Nagai T.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Naitoh M.,Kyushu Institute of Technology |
Shoji F.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University
Applied Materials Today | Year: 2017
The effect of thermal radiation from the substrate was theoretically investigated on the temperature of a nano-microsized particle levitating in a sheath of low-pressure reactive plasma. The fundamental equation for time variation of the particle temperature was given including the gain and loss terms in heat via the thermal radiation and the heat transfer through the particle–gas molecule collisions. Numerical integration of the equation led to the following results. The particle temperature increases linearly with time at first and then gradually approaches a maximum value. The maximum temperature depends on the substrate temperature and the material properties as well. Applying our result to the case of carbon particles observed in methane plasma, we propose that the particle temperature was about 2000 K for the substrate temperature of 1100 K and that the particle was in a viscoelastic phase of carbon onion aggregate. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Oshita K.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Yano S.,Kobe University
Journal of physiological anthropology | Year: 2016
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect and after-effect of lightly touching a real cane on postural sway and ankle muscle activity.METHOD: Participants performed a single-leg stance (SLS) task with their eyes closed for 30 s under three tasks. In the first and third tasks, the participants performed a normal SLS. In the second task, the participants in light-grip group (n = 11) were asked to perform SLS while lightly gripping a cane with their hand. The participants in depend-on-cane group (n = 11) were asked to support their own body with a cane.RESULTS: Postural sway during a single-leg stance is decreased by light gripping and is accompanied by decreased co-contraction of the ankle-joint muscles. If a participant lightly gripped a cane, postural sway decreased not only during the light gripping but also immediately after the withdrawal of the cane. Although postural sway and co-contraction in the depend-on-cane group were significantly decreased during the second task compared to the first task, they were not significantly changed between the first and third tasks.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that lightly gripped cane provides a haptic sensory cue that can be used to assist postural control mechanisms due to enhanced perception of self-motion through sensory interaction with the environment through the cane. Further, the haptic sensory cue during postural maintenance might be promoted as a practice effect of postural control.
Oshita K.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Yano S.,Kobe University
Perceptual and Motor Skills | Year: 2011
The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of force fluctuation during isometric knee extension at low and moderate intensities. 11 healthy men (M age = 21 yr., SD = 1) performed unilateral force matching tasks; sustained isometric knee extension at 20% and 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During the tasks, a mechanomyogram was measured by an accelerometer arrangement placed on the vastus lateralis. Although force fluctuation was not significantly different between the two legs at 20% MVC, it was higher in the left (weaker) leg than in the right (stronger) leg at 30% MVC. A significant difference in mean power frequency of the mechanomyographic signal between the two legs was also observed only at 30% MVC. These results suggest that the asymmetry of force fluctuation during isometric knee extension was not statistically significant at low intensity; however, it was significant at moderate intensity. These differences in force fluctuation between intensities might be influenced by different motor-unit firing rates in active muscle. © Perceptual and Motor Skills 2011.
Kojima H.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Kubo T.,Munakata City Office |
Kinoshita A.,National Association for the Promotion of Productive Seas
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013
The Munakata coastal area, characterized by its aesthetic landscapes is one of the case studies for promoting the development of local integrated coastal management (ICM) initiatives in Japan. The formulation of the Munakata ICM program and the implementation of two primary activities on resource use conflicts related to coastal tourism and recreational use are discussed in this paper. Results from a questionnaire survey on rules for coordinating and alleviating use-related conflicts are also presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Nishida M.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Yoshimitsu H.,Sojo University
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2011
Three new 15-hydroxy-trinor type (1-3), a new tetranor type (4), and two new 3,15,23,24-tetrahydroxy-16-oxo type cycloartane glycosides (5, 6) were isolated from the rhizome of Cimicifuga heracleifolia KOMAROV. Their structures were determined by the use of the 2D-NMR techniques and chemical evidence. © 2011 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.
