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Daegu, South Korea

Kyungpook National University is one of the most prestigious Korean national universities along with Seoul National University, and one of the ten Flagship Korean National Universities, representing the Gyeongbuk Province. It is located in the Daegu Metropolitan City, which is the capital city of the Gyeongbuk Province, South Korea. The University was originally founded as the Daegu Dong-in Hospital in 1907, and officially established in September 1946, merging and succeeding the former three colleges of Daegu Teacher's College, Daegu Agricultural College, and Daegu Medical College, although its history dates back to 1906. In 2008, KNU acquired Sangju National University as a new campus of the KNU system, which is now designated as "KNU Sangju", becoming one of the largest campus universities in South Korea. In 2012, KNU opened the KNU Global Plaza for a professional engagement, such as knowledge / technology exchange between KNU and industry, and for domestic and international events / conferences. It has 17 floors, and its office rooms and facilities on 8 to 15th floors are currently occupied by more than 50 research institutes and centres. Wikipedia.

Bae J.-S.,Kyungpook National University
Blood | Year: 2011

A pathogenic role for high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been postulated in severe sepsis. Activated protein C (APC) is the only drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for severe sepsis; however, its effect on HMGB1 signaling has never been investigated. Here, we monitored the effect of APC on the lipopolysaccharide-mediated release of HMGB1 and the HMGB1-mediated modulation of proinflammatory responses in HUVECs. APC potently inhibited the release of HMGB1 and down-regulated the adhesion of the monocytic cell line, THP-1, to HMGB1-activated endothelial cells. HMGB1 up-regulated proinflammatory responses by interacting with 3 pathogen-related pattern recognition receptors: TLR2 and TLR4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products.APC not only inhibited HMGB1 release but also down-regulated the cell surface expression of all 3 HMGB1 receptors in endothelial cells. The protective effects of APC were mediated through endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). Interestingly, a thrombin derivative containing the Gla-domain of APC recapitulated all protective effects of APC with a 20- to 50-fold higher efficacy. These results suggest that the EPCR- and PAR-1 -dependent protective effects of APC in severe sepsis may partially be mediated through the inhibition of HMGB1 signaling and that the chimeric thrombin mutant has potential therapeutic utility for severe sepsis. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Cisplatin is used widely for treatment of a variety of cancer diseases. Recently, however, the use of cisplatin is restricted because of its adverse effects such as hepatotoxicity. There is no study with current proteomics technology to evaluate cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, even if some studies have reported on the hepatotoxicity. In this study, proteomic as well as genomic analyses have been used for identification of proteins and genes that respond to cisplatin treatment in rat primary hepatocytes. To investigate the hepatotoxic effects of cisplatin, rat primary hepatocytes were treated with an IC(20) concentration for 24 h. From proteomic analysis based on label-free quantitation strategy, cisplatin induced 76 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated proteins among 325 distinct proteins. In the mRNA level, genomic analysis revealed 72 up-regulated and 385 down-regulated genes in the cisplatin-treated group. Based on these two analyses, 19 pathways were commonly altered, whereas seven pathways were identified only by proteomic analysis, and 19 pathways were identified only by genomic analysis. Overall, this study explained the mechanism of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity with two points of view: well known pathways including drug metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and glycolysis/TCA cycle and little known pathways including urea cycle and inflammation metabolism, for hepatotoxicity of other toxic agents. Up-regulated proteins detected by proteomic analysis in the cisplatin-treated group: FBP1 (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 1), FASN (fatty acid synthase), CAT (catalase), PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin-1), HSPD1 (60-kDa heat shock protein), MDH2 (malate dehydrogenase 2), and ARG1 (arginase 1), and also down-regulated proteins in the cisplatin-treated group: TPM1 (tropomyosin 1), TPM3 (tropomyosin 3), and CTSB (cathepsin B), were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In addition, up-regulated mRNAs detected by microarray analysis in the cisplatin-treated group: GSTA2, GSTT2, YC2, TXNRD1, CYP2E1, CYP2C13, CYP2D1, ALDH17, ARG1, ARG2, and IL-6, and also down-regulated mRNAs: CYP2C12, CYP26B1, TPM1, and TPM3, were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. In case of PRDX1, FASN, and ARG1, they were further confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. Through the integrated proteomic and genomic approaches, the present study provides the first pathway map related to cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, which may provide new insight into the mechanism of hepatotoxicity. Source

