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French S.W.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bardag-Gorce F.,LA Biomedical | French B.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Li J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Oliva J.,LA Biomedical
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2011

Innate immunity factors such as conversion of the 26S proteasome to form the immunoproteasome and the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways are activated in chronic hepatitis induced by the carcinogenic drug DDC. Over time, preneoplastic hepatocyte phenotypes appear in the liver parenchyma. These changed hepatocytes expand in number because they have a growth advantage over normal hepatocytes when responding to chronic liver injury. The changed hepatocytes can be identified using immunofluorescent antibodies to preneoplastic cells e.g. FAT10/UbD, A2 macroglobulin, glutathione transpeptidase, alpha fetoprotein, glycipan 3, FAS, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The formation of the preneoplastic cells occurs concomitant with activation of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways and the transformation of the 26S proteasome to form the immunoproteasome. This transformation is in response to interferon stimulating response element on the promoter of the FAT10/UbD gene. NFκB, Erk, p38 and Jnk are also up regulated. Specific inhibitors block these responses in vitro in a mouse tumor cell line exposed to interferon gamma. Mallory-Denk bodies form in these preneoplastic cells, because of the depletion of the 26S proteasome due to formation of the immunoproteasome. Thus, MDB forming cells are also markers of the preneoplastic hepatocytes. The UbD positive preneoplastic cells regress when the liver injury induced chronic hepatitis subsides. When the drug DDC is refed to mice and chronic hepatitis is activated, the preneoplastic cell population expands and Mallory-Denk bodies rapidly reform. This response is remembered by the preneoplastic cells for at least four months indicating that an epigenetic cellular memory has formed in the preneoplastic cells. This proliferative response is prevented by feeding methyl donors such as S-adenosylmethionine or betaine. Drug feeding reduces the methylation of H 3 K4, 9, and 27 and this response is prevented by feeding the methyl donors. After 8 to 15months of drug withdrawal in mice the preneoplastic liver cells persist as single or small clusters of cells in the liver lobules. Multiple liver tumors form, some of which are hepatocellular carcinomas. The tumors immunostain positively for the same preneoplastic markers as the preneoplastic cells. Similar cells are identified in human cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma indicating the relevance of the drug model described here to the preneoplastic changes associated with human chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Masouminia M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Samadzadeh S.,LA Biomedical | Mendoza A.S.,University of California at Los Angeles | French B.A.,LA Biomedical | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2016

There are many homeostatic mechanisms for coping with stress conditions in cells, including autophagy. In many studies autophagy, as an intracellular pathway which degrades misfolded and damaged protein, and Mallory-Denk Body (MDB) formation have been shown to be protective mechanisms against stress such as alcoholic hepatitis. Alcohol has a significant role in alteration of lipid homeostasis, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxidase proliferator-activated receptors through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism. AMPK is one of the kinases that regulate autophagy through the dephosphorylation of ATG1. Activation of ATG1 (ULK kinases family) activates ATG6. These two activated proteins relocate to the site of initial autophagosome and activate the other downstream components of autophagocytosis. Many other proteins regulate autophagocytosis at the gene level. CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein) is one of the most important parts of stress-inducible transcription that encodes a ubiquitous transcription factor. In this report we measure the upregulation of the gene that are involved in autophagocytosis in liver biopsies of alcoholic hepatitis and NASH. Electron microscopy was used to document the presence of autophagosomes in the liver cells. Expression of AMPK1, ATG1, ATG6 and CHOP in ASH were significantly (p value < 0.05) upregulated in comparison to control. Electron microscopy findings of ASH confirmed the presence of autophagosomes, one of which contained a MDB, heretofore undescribed. Significant upregulations of AMPK-1, ATG-1, ATG-6, and CHOP, and uptrending of ATG-4, ATG-5, ATG-9, ATR, and ATM in ASH compared to normal control livers indicate active autophagocytosis in alcoholic hepatitis. © 2016 Source

Oliva J.,LA Biomedical | Zhong J.,LA Biomedical | Buslon V.S.,LA Biomedical | French S.W.,LA Biomedical
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2012

In recent years, methyl one-carbon metabolism has received a great deal of attention because the disruption of methyl balance in a variety of genetically modified mice is associated with the development of various forms of liver injury, namely fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, patients with liver disease often have an abnormal expression of key genes involved in methionine metabolism as well as elevated serum levels of methionine and homocysteine (Hcy). S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) has rapidly moved from being a methyl donor to a key metabolite that regulates hepatocyte proliferation, necrosis and differentiation. Biosynthesis of SAMe occurs in all mammalian cells as the first step in methionine catabolism in a reaction catalyzed by methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). Decreased hepatic SAMe biosynthesis is a consequence of numerous forms of chronic liver injury. In an animal model of chronic liver SAMe deficiency, the liver is predisposed to further injury and develops spontaneous steatohepatitis and HCC. SAMe treatment in experimental animal models of liver injury shows hepatoprotective properties. Meta-analyses also showed that it is effective in the treatment of patients with cholestatic liver diseases. We studied the survival of liver cells treated with SAMe and betaine using Hepa 1-6 and E47/C34 cell lines. We showed that exogenous SAMe decreased the number of Hepa 1-6 and E47/C34 cells, and increased the number of dead cells in vitro. Betaine had no significant effect on the number of surviving cells and the number of dead cells. The combination of both methyl donors significantly increased the survival of liver cells and reduced necrosis, compared to SAMe alone. This study showed the inhibition of the proliferation and increased necrosis in response to SAMe on liver cancer cell lines Hepa 1-6 and C34. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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