Goto H.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Morris J.G.,Nottingham Trent University |
Nevill M.E.,Nottingham Trent University
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2015
Abstract: This study examined (1) the distances and speeds covered during match play for U11 to U16 English Premier League Academy players, (2) the differences in match performance between retained and released players and (3) the effect of calculating speed zones in different ways when analysing match performance. Eighty-one academy outfield players (10–16 years old), competing in 11-a-side matches, were analysed using a 1-Hz global positioning system with three speed zones (absolute, squad and individual). Pitch dimensions were 78.7 × 54.1 m (U11 and U12), 88.0 × 64.2 m (U13) and 100.8 × 68.2 m (U14–U16). Match durations were 20 min × 2 + 15 min × 2 or 25 min × 3 (U11), 25 min × 3 (U12 and U13) and 40 min × 2 (U14–U16). The matches were part of the regular series of inter-academy matches between Premier League Academies during a season. Completion of at least a half of the duration of a match in two separate matches (mean ± s = 3.1 ± 0.8 matches; range: 2–4 matches) was the criterion for inclusion in the study. Total match running distance increased with age from ~5700 (U11) to ~6700 m · h−1 (U15) (P < 0.01). Using the absolute speed zones, it was possible to discern differences in high-intensity (>6.0 m · s−1) distance covered with age (U11: 29 m · h−1, U16: 164 m · h−1, P < 0.01). Using the squad speed zones, it was possible to discern differences between retained and released players in the U11/U12s (moderate-speed running) and in the U15/U16s (walking, jogging and low-speed running) (P < 0.01). Thus, total and high-intensity running distances increase with age, and walking, jogging, low-speed running and moderate-speed running distances are greater in retained than in released players and these differences are best identified through the use of absolute and squad speed zones, respectively. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Kaneta M.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Yang P.,Qingdao Technological University
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science | Year: 2010
Isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory has brought the improvement in function, performance, and durability of machine elements with concentrated contacts. The main reason is that the theory can evaluate the lubrication characteristics, such as film thickness and pressure distributions, from the shape and size of contacting materials, lubricant viscosity at the entrance to the EHL conjunction, entrainment velocity, equivalent elastic modulus, and applied load. However, in order to estimate the film thickness and pressure distributions more accurately and to make clear the traction behaviour based on lubricant rheology, it is necessary to establish thermalEHLtheory, which incorporates heat generation in the fluidfilmand heat transfer in the machine system on the foundation of isothermal EHL theory.The thermal conductivity of contact materials controls temperature in the fluid film and consequently the lubricant viscosity. Therefore, the EHL characteristics are affected remarkably by the thermal conductivity of contact materials. In this article, the effects of the thermal conductivity of contacting materials on the film thickness, pressure, and traction coefficient are described.
Honda H.,Kobe University |
Honda H.,RIKEN |
Nagai T.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University
Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2015
Morphogenesis of multi-cellular organisms occurs through cell behaviours within a cell aggregate. Cell behaviours have been described using cell models involving equations of motion for cells. Cells in cell models construct shapes of the cell aggregate by themselves. Here, a history of cell models, the cell centre model and the vertex cell model, which we have constructed, are described. Furthermore, the application of these cell models is explained in detail. These cell models have been applied to transformation of cell aggregates to become spherical, formation of mammalian blastocysts and cell intercalation in elongating tissues. These are all elemental processes of morphogenesis and take place in succession during the whole developmental process. A chain of successive elemental processes leads to morphogenesis. Finally, we highlight that cell models are indispensable to understand the process whereby genes direct biological shapes. © 2014 The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.
Matsuura R.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Arimitsu T.,Hokkaido University |
Yunoki T.,Hokkaido University |
Yano T.,Hokkaido University
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011
Objectives To determine the effects of resistive load on performance and surface electromyogram (SEMG) activity during repeated cycling sprints (RCS) on a nonisokinetic cycle ergometer. Methods Participants performed two RCS tests (ten 10-second cycling sprints) interspersed with both 30- and 360-second recovery periods under light (RCS L) and heavy load conditions (RCS H) in a random counterbalanced order. Recovery periods of 360 seconds were set before the fifth and ninth sprints. Results In the 9th and 10th sprints, the values of peak power output divided by body mass were significantly higher in RCS H than in RCSL. Changes in blood lactate concentration were not different between the two conditions. In RCS L, the root mean square calculated from the SEMG was significantly lower in the ninth sprint than in the first sprint, but there were no differences between the root mean square in the first sprint and that in the ninth sprint in RCS H. Conclusions During RCS on a non-isokinetic cycle ergometer, performance and SEMG activity are influenced by resistive load. It is thought that regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment by the central nervous system is associated with fatigue during RCS with a light resistive load.
Kaneta M.,Kyushu Kyoritsu University |
Guo F.,Qingdao Technological University |
Wang J.,Qingdao Technological University
Journal of Tribology | Year: 2011
The influences of a single bump (dent) or regularly arranged bumps (dents) on the film thickness in impact circular elasthydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) contacts lubricated with a Newtonian lubricant are investigated numerically. It has been found that the deformation of the bump or the dent at the contact center depends mainly on the macroscopic pressure distribution produced between the smooth surfaces by impact. The macroscopic pressure distribution is influenced by the initial impact gap, the loading speed, and the mass of the moving body. The central bump or dent hardly deforms when the initial impact gap or the base radius of the bump or dent is small. When the initial impact gap is large and the radius of the base of the central bump is not so small, the oil is entrapped in the bump, and micro-dimple is formed. The deformation of noncentral bumps or dents is mainly influenced by the film profile under conditions of smooth surfaces. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.