Nagai T.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Naitoh M.,Kyushu Institute of Technology |
Shoji F.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University
Applied Materials Today | Year: 2017
The effect of thermal radiation from the substrate was theoretically investigated on the temperature of a nano-microsized particle levitating in a sheath of low-pressure reactive plasma. The fundamental equation for time variation of the particle temperature was given including the gain and loss terms in heat via the thermal radiation and the heat transfer through the particle–gas molecule collisions. Numerical integration of the equation led to the following results. The particle temperature increases linearly with time at first and then gradually approaches a maximum value. The maximum temperature depends on the substrate temperature and the material properties as well. Applying our result to the case of carbon particles observed in methane plasma, we propose that the particle temperature was about 2000 K for the substrate temperature of 1100 K and that the particle was in a viscoelastic phase of carbon onion aggregate. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Kojima H.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Kubo T.,Munakata City Office |
Kinoshita A.,National Association for the Promotion of Productive Seas
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013
The Munakata coastal area, characterized by its aesthetic landscapes is one of the case studies for promoting the development of local integrated coastal management (ICM) initiatives in Japan. The formulation of the Munakata ICM program and the implementation of two primary activities on resource use conflicts related to coastal tourism and recreational use are discussed in this paper. Results from a questionnaire survey on rules for coordinating and alleviating use-related conflicts are also presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kaneta M.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Nishikawa H.,Kyushu Institute of Technology |
Mizui M.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Guo F.,Qingdao Technological University
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology | Year: 2011
When an elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunction is subjected to pure impact, two types of oil entrapments can be generated; one is the central dimple and the other is the peripheral dimple. This article presents some numerical analyses to simulate laboratory experiments and study the influence of input parameters on the two types of oil entrapments. It has been found that the film profile (oil entrapment) in the central contact region is mainly determined by the loading speed at the initial stage but the film profile in the peripheral region is determined by the late stage of the loading. The central dimple shifts to the peripheral dimple as the loading speed increases. The amount of oil entrapped in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication conjunction increases as the loading speed and the maximum load increase. The results also indicated that a critical viscosity exists in the formation of the oil entrapment. The film thickness obtained by numerical simulations was well correlated with the experimental results.
Nishida M.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Yoshimitsu H.,Sojo University
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2011
Three new 15-hydroxy-trinor type (1-3), a new tetranor type (4), and two new 3,15,23,24-tetrahydroxy-16-oxo type cycloartane glycosides (5, 6) were isolated from the rhizome of Cimicifuga heracleifolia KOMAROV. Their structures were determined by the use of the 2D-NMR techniques and chemical evidence. © 2011 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.
Goto H.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Morris J.G.,Nottingham Trent University |
Nevill M.E.,Nottingham Trent University
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2015
Abstract: This study examined (1) the distances and speeds covered during match play for U11 to U16 English Premier League Academy players, (2) the differences in match performance between retained and released players and (3) the effect of calculating speed zones in different ways when analysing match performance. Eighty-one academy outfield players (10–16 years old), competing in 11-a-side matches, were analysed using a 1-Hz global positioning system with three speed zones (absolute, squad and individual). Pitch dimensions were 78.7 × 54.1 m (U11 and U12), 88.0 × 64.2 m (U13) and 100.8 × 68.2 m (U14–U16). Match durations were 20 min × 2 + 15 min × 2 or 25 min × 3 (U11), 25 min × 3 (U12 and U13) and 40 min × 2 (U14–U16). The matches were part of the regular series of inter-academy matches between Premier League Academies during a season. Completion of at least a half of the duration of a match in two separate matches (mean ± s = 3.1 ± 0.8 matches; range: 2–4 matches) was the criterion for inclusion in the study. Total match running distance increased with age from ~5700 (U11) to ~6700 m · h−1 (U15) (P < 0.01). Using the absolute speed zones, it was possible to discern differences in high-intensity (>6.0 m · s−1) distance covered with age (U11: 29 m · h−1, U16: 164 m · h−1, P < 0.01). Using the squad speed zones, it was possible to discern differences between retained and released players in the U11/U12s (moderate-speed running) and in the U15/U16s (walking, jogging and low-speed running) (P < 0.01). Thus, total and high-intensity running distances increase with age, and walking, jogging, low-speed running and moderate-speed running distances are greater in retained than in released players and these differences are best identified through the use of absolute and squad speed zones, respectively. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Kaneta M.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Yang P.,Qingdao Technological University
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science | Year: 2010
Isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory has brought the improvement in function, performance, and durability of machine elements with concentrated contacts. The main reason is that the theory can evaluate the lubrication characteristics, such as film thickness and pressure distributions, from the shape and size of contacting materials, lubricant viscosity at the entrance to the EHL conjunction, entrainment velocity, equivalent elastic modulus, and applied load. However, in order to estimate the film thickness and pressure distributions more accurately and to make clear the traction behaviour based on lubricant rheology, it is necessary to establish thermalEHLtheory, which incorporates heat generation in the fluidfilmand heat transfer in the machine system on the foundation of isothermal EHL theory.The thermal conductivity of contact materials controls temperature in the fluid film and consequently the lubricant viscosity. Therefore, the EHL characteristics are affected remarkably by the thermal conductivity of contact materials. In this article, the effects of the thermal conductivity of contacting materials on the film thickness, pressure, and traction coefficient are described.
