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Lee J.J.,Kyungpook National University | Jo S.A.,Dankook University | Park J.H.,Jeju National University | Lee S.B.,Dankook University | And 10 more authors.
Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders | Year: 2012

The potential association between choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) polymorphism and the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been controversial. We examined the main effect of CHAT polymorphism and its interaction with apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism in the development of AD in a well-powered elderly Korean sample. We analyzed CHAT 2384G>A polymorphism and APOE polymorphism among 736 Korean patients with probable AD and 1386 nondemented Korean controls. We tested the association between AD and CHAT genotype using a logistic regression model. In addition, we used generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction to investigate the interaction between CHAT and APOE with regard to the risk of AD. The CHAT A allele was associated with AD risk in a dose-dependent manner (odds ratio=1.40, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.85, P=0.018 for heterozygotes; and odds ratio=3.92, 95% confidence interval=1.78-8.58, P=0.001 for homozygotes). The generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction approach identified a significant gene-gene interaction between CHAT and APOE (Balanced accuracy score=0.647, P=0.001). The CHAT A/A genotype was associated with earlier onset of AD (F=5.070, df=2, P=0.007). The CHAT A allele was associated with AD risk in a dose-dependent manner, and its interaction with the APOE ε4 allele was significant with regard to the development of AD. The CHAT A allele was also associated with earlier onset and possibly accelerated progression of AD. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kim K.W.,Seoul National University | Han S.B.,Seoul National University | Han E.R.,Seoul National University | Woo S.J.,Seoul National University | And 3 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2011

Purpose. A population-based cross-sectional study to investigate the association between depression and dry eye disease (DED) in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods. The subjects were 657 Korean elders ≥ 65 years of age randomly selected from an official household registration database in Yongin, Korea. DED symptoms were assessed using the six-item Dry Eye Questionnaire. DED signs were evaluated using the Schirmer test, fluorescein stain score, tear film break-up time (BUT). Depression was assessed using the Korean version of the Short Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS-K). The association between DED and depression was evaluated using logistic linear analyses. Results. The SGDS-K score correlated with the number of positive responses in the Dry Eye Questionnaire (r = 0.229, P < 0.001), but not with tear film break-up time (r = 0.041, P = 0.139) or Schirmer test score (r = 0.048, P = 0.642). In the binary logistic regression model, female sex (P = 0.014), residence in urban areas (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), and Schirmer score of ≤5 mm (P = 0.035) were associated with the risk of DED. Depression was associated with the risk of DED (P < 0.001) in the patients with Schirmer score > 5 mm but not in those with Schirmer score ≤ 5 mm (P = 0.290). Conclusions. Depression was associated with DED symptoms in subjects with normal or mildly reduced tear production. © 2011 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Jhoo J.H.,Kangwon National University | Lee D.Y.,Seoul National University | Choo I.H.,Seoul National University | Seo E.H.,Seoul National University | And 7 more authors.
Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging | Year: 2010

This study aimed to compare the discrimination accuracy of hippocampal volume (HC-Vol), parahippocampal cingulum fractional anisotropy (PHC-FA), hippocampal glucose metabolism (HC-Glu), and any combination of the three measurements among normal control (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three-dimensional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and FDG-PET were applied to age- and gender-matched 17 NC, 17 MCI, and 17 mild AD patients. Subjects also underwent a neuropsychological test battery including three verbal episodic memory tests. Logistic regression analyses were systematically conducted to select the best model for between-group discrimination. PHC-FA plus HC-Vol model, HC-Glu only model, and the model combining all three modalities were finally chosen for NC vs. MCI (discrimination accuracy: 79.4%), MCI vs. AD (73.5%), and NC vs. AD discrimination (94.1%), respectively. All the three imaging measures also showed significant correlation with all three episodic memory tests. These findings support that each imaging measure, respectively, and their combination have a stage-specific potential as a useful neuroimaging marker for detection and progression monitoring of early stage of AD. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Chang J.S.,Seoul National University | Chi Y.K.,Seoul National University | Han J.W.,Seoul National University | Kim T.H.,Seoul National University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2013

Decreased semantic memory has been suggested as an early sign in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to investigate qualitative differences in semantic network between AD patients and healthy community-dwelling elderly controls. Category fluency test (animal) was administered to 416 AD patients and 339 controls. Mini-Mental State Examination was administered to evaluate global cognition. Patterns of semantic organization were compared between the two groups using hierarchical clustering (HC) and multidimensional scaling (MDS). In HC analysis, whereas a logically organized semantic structure was observed in the control group with an elaborate use of general knowledge, the semantic structure of the patient group was not interpretable. In MDS mapping, two dimensions of domesticity and size were identified in the control group. The MDS map of AD patients showed mixed features of perception and emotion. Knowledge-based semantic associations may be impaired in AD patients, which can add an extra dimension to cognitive impairments in AD patients regardless of quantitative facets of cognitive dysfunction. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Kim J.W.,Hallym University | Lee D.Y.,Seoul National University | Seo E.H.,Seoul National University | Sohn B.K.,Seoul National University | And 8 more authors.
Psychiatry Investigation | Year: 2014

Objective This study aimed to investigate whether the supplementation of Verbal Fluency: Animal category test (VF) performance can improve the screening ability of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia and their major subtypes. Methods Six hundred fifty-five cognitively normal (CN), 366 MCI [282 amnestic MCI (aMCI); 84 non-amnestic MCI (naMCI)] and 494 dementia [346 Alzheimer's disease (AD); and 148 non-Alzheimer's disease dementia (NAD)] individuals living in the community were included (all aged 50 years and older) in the study. Results The VF-supplemented MMSE (MMSE+VF) score had a significantly better screening ability for MCI, dementia and overall cognitive impairment (MCI plus dementia) than the MMSE raw score alone. MMSE+VF showed a significantly better ability than MMSE for both MCI subtypes, i.e., aMCI and naMCI. In the case of dementia subtypes, MMSE+VF was better than the MMSE alone for NAD screening, but not for AD screening. Conclusion The results support the usefulness of VF-supplementation to improve the screening performance of MMSE for MCI and NAD. © 2014 Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.

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