Kyushu University , abbreviated to Kyudai , is a Japanese public university located in Fukuoka, Kyushu. It is one of Japan's National Seven Universities . The history of Kyushu University can be traced by medical schools of the feudal domains built in 1867, and is the largest public university in Kyushu.There are 1,292 foreign students enrolled in the University. It was chosen for the Global 30 university program, and has been selected to the top 13 global university project. Wikipedia.
Takemura T.,Kyushu University
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012
Global distributions and associated climate effects of atmospheric aerosols were simulated using a global aerosol climate model, SPRINTARS, from 1850 to the present day and projected forward to 2100. Aerosol emission inventories used by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) were applied to this study. Scenarios based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were used for the future projection. Aerosol loading in the atmosphere has already peaked and is now reducing in Europe and North America. However, in Asia where rapid economic growth is ongoing, aerosol loading is estimated to reach a maximum in the first half of this century. Atmospheric aerosols originating from the burning of biomass have maintained high loadings throughout the 21st century in Africa, according to the RCPs. Evolution of the adjusted forcing by direct and indirect aerosol effects over time generally correspond to the aerosol loading. The probable future pathways of global mean forcing differ based on the aerosol direct effect for different RCPs. Because aerosol forcing will be close to the preindustrial level by the end of the 21st century for all RCPs despite the continuous increases in greenhouse gases, global warming will be accelerated with reduced aerosol negative forcing. © 2012 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License.
Ohdo S.,Kyushu University
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2010
Mammalians circadian pacemaker resides in the paired suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and influences a multitude of biological processes, including the sleep-wake rhythm. Clock genes are the genes that control the circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. 24. h rhythm is demonstrated for the function of physiology and the pathophysiology of diseases. The effectiveness and toxicity of many drugs vary depending on dosing time. Such chronopharmacological phenomena are influenced by not only the pharmacodynamics but also pharmacokinetics of medications. The underlying mechanisms are associated with 24. h rhythms of biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes under the control of circadian clock. Thus, the knowledge of 24. h rhythm in the risk of disease plus evidence of 24. h rhythm dependencies of drug pharmacokinetics, effects, and safety constitutes the rationale for pharmacotherapy. Chronotherapy is especially relevant, when the risk and/or intensity of the symptoms of disease vary predictably over time as exemplified by allergic rhinitis, arthritis, asthma, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and peptic ulcer disease. Morning once-daily administration of corticosteroid tablet medications results in little adrenocortical suppression, while the same daily dose split into four equal administrations to coincide with daily meals and bedtime results in significant hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression. However, the drugs for several diseases are still given without regard to the time of day. Identification of a rhythmic marker for selecting dosing time will lead to improved progress and diffusion of chronopharmacotherapy. To monitor the rhythmic marker such as clock genes it may be useful to choose the most appropriate time of day for administration of drugs that may increase their therapeutic effects and/or reduce their side effects. Furthermore, to produce new rhythmicity by manipulating the conditions of living organs by using rhythmic administration of altered feeding schedules or several drugs appears to lead to the new concept of chronopharmacotherapy. Several drugs cause alterations in the 24. h rhythms of biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes. The alteration of rhythmicity is sometimes associated with therapeutic effects, or may lead to illness and altered homeostatic regulation. Attention should be paid to the alteration of biological clock and consider it an adverse effect, when it leads to altered regulation of the circadian system which is a serious problem affecting basic functioning of living organisms. One approach to increasing the efficiency of pharmacotherapy is administering drugs at times during which they are best tolerated. From viewpoints of pharmaceutics, the application of biological rhythm to pharmacotherapy may be accomplished by the appropriate timing of conventionally formulated tablets and capsules, and the special drug delivery system to synchronize drug concentrations to rhythms in disease activity. New technology for delivering medications precisely in a time-modulated fashion by bedside or ambulatory pumps is developing to manage human diseases. Therefore, we introduce an overview of the dosing time-dependent alterations in therapeutic outcome and safety of drug. The underlying mechanisms and usefulness are introduced from viewpoint of chronopharmacology and chronotherapy. © 2010.
Sakai Y.,Kyushu University
Blood | Year: 2013
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in protective immunity against viral infection and tumor progression, but they also contribute to rejection of bone marrow grafts via contact-dependent cytotoxicity. Ligation of activating NK receptors with their ligands expressed on target cells induces receptor clustering and actin reorganization at the interface and triggers polarized movement of lytic granules to the contact site. Although activation of the small GTPase Rac has been implicated in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, its precise role and the upstream regulator remain elusive. Here, we show that DOCK2, an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac, plays a key role in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that although DOCK2 deficiency in NK cells did not affect conjugate formation with target cells, DOCK2-deficienct NK cells failed to effectively kill leukemia cells in vitro and major histocompatibility complex class I-deficient bone marrow cells in vivo, regardless of the sorts of activating receptors. In DOCK2-deficient NK cells, NKG2D-mediated Rac activation was almost completely lost, resulting in a severe defect in the lytic synapse formation. Similar results were obtained when the Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity of DOCK2 was selectively abrogated. These results indicate that DOCK2-Rac axis controls NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity through the lytic synapse formation.
Hikasa H.,Kyushu University
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2013
The Wnt pathway is a major embryonic signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation, cell fate, and body-axis determination in vertebrate embryos. Soon after egg fertilization, Wnt pathway components play a role in microtubule-dependent dorsoventral axis specification. Later in embryogenesis, another conserved function of the pathway is to specify the anteroposterior axis. The dual role of Wnt signaling in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos is regulated at different developmental stages by distinct sets of Wnt target genes. This review highlights recent progress in the discrimination of different signaling branches and the identification of specific pathway targets during vertebrate axial development.
Katsuragi H.,Kyushu University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010
We investigate the impact of a free-falling water drop onto a granular layer. First, we constructed a phase diagram of crater shapes with two control parameters, impact speed and grain size. A low-speed impact makes a deeper cylindrical crater in a fluffy granular target. After high-speed impacts, we observed a convex bump higher than the initial surface level instead of a crater. The inner ring can be also observed in a medium impact speed regime. Quantitatively, we found a scaling law for a crater radius with a dimensionless number consisting of impact speed and density ratio between the bulk granular layer and water drop. This scaling demonstrates that the water drop deformation is crucial to understanding the crater morphology. © 2010 The American Physical Society.