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Mahendradas P.,Superspeciality Eye Hospital and Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Shetty R.,Superspeciality Eye Hospital and Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Malathi J.,Superspeciality Eye Hospital and Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology | Madhavan H.N.,L and crobiology Research Center
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2010

We are reporting a case of bilateral Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis with chikungunya virus infection in the left eye. A 20-year-old female was presented with a past history of fever suggestive of chikungunya with bilateral Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis and complicated cataract. She had a tripod dendritic pattern of keratic precipitates by confocal microscopy in the left eye with a stippled pattern of keratic precipitates in both eyes. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in the aqueous humor detected 98 copies/ml of chikungunya virus RNA. The patient underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation in the left eye with a good visual outcome. This is the first report where the presence of chikungunya virus RNA has been associated with a case of bilateral Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis.

Gokhale V.V.,Medical Research Foundation | Therese K.L.,L and crobiology Research Center | Bagyalakshmi R.,L and crobiology Research Center | Biswas J.,Medical Research Foundation
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery | Year: 2014

We report a case of chronic low-grade endophthalmitis after cataract surgery presenting with recurrent episodes of severe anterior chamber reactions and hypopyon uveitis caused by Escherichia fergusonii, which was isolated from vitreous aspirate by polymerase chain reaction-based DNA sequencing. Polymerase chain reaction has emerged as an essential, powerful, and rapid laboratory diagnostic technique and a useful adjunct to the conventional gold standard. © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS.

Janani M.K.,L and crobiology Research Center | Malathi J.,L and crobiology Research Center | Madhavan H.N.,L and crobiology Research Center
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2012

Background & objectives: Though several viruses are responsible for conjunctivitis, but human adenovirus (HAdV) is by far the most common cause. Epidemic conjunctivitis causes morbidity and early detection of aetiological agent is essential in preventing spread of disease as some of serotypes of adenoviruses cause a severe form of conjunctivitis. This study was undertaken to identify the causative agent of conjunctivitis outbreak in Chennai in 2010. Methods: Conjunctival samples collected from 17 patients with conjunctivitis were subjected to virological investigations. Culture and PCR for detection of adenovirus and enterovirus were carried out. PCR positive products were further subjected for DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences of the hexons of isolates were analyzed by comparison with all 51 human adenovirus strains. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using DAMBE software. Results: Among 17 patients, seven were positive for adenovirus by PCR on the direct specimen, none was positive for enterovirus. Eleven of 30 conjunctival swabs showed cytopathic effect in HEp-2 cell line and were confirmed as HAdV by PCR. The DNA sequence data of the 11 isolates had equal percentage of homology with HAdV 6 and 2 on blast analysis. On phylogenetic analysis with GeneBank data of 51 adenovirus strains, 11 isolates from patients during the outbreak of conjunctivitis formed a separate clade indicating a new variant strain. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on phylogenetic analysis it was concluded that the recent conjunctivitis outbreak that occurred in Chennai was caused by a variant adenovirus strain.

Vimalin J.,L and crobiology Research Center | Gupta N.,Medical Research Foundation | Jambulingam M.,L and crobiology Research Center | Padmanabhan P.,Medical Research Foundation | Madhavan H.N.,L and crobiology Research Center
Cornea | Year: 2012

Purpose: To determine the effect of riboflavin-UV-A treatment on the corneal limbal epithelial cells during a corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) procedure. Methods: Thirty freshly enucleated human cadaveric eyeballs were subjected to a CXL procedure, mimicking the clinical protocol. During the UV-A exposure, one half of the limbus (sector A) was left unprotected, whereas the other half (sector B) was covered by a metal shield. Limbal biopsies from both sectors before and after the procedure were analyzed. Each strip of tissue was divided into 3 segments, for cell count of viable cells, for cultivation on human amniotic membrane (HAM), and for stem cell and differentiated corneal epithelial cell marker studies using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Compared with the cell count before CXL, there was a statistically significant drop in the mean number of viable cells after CXL in sector A but not in sector B. Biopsies from both sectors before CXL and from sector B after CXL showed good growth on HAM. Biopsies from sector A after CXL showed no growth on HAM. The putative stem cell marker ABCG2 was absent in all samples and p63 was absent in 3 of 10 samples taken from sector A after CXL. All markers were present in all samples from sector B after CXL. Conclusions: Riboflavin-UV-A treatment can result in damage to limbal epithelial cells, particularly the stem cells. Covering the limbal region with a metal shield effectively prevents this damage. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Moses S.,L and crobiology Research Center | Jambulingam M.,L and crobiology Research Center | Madhavan H.,L and crobiology Research Center
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2014

Introduction: Toll like receptors (TLRs) have been proven to play an important role in mounting the innate immune response in an infected host. The expression of TLRs against herpes simplex virus (HSV) have not been studied in retinitis. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to determine the same using the retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cell line. Materials and Methods: APRE cells cultured in vitro were challenged with HSV 1 and 2 standard strains and 20 other clinical isolates. The cells were observed for cytopathic changes. The cell culture harvest was subjected to RNA extraction using a Total RNA mini kit. The RNA was subjected to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the amplification of TLRs 3, 4 and 9 and GAPDH housekeeping gene. The amplified products were subjected to electrophoresis on a 2% agarose gel and viewed under a transilluminator. Results: TLR 3 and 4 were expressed by ARPE treated with all the 22 isolates. TLR 9 expression was seen in 16 of the 22 isolates. Bacterial contamination was ruled out by subjecting the harvests to PCR amplification of 16sRNA gene amplification of the eubacterial genome. Conclusions: The expression of TLR 4 has been reported for the first time in HSV infection. TLR 4 along with TLR 3 and 9 is responsible for the antiviral response in HSV infections.

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