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Drescher K.M.,Creighton University | von Herrath M.,NovoNordisk and nter | von Herrath M.,La Jolla Institute | Tracy S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2015

Summary: Enteroviruses and humans have long co-existed. Although recognized in ancient times, poliomyelitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D) were exceptionally rare and not epidemic, due in large part to poor sanitation and personal hygiene which resulted in repeated exposure to fecal-oral transmitted viruses and other infectious agents and viruses and the generation of a broad protective immunity. As a function of a growing acceptance of the benefits of hygienic practices and microbiologically clean(er) water supplies, the likelihood of exposure to diverse infectious agents and viruses declined. The effort to vaccinate against poliomyelitis demonstrated that enteroviral diseases are preventable by vaccination and led to understanding how to successfully attenuate enteroviruses. Type 1 diabetes onset has been convincingly linked to infection by numerous enteroviruses including the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), while studies of CVB infections in NOD mice have demonstrated not only a clear link between disease onset but an ability to reduce the incidence of T1D as well: CVB infections can suppress naturally occurring autoimmune T1D. We propose here that if we can harness and develop the capacity to use attenuated enteroviral strains to induce regulatory T cell populations in the host through vaccination, then a vaccine could be considered that should function to protect against both autoimmune as well as virus-triggered T1D. Such a vaccine would not only specifically protect from certain enterovirus types but more importantly, also reset the organism's regulatory rheostat making the further development of pathogenic autoimmunity less likely. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

McArdle S.,La Jolla Institute | McArdle S.,University of San Diego | Chodaczek G.,La Jolla Institute | Chodaczek G.,Wroclaw Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2015

Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe-/-Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP + macrophages "dancing on the spot" and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Source

Huang Y.,La Jolla Institute | Huang Y.,Texas A&M University | Rao A.,La Jolla Institute
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2014

DNA methylation has been linked to aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer, and an imbalance in DNA methylation-demethylation cycles is intimately implicated in the onset and progression of tumors. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases that successively oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), thereby mediating active DNA demethylation. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiological role of TET proteins and 5hmC in cancer. We present an overview of loss-of-function mutations and abnormal expression and regulation of TET proteins in hematological malignancies and solid tumors, and discuss the potential prognostic value of assessing TET mutations and 5hmC levels in cancer patients. We also address the crosstalk between TET and two critical enzymes involved in cell metabolism: O-linked β-. N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Lastly, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting TET proteins and aberrant DNA methylation in cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gillies L.A.,La Jolla Institute | Kuwana T.,La Jolla Institute
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Mitochondria play a critical role in apoptosis, or programmed cell death, by releasing apoptogenic factors from the intermembrane space. This process, known as mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), is tightly regulated by the Bcl-2 family proteins. Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, Bax and Bak, change their conformation when activated by BH3 domain-only proteins in the family and permeabilize the MOM, whereas pro-survival members inhibit permeabilization. The precise nature of the apoptotic pore in the MOM is unknown, but is probably lipidic. Furthermore, it has been realized that there is another layer of MOMP regulation by a protein factor termed the catalyst in the MOM in order for Bax/Bak to achieve efficient and complete membrane permeabilization. Mitochondrial dynamics do not affect MOMP directly, but seem closely coordinated with MOMP for swift protein efflux from mitochondria. This review will present current views on the molecular mechanisms and regulation of MOMP and conclude with recent developments in clinical applications based on the knowledge gleaned from the investigation. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 632-640, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Gilliesa L.A.,La Jolla Institute | Du H.,University of Iowa | Du H.,Southwest University | Peters B.,La Jolla Institute | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2015

Bax induces mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), a critical step in apoptosis in which proteins are released into the cytoplasm. To resolve aspects of the mechanism, we used cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to visualize Bax-induced pores in purified mitochondrial outer membranes (MOMs). We observed solitary pores that exhibited negative curvature at their edges. Over time, the pores grew to ∼100-160 nm in diameter after 60-90 min, with some pores measuring more than 300 nm. We confirmed these results using flow cytometry, which we used to monitor the release of fluorescent dextrans from isolated MOM vesicles. The dextran molecules were released gradually, in a manner constrained by pore size. However, the release rates were consistent over a range of dextran sizes (10-500 kDa). We concluded that the pores were not static but widened dramatically to release molecules of different sizes. Taken together, the data from cryo-EM and flow cytometry argue that Bax promotes MOMP by inducing the formation of large, growing pores through a mechanism involving membrane-curvature stress. © 2015 Gillies et al. Source

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