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Kyungdong University

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Lee J.,Sahmyook University | Lee K.,Kyungdong University | Song C.,Sahmyook University
Journal of Motor Behavior | Year: 2017

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of speed-interactive treadmill training (SITT) using smartphone-based motion tracking technology on gait in stroke patients. Thirty-four chronic stroke patients were randomly divided into a SITT group (n = 18) and a standard treadmill training (control) group (n = 16). The SITT group underwent smartphone-based SSIT while the control group underwent standard treadmill training. Both groups performed the training for 35 min per session, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks. Both groups used nonmotorized treadmills so that patients could control the speed. Evaluation was conducted during the week before and after the training. The OptoGait system measured gait spatiotemporal parameters. Both groups showed significant improvement in the temporal and spatial gait parameters (p < .05). In the SITT group, compared to the control group, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed an improvement in the temporal and spatial gait parameters after the intervention period (p < .05). This study confirmed that SITT improved the gait function of stroke patients. Based on this result, the authors propose that SITT, by improving gait, can be used as an effective training method to improve patients' functional activities in the clinic. 2017 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Park J.-W.,Dongguk University | Oh J.-C.,Kyungdong University | Lee J.-W.,Dongguk University | Yeo J.-S.,Dongguk University | Ryu K.H.,Dongguk University
Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2013

Background We sought to find the therapeutic effect of 5Hz high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the unaffected pharyngeal motor cortex in post-stroke dysphagic patients. Methods Eighteen patients with unilateral hemispheric stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia that lasted more than 1month were randomly divided into two groups. They all performed videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) before rTMS intervention. The experimental group (EG) received 5Hz rTMS over contra-lesional pharyngeal motor cortex for 10min per day for 2weeks. The control group (CG) received sham stimulation under the same condition. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study were performed again just after treatment cessation and 2 weeks afterward. The evaluation was performed using videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS). Key Results Mean baseline VDS and PAS of EG was 33.6±12.1 and 3.41±2.32 respectively and the scores were reduced to 25.3±9.8 and 1.93±1.52 just after 2weeks intervention (P<0.05). This effect lasted for up to 2 weeks after treatment. However, there was no change in the CG. Baseline prevalence of aspiration, pharyngeal residue, delayed triggering of pharyngeal swallowing and abnormal pharyngeal transit time (PTT) in EG was 66.7%, 66.7%, 33.3%, and 44.4%, respectively. After rTMS, the prevalence of aspiration and pharyngeal residue was reduced to 33.3% and 33.3%, respectively. However, the prevalence of delayed triggering and abnormal PTT was not changed. Conclusions & Inferences A 5Hz high-frequency rTMS on contra-lesional pharyngeal motor cortex might be beneficial for post-stroke dysphagic patients. This intervention can be used as a new treatment method in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Kim S.-H.,Seoul National University | Park S.-H.,Seoul National University | Kim H.-J.,Kyungdong University | Kim J.-S.,Seoul National University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2015

Isolated vestibular syndrome may occur all along the vestibular pathways from the peripheral labyrinth to the brain. By virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging, however, diagnosis of isolated central vestibulopathy is increasing. Here, we review five distinct syndromes of isolated central vestibular syndrome from lesions restricted to the vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the flocculus, the tonsil, and the nodulus, and introduce a new vestibular syndrome from isolated involvement of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreased responses to head impulses do not exclude a central lesion as a cause of isolated vestibular syndrome. Brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be falsely negative during the acute phase in patients with isolated vestibular syndrome because of a stroke. Central signs should be sought carefully in patients with isolated vertigo, even when the patients show the features of peripheral vestibulopathy and negative MRIs. Recognition of these isolated central vestibular syndromes would aid in defining the lesions responsible for various vestibular manifestations in central vestibulopathy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.


Park J.-W.,Dongguk University | Kim Y.,Ohio University | Oh J.-C.,Kyungdong University | Lee H.-J.,Dongguk University
Dysphagia | Year: 2012

We tested the effect of effortful swallow combined with surface electrical stimulation used as a form of resistance training in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. Twenty post-stroke dysphagic patients were randomly divided into two groups: those who underwent effortful swallow with infrahyoid motor electrical stimulation (experimental group, n = 10) and effortful swallow with infrahyoid sensory electrical stimulation (control group, n = 10). In the experimental group, electrical stimulation was applied to the skin above the infrahyoid muscle with the current was adjusted until muscle contraction occurred and the hyoid bone was depressed. In the control group, the stimulation intensity was applied just above the sensory threshold. The patients in both groups were then asked to swallow effortfully in order to elevate their hyolaryngeal complex when the stimulation began. A total of 12 sessions of 20 min of training for 4 weeks were performed. Blinded biomechanical measurements of the extent of hyolaryngeal excursion, the maximal width of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening, and the penetration-aspiration scale before and after training were performed. In the experimental group, the maximal vertical displacement of the larynx was increased significantly after the intervention (p < 0.05). The maximal vertical displacement of the hyoid bone and the maximal width of the UES opening increased but the increase was not found to be significant (p = 0.066). There was no increase in the control group. Effortful swallow training combined with electrical stimulation increased the extent of laryngeal excursion. This intervention can be used as a new treatment method in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Lee J.-H.,Kyungdong University | Kim S.-G.,Daegu University
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2015

The study described here investigated the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) onfunctional recovery and neurotrophin-3 expression in the spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Forty-five 8-wk-old rats were used and randomly divided into three groups: An experimental group, a control group and a sham group. The experimental group received ESWT after the nerve-crushing damage. The sciatic functional index and Dartfish Software were used to