infundibulo-tuberal CP that was operated twice within a 3-month interval due to rapid recurrence. We investigated the differential characteristics of the subgroup of CPs that recurred in large surgical series published in the literature, along with cases reporting rapid tumor recurrence after surgery. Results: Specimens of our patient showed an adamantinomatous CP with whorl-like arrays and thick peritumoral gliosis. Ki-67 labeling index in primary and recurrent samples was 20% and 15%, respectively. p53 labeling index was 18% and 15%, respectively. The thorough analysis of literature showed that presence of tumor remnants and missing radiotherapy treatment after subtotal removal are strong predictors of tumor recurrence. Third ventricle involvement, large tumor size, tight adherence to surrounding structures, and presence of whorl-like arrays might also foster recurrence. High Ki-67 levels, p53 expression, and an intense reactive gliosis might point to rapid tumor growth. Conclusions: Reliable tumor markers that predict CP recurrence are still lacking. The CP features presumably related to a higher risk of its recurrence are thought to be a larger tumor size, a tight adherence to the hypothalamus, the presence of whorl-like arrays, and high Ki-67 and p53 levels. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Alfonso F.,University of San Carlos | Perez-Vizcayno M.J.,University of San Carlos | Dutary J.,University of San Carlos | Zueco J.,Santander University | And 12 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study sought to assess the effectiveness of a strategy of using drug-eluting stents (DES) with a different drug (switch) in patients with DES in-stent restenosis (ISR). Background: Treatment of patients with DES ISR remains a challenge. Methods: The RIBS-III (Restenosis Intra-Stent: Balloon Angioplasty Versus Drug-Eluting Stent) study was a prospective, multicenter study that aimed to assess results of coronary interventions in patients with DES ISR. The use of a different DES was the recommended strategy. The main angiographic endpoint was minimal lumen diameter at 9-month follow-up. The main clinical outcome measure was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization. Results: This study included 363 consecutive patients with DES ISR from 12 Spanish sites. The different-DES strategy was used in 274 patients (75%) and alternative therapeutic modalities (no switch) in 89 patients (25%). Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups, although lesion length was longer in the switch group. At late angiographic follow-up (77% of eligible patients, median: 278 days) minimal lumen diameter was larger (1.86 ± 0.7 mm vs. 1.40 ± 0.8 mm, p = 0.003) and recurrent restenosis rate lower (22% vs. 40%, p = 0.008) in the different-DES group. At the last clinical follow-up (99% of patients, median: 771 days), the combined clinical endpoint occurred less frequently (23% vs. 35%, p = 0.039) in the different-DES group. After adjustment using propensity score analyses, restenosis rate (relative risk: 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21 to 0.80, p = 0.01), minimal lumen diameter (difference: 0.41 mm, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.62, p = 0.001), and the event-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.96, p = 0.038) remained significantly improved in the switch group. Conclusions: In patients with DES ISR, the implantation of a different DES provides superior late clinical and angiographic results than do alternative interventional modalities. © 2012 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Lewis R.B.,American Institute for Radiologic Pathology | Lewis R.B.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Mehrotra A.K.,The Joint Pathology Center | Rodriguez P.,La Princesa University Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Radiographics | Year: 2014

Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have a common lymphoid origin but variable pathologic and imaging features. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (ENMZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common. ENMZL usually occurs in the stomach, where it is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, and is typically a superficial spreading lesion that causes mucosal nodularity or ulceration and mild wall thickening. DLBCL may arise de novo or from transformation of ENMZL or other low-grade lymphomas. This form of lymphoma produces extensive wall thickening or a bulky mass, but obstruction is uncommon. Mantle cell lymphoma is the classic cause of lymphomatous polyposis, but multiple polyps or nodules can also be seen with ENMZL and follicular lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma is usually characterized by an ileocecal mass or wall thickening in the terminal ileum in young children, often in the setting of widespread disease. Primary GI Hodgkin lymphoma, which is rare, may be manifested by a variety of findings, though stenosis is more common than with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is frequently associated with celiac disease and is characterized by wall thickening, ulceration, and even perforation of the jejunum. Accurate radiologic diagnosis of GI lymphoma requires a multifactorial approach based on the clinical findings, site of involvement, imaging findings, and associated complications. © RSNA, 2014.