Ono T.,Waseda University |
Fujii H.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University
Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine | Year: 2013
Hamstring muscles form a multi-articular muscle group that crosses the hip and knee joints. It has been said that the imbalance in the hamstrings: quadriceps strength ratio (H:Q ratio) due to weaker hamstring muscles results in an increased susceptibility to hamstring strains and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Four different hamstrings trainings, Hip Lift (HL), Single-leg Deadlift (DL), Leg Curl (LC), and Nordic Hamstrings (NH), were conducted and compared in the effect on conventional H:Q ratio. After the training of two months, significant increase of hip extension torque and H:Q ratios in the hip joint were found in the DL group, and significant increase of knee flexion torque and H:Q ratios in the knee joint were found in the LC group (P < 0.05). As a conclusion, DL and LC training could be practical for hamstrings injury prevention.
Honda H.,Kobe University |
Honda H.,RIKEN |
Nagai T.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University
Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2015
Morphogenesis of multi-cellular organisms occurs through cell behaviours within a cell aggregate. Cell behaviours have been described using cell models involving equations of motion for cells. Cells in cell models construct shapes of the cell aggregate by themselves. Here, a history of cell models, the cell centre model and the vertex cell model, which we have constructed, are described. Furthermore, the application of these cell models is explained in detail. These cell models have been applied to transformation of cell aggregates to become spherical, formation of mammalian blastocysts and cell intercalation in elongating tissues. These are all elemental processes of morphogenesis and take place in succession during the whole developmental process. A chain of successive elemental processes leads to morphogenesis. Finally, we highlight that cell models are indispensable to understand the process whereby genes direct biological shapes. © 2014 The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.
Matsuura R.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Arimitsu T.,Hokkaido University |
Yunoki T.,Hokkaido University |
Yano T.,Hokkaido University
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011
Objectives To determine the effects of resistive load on performance and surface electromyogram (SEMG) activity during repeated cycling sprints (RCS) on a nonisokinetic cycle ergometer. Methods Participants performed two RCS tests (ten 10-second cycling sprints) interspersed with both 30- and 360-second recovery periods under light (RCS L) and heavy load conditions (RCS H) in a random counterbalanced order. Recovery periods of 360 seconds were set before the fifth and ninth sprints. Results In the 9th and 10th sprints, the values of peak power output divided by body mass were significantly higher in RCS H than in RCSL. Changes in blood lactate concentration were not different between the two conditions. In RCS L, the root mean square calculated from the SEMG was significantly lower in the ninth sprint than in the first sprint, but there were no differences between the root mean square in the first sprint and that in the ninth sprint in RCS H. Conclusions During RCS on a non-isokinetic cycle ergometer, performance and SEMG activity are influenced by resistive load. It is thought that regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment by the central nervous system is associated with fatigue during RCS with a light resistive load.
Kaneta M.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Guo F.,Qingdao Technological University |
Wang J.,Qingdao Technological University
Journal of Tribology | Year: 2011
The influences of a single bump (dent) or regularly arranged bumps (dents) on the film thickness in impact circular elasthydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) contacts lubricated with a Newtonian lubricant are investigated numerically. It has been found that the deformation of the bump or the dent at the contact center depends mainly on the macroscopic pressure distribution produced between the smooth surfaces by impact. The macroscopic pressure distribution is influenced by the initial impact gap, the loading speed, and the mass of the moving body. The central bump or dent hardly deforms when the initial impact gap or the base radius of the bump or dent is small. When the initial impact gap is large and the radius of the base of the central bump is not so small, the oil is entrapped in the bump, and micro-dimple is formed. The deformation of noncentral bumps or dents is mainly influenced by the film profile under conditions of smooth surfaces. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.