Ahn C.,Kyungpook National University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

For the N = 4 superconformal coset theory described by SU(N+2)/SU(N) (that contains a Wolf space) with N = 3, the N = 2 WZW affine current algebra with constraints is obtained. The 16 generators of the large N = 4 linear superconformal algebra are described by those WZW affine currents explicitly. By factoring out four spin- 1 2 currents and the spin-1 current from these 16 generators, the remaining 11 generators (spin-2 current, four spin- 3 2 currents, and six spin-1 currents) corresponding to the large N = 4 nonlinear superconformal algebra are obtained. Based on the recent work by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar on the large N = 4 holography, the extra 16 currents, with spin contents (1, 3/2, 3/2 2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), and (2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) described in terms of N = 2 multiplets, are obtained and realized by the WZW affine currents. As a first step towards N = 4 W algebra (which is NOT known so far), the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the above 11 currents and these extra 16 higher spin currents are found explicitly. It turns out that the composite fields with definite U(1) charges, made of above (11 + 16) currents (which commute with the Wolf space subgroup SU(N = 3) × SU(2) × U(1) currents), occur in the right hand sides of these OPEs. Open Access, © 2014 The Authors. Source

Bowles S.,Santa Fe Institute | Choi J.-K.,Kyungpook National University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

The advent of farming around 12 millennia ago was a cultural as well as technological revolution, requiring a new systemof property rights. Among mobile hunter-gatherers during the late Pleistocene, food was almost certainly widely shared as it was acquired. If a harvested crop or the meat of a domesticated animal were to have been distributed to other group members, a late Pleistocene would-be farmer would have had little incentive to engage in the required investments in clearing, cultivation, animal tending, and storage. However, the new property rights that farming required-secure individual claims to the products of one's labor-were infeasible because most of the mobile and dispersed resources of a forager economy could not cost-effectively be delimited and defended. The resulting chicken-and-egg puzzle might be resolved if farming had been much more productive than foraging, but initially it was not. Our model and simulations explain how, despite being an unlikely event, farming and a new system of farming-friendly property rights nonetheless jointly emerged when they did. This Holocene revolution was not sparked by a superior technology. It occurred because possession of the wealth of farmers-crops, dwellings, and animals-could be unambiguously demarcated and defended. This facilitated the spread of new property rights that were advantageous to the groups adopting them. Our results thus challenge unicausal models of historical dynamics driven by advances in technology, population pressure, or other exogenous changes. Our approach may be applied to other technological and institutional revolutions such as the 18th- and 19th-century industrial revolution and the information revolution today. Source

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implication of findings of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity on pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast.METHODS: One hundred and twenty-three female IDC patients who underwent pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) scans were retrospectively evaluated in this study. The heterogeneity factor (HF) defined as the derivative (dV/dT) of a volume threshold function from 40% to 80%, was computed for each primary tumor. Other metabolic PET parameters (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax], metabolic tumor volume [MTV], and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were measured. The HF was compared with clinicopathologic factors and other PET parameters. Univariate and multivariate analyses for the overall survival (OS) were performed.RESULTS: The HF ranged from 0.02 to 6.72 (mean, 0.35 ± 0.82) and significantly correlated with MTV (r = 0.955; p < 0.0001) and TLG (r = 0.354; p = 0.0001). The HF was significantly higher (implying more heterogeneity) in tumors with higher T and N stages. The optimal cut-off values for the OS determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were 0.34 for the HF, 5.6 for SUVmax, 8.55 cm(3) for MTV, and 14.43 for TLG. The OS rate among the 123 patients was 86.2%. T stage (1, 2 vs. 3, 4), N stage (0, 1 vs. 2, 3), M stage (0 vs. 1), ER status (+ vs. -), SUVmax (≤ 5.6 vs. > 5.6), MTV (≤ 8.55 cm(3) vs. > 8.55 cm(3)), TLG (≤ 14.43 vs. > 14.43), and HF (< 0.34 vs. ≥ 0.34) affected the OS on univariate analysis. After adjustment for the effects of TNM stage and ER status, the HF and MTV were significant predictors of OS. Among the PET parameters, the best prognostic factor for OS was the HF.CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity correlated closely with the MTV and significantly affected the OS in IDC patients. The HF may act as a robust surrogate marker for the prediction of OS in IDC patients. Source

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