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Kim S.-H.,Seoul National University | Park S.-H.,Seoul National University | Kim H.-J.,Kyungdong University | Kim J.-S.,Seoul National University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2015

Isolated vestibular syndrome may occur all along the vestibular pathways from the peripheral labyrinth to the brain. By virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging, however, diagnosis of isolated central vestibulopathy is increasing. Here, we review five distinct syndromes of isolated central vestibular syndrome from lesions restricted to the vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the flocculus, the tonsil, and the nodulus, and introduce a new vestibular syndrome from isolated involvement of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreased responses to head impulses do not exclude a central lesion as a cause of isolated vestibular syndrome. Brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be falsely negative during the acute phase in patients with isolated vestibular syndrome because of a stroke. Central signs should be sought carefully in patients with isolated vertigo, even when the patients show the features of peripheral vestibulopathy and negative MRIs. Recognition of these isolated central vestibular syndromes would aid in defining the lesions responsible for various vestibular manifestations in central vestibulopathy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

Lee J.-H.,Kyungdong University | Kim S.-G.,Daegu University
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2015

The study described here investigated the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) onfunctional recovery and neurotrophin-3 expression in the spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Forty-five 8-wk-old rats were used and randomly divided into three groups: An experimental group, a control group and a sham group. The experimental group received ESWT after the nerve-crushing damage. The sciatic functional index and Dartfish Software were used to determine the effect of sciatic nerve damage on functional changes. A 1-cm length of spinal cord encompassing the L4-6 level was removed for Western blot analysis. The sciatic functional index significantly changed in both the ESWT and control groups after impairment. In the time course evaluation of the ankle angle in the toe off, the ESWT group had statistically significant increases from day 21 onward. There was a significant difference in neurotrophin-3 expression between the groups on days 1, 7 and 14 after impairment. Early application of ESWT increased the expression of neurotrophin-3 andneurotrophin-3 mRNA, and daily therapy facilitated the activity of macrophages and Schwann cells, which affect the survival and regeneration of neurons. © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Source

Choi N.,Kyungdong University
International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology | Year: 2015

This study investigated the caring effect of hand massage using aroma essential oil and music therapy on an anxiety and sleeping for the 72 elderly comprising of groups I (24 elderly) and II (25) and a control group (23) living in the sanatorium. The group I was given with hand massage using aroma essential oil and music therapy at the same time twice a week, for 4 weeks, while group II was with only hand massage using aroma essential oil and the control group was with none. Despite no difference between beforehand between group I and II, the average anxiety scores (AAS) of the group I has statistically significantly reduced; AAS of the group I has reduced by 4 from beforehand 53 to afterward 49, while group II by 1 from 52 to 51. However, there was no significant difference in improvement in sleeping among groups. This study demonstrates that non-medicated, hand massage using aroma essential oil coupled with music therapy can be effective for relieving the anxiety of the elderly living in the sanatorium. © 2015 SERSC. Source

Kim S.-G.,Daegu University | Lee J.-H.,Kyungdong University
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2015

This study aimed to investigate the effect of horse riding simulation (HRS) on balance and trunk muscle activation as well as to provide evidence of the therapeutic benefits of the exercise. Thirty elderly subjects were recruited from a medical care hospital and randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group performed the HRS exercise for 20. min, 5 times a week, for 8 weeks, and conventional therapy was also provided as usual. The muscle activation and limits of stability (LOS) were measured. The LOS significantly increased in the HRS group (p< 0.05) but not in the control group (p> 0.05). The activation of all muscles significantly increased in the HRS group. However, in the control group, the muscle activations of the lateral low-back (external oblique and quadratus lumborum) and gluteus medius (GM) significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in other muscles. After the intervention, the LOS and all muscle activations significantly increased in the HRS group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the HRS exercise is effective for reducing the overall risk of falling in the elderly. Thus, it is believed that horse riding exercise would help to increase dynamic stability and to prevent elderly people from falling. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Choi J.-Y.,Korea University | Kim J.H.,Korea University | Kim H.J.,Kyungdong University | Glasauer S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kim J.S.,Seoul National University
Neurology | Year: 2015

Objective: The diagnosis of central paroxysmal positional nystagmus (CPPN) is challenging, and the mechanisms require further elucidation. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and mechanisms of CPPN. Methods: Seventeen patients with CPPN were subjected to analyses of their clinical findings, MRI lesions, and oculographic data on spontaneous and positional nystagmus. Results: The direction of CPPN was mostly aligned with that of the head motion during the positioning, and 3 types of CPPN were identified: downbeat nystagmus on straight-head hanging, upbeat nystagmus on uprighting, and apogeotropic nystagmus during supine head roll test. The direction of CPPN was aligned with the vector sum of the rotational axes of the semicircular canals that were normally inhibited during the positioning. The intensity of evoked nystagmus was at its peak initially and then decreased exponentially over time. The time constants (TC) of the vertical CPPN ranged from 3 to 8 seconds, which corresponds to the TC of the vertical rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex. Sixteen patients (94.1%) showed more than one type of CPPN. Furthermore, persistent downbeat or apogeotropic positional nystagmus was associated in 11 patients (64.7%). Most patients with CPPN from a circumscribed brain lesion showed an involvement of the cerebellar nodulus or uvula. Conclusion: CPPN may be ascribed to enhanced responses of the vestibular afferents due to lesions involving the nodulus and uvula. CPPN could be differentiated from benign paroxysmal positional nystagmus by positional nystagmus induced in multiple planes, temporal patterns of nystagmus intensity, and associated neurologic findings suggestive of central pathologies. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Source

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