Castro-Dufourny I.,Sureste University Hospital | Carrasco R.,Ramon y Cajal University Hospital | Prieto R.,Puerta Of Hierro University Hospital | Barrios L.,Computing Center | Pascual J.M.,La Princesa University Hospital
Pituitary | Year: 2015

Purpose: Infundibulo-tuberal syndrome groups endocrine, metabolic and behavioral disturbances caused by lesions involving the upper neurohypophysis (median eminence) and adjacent basal hypothalamus (tuber cinereum). It was originally described by Henri Claude and Jean Lhermitte in 1917, in a patient with a craniopharyngioma. This study investigates the clinical, pathological and surgical evidence verifying the infundibulo-tuberal syndrome caused by craniopharyngiomas (CPs). Methods: A systematic retrospective review of craniopharyngiomas reported in French literature between 1705 and 1973 was conducted. A total of 128 well described reports providing a comprehensive clinical and pathological description of the tumors were selected. This series represents the historical French cohort of CPs reported in the pre-CT/MRI era. Results: Three major syndromes caused by CPs were categorized: pituitary syndrome (35 %), infundibulo-tuberal syndrome (52 %) and hypothalamic syndrome (49 %). CP topography was significantly related to the type of syndrome described (p < 0.001). Infundibulo-tuberal syndrome occurred in CPs which replaced or invaded the third ventricle floor. In contrast, the majority of sellar/suprasellar CPs growing below the third ventricle showed a pituitary syndrome (82 %). Cases with hypothalamic syndrome were characterized by anatomical integrity of the pituitary gland and stalk (p = 0.033) and occurred predominantly in adults older than 41 years old (p < 0.005). Among infundibulo-tuberal symptoms, abnormal somnolence was not related with the presence of hydrocephalus. All squamous-papillary CPs presented psychiatric disturbances (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This historical CP cohort evidences a clinical-topographical correlation between the patient’s type of syndrome and the anatomical structures involved by the tumor along the hypophysial-hypothalamic axis. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Prieto R.,Puerta Of Hierro University Hospital | Pascual J.M.,La Princesa University Hospital | Barrios L.,Computing Technical Center
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anatomic distortions of the optic chiasm caused by craniopharyngiomas (CPs) and their influence on preoperative and postoperative visual status. -METHODS: We conducted a retrospective investigation of 150 CPs including preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies and the preoperative visual status and visual outcome after surgery. Morphologic distortions of the optic chiasm were analyzed on midsagittal MRI and correlated with preoperative vision, visual outcome, and features and topography of the CP. -RESULTS: Vision loss before operation was present in 68.7% of the patients. The type of chiasm distortion caused by the CP was the major predictive factor of preoperative visual impairment (P < 0.001). There were 6 patterns of chiasm distortion identified: Nondistorted or normal (11.3%), compressed downward (18%), compressed forward (23.3%), stretched forward (18%), stretched upward (16.7%), and stretched backward (4.7%). Reduced vision was present in >80% of compressed forward and stretched chiasms. Overall, the mechanical stretching deformation of the chiasm caused a more severe visual deficit than its compression. Postoperative chiasm morphology was the major predictive factor for visual outcome (P < 0.001). There were 6 different chiasm morphologies identified after surgery: Normal (52.7%), thinned (9.4%), thickened (16.7%), displaced forward (6%), displaced upward (4%), and displaced backward (2.7%). Thinned and displaced upward chiasms were associated with the highest rate of no visual improvement. A multivariate model including preoperative and postoperative chiasm distortions predicted the visual outcome in 91.3% of patients. -CONCLUSIONS: The type of chiasm distortion represents a valuable neuroradiologic finding to ascertain the preoperative and postoperative visual status.


Pascual J.M.,La Princesa University Hospital | Prieto R.,La Princesa University Hospital | Castro-Dufourny I.,La Princesa University Hospital | Carrasco R.,La Princesa University Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Neurosurgical focus | Year: 2014

OBJECT: The development of surgical procedures for the removal of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) was greatly influenced by the enormous topographical and morphological heterogeneity displayed by these lesions. In this study the authors reviewed the intracranial approaches designed to treat CPs during the early historical period (1891-1938) with the aim of finding the CP topographical and pathological features that influence patient outcomes.METHODS: The authors conducted a systematic retrospective review of well-described cases of surgically treated CPs in publications from the period 1891-1938. Valuable information regarding the diagnosis of the lesion, type of craniotomy performed, CP topography, and outcome was selected from 418 reports included in medical publications from this period. The type of surgical procedure used, degree of tumor removal, CP position and histological variety, and clinical evidence of postoperative hypothalamic injury were the variables analyzed with the aim of defining their influence on the final patient outcome.RESULTS: A collection of 160 cases was eligible for analysis. Craniopharyngioma topography was significantly related to the existence of postoperative hypothalamic damage and the degree of tumor removal achieved (p < 0.001). The infundibulo-tuberal, or not strictly intraventricular, topography was associated with the highest rate of hypothalamic injury (84%) and impossibility of tumor removal (51%). This topography also showed the worst prognosis (p = 0.001). Additional variables correlated with patient outcome were the presence of hypothalamic damage, type of surgical approach used, and degree of tumor removal. Patients having a poor outcome, suffering from permanent coma, or dying after surgery presented with symptoms of hypothalamic injury in 40% of cases (p < 0.001). The surgical approach associated with the best outcome was the transsphenoidal (58%), followed by the subfrontal (45%) and the transcallosal (45%). Subtotal resection of the lesion yielded the best postoperative results, with only 17% of patients dying or suffering from a poor outcome, in contrast to the 39% reported for gross-total removal of the lesion (p = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Two major variables influenced the results of early surgical experience with CPs for the period from 1891 to 1938: 1) the inaccuracy in defining CP topography with the diagnostic methods available at that time; and 2) the ignorance about the risks associated with the dissection of lesions showing tenacious adherence to the hypothalamus. The degree of functional and morphological disturbance of the hypothalamus caused by a CP remains a fundamental variable helping the surgeon to predict the risks associated with the radical excision of the tumor and patient outcome.


Carrasco R.,Ramon y Cajal University Hospital | Pascual J.M.,La Princesa University Hospital | Medina-Lopez D.,Ramon y Cajal University Hospital | Burdaspal-Moratilla A.,Ramon y Cajal University Hospital
Surgical Neurology International | Year: 2012

Background: Acute neurological deterioration and death in a patient harboring a colloid cyst of the third ventricle remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Sudden neurological derangement caused by spontaneous bleeding within a colloid cyst is a rare and potentially fatal event, usually requiring immediate diagnosis and emergency surgical treatment. Case Description: A 47-year-old male presented with acute right-sided hemiparesis and speech impediment, followed by rapid deterioration of consciousness. Neuroimaging studies showed a rounded mass at the roof of the anterior third ventricle, causing biventricular hydrocephalus along with a left-sided basal ganglia hematoma. The lesion showed scattered foci of a recent hemorrhage which extended into the left lateral ventricle. Surgical treatment involved emergency external ventricular drainage followed by the prompt elective total resection of the lesion via a transcallosal route. Pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of a colloid cyst with focal areas of vascular congestion and blood extravasation within its wall. Conclusions: Spontaneous bleeding into a colloid cyst of the third ventricle may cause acute obstructive hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension due to rapid enlargement of the lesion. This event may account for the sudden neurological deterioration and/or death observed in a previously asymptomatic patient. The diagnosis of hemorrhagic phenomena within a colloid cyst represents a challenge due to the variable signal usually displayed by these lesions on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Emergency ventricular drainage followed by elective tumoral removal constitutes a valid and safe treatment strategy. Copyright © 2012 Carrasco R.


Pascual J.M.,La Princesa University Hospital | Prieto R.,Puerta Of Hierro University Hospital
Neurosurgical Focus | Year: 2016

From the very beginning of his career, Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939) harbored a deep interest in a complex group of neoplasms that usually developed at the infundibulum. These were initially known as "interpeduncular" or "suprasellar" cysts. Cushing introduced the term "craniopharyngioma" for these lesions, which he believed represented one of the most baffling problems faced by neurosurgeons. The patient who most influenced Cushing's thinking was a 16-year-old seamstress named "Mary D.," whom he attended in December 1901, exactly the same month that Alfred Fröhlich published his seminal article describing an adiposogenital syndrome in a young boy with a pituitary cyst. Both Cushing's and Fröhlich's patients showed similar symptoms caused by the same type of tumor. Notably, Cushing and Fröhlich had met one another and became good friends in Liverpool the summer before these events took place. Their fortunate relationship led Cushing to realize that Fröhlich's syndrome represented a state of hypopituitarism and provided a useful method of diagnosing interpeduncular cysts. It is noteworthy that Cushing's very first neurosurgical procedure on a pituitary tumor was performed in the case of Mary D.'s "interpeduncular cyst," on February 21, 1902. Cushing failed to remove this lesion, which was later found during the patient's autopsy. This case was documented as Pituitary Case Number 3 in Cushing's masterpiece, The Pituitary Body and Its Disorders, published in 1912. This tumor was considered "a teratoma"; however, multiple sources of evidence suggest that this lesion actually corresponded to an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Unfortunately, the pathological specimens of this lesion were misplaced, and this prompted Cushing's decision to retain all specimens and documents of the cases he would operate on throughout his career. Accordingly, Mary D.'s case crystallized the genesis of the Cushing Brain Tumor Registry, one of Cushing's major legacies to neurosurgery. In this paper the authors analyze the case of Mary D. and the great influence it had on Cushing's conceptions of the pituitary gland and its afflictions, and on the history of pituitary surgery.


Prieto R.,University of San Carlos | Pascual J.M.,La Princesa University Hospital | Yus M.,University of San Carlos | Jorquera M.,University of San Carlos
Surgical Neurology International | Year: 2012

Background: Trigeminal neuralgia is most commonly caused by vascular compression at the trigeminal nerve (TN) root entry zone. Microvascular decompression (MVD) has been established as a useful treatment. Outcome depends on the correct identification of the compression site and its adequate decompression at surgery. Preoperative identification of neurovascular compression might predict which patients will benefit from MVD. Management of persistent or recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after an MVD is a baffling problem for neurosurgeons. An accurate neuroradiological evaluation of the TN padding following a failed MVD might help identify the underlying cause and plan further treatment. Case description: A 68-year-old female presented with a right-sided trigeminal neuralgia (V3) refractory to medical therapy. A high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) study included fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and time of flight multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition (TOF MOTSA) sequences to evaluate the neurovascular anatomy in the cerebellopontine angle. An unambiguous compression of the right TN at the rostral-medial site by the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) was identified. The SCA loop compressing the TN was identical in location and configuration to that predicted in the preoperative study. After the MVD, the patient was relieved from her pain and a postoperative high-resolution 3D MRI study confirmed the appropriate placement of the Teflon implant between the TN and SCA. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report that characterizes the proper TN padding by high-resolution 3D MRI after trigeminal MVD. The present case also emphasizes the importance of performing a 3D MRI in patients with trigeminal neuralgia to anticipate the surgeon's view and predict the outcome after MVD. Copyright © 2012 Prieto R.


Pascual J.M.,La Princesa University Hospital | Prieto R.,Puerta Of Hierro University Hospital | Mazzarello P.,University of Pavia
Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2015

Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the evidence provided in Giovanni Verga's monograph, it can be claimed that Sir Victor Horsley was not only the pioneer of pituitary gland surgery but also the pioneer of craniopharyngioma surgery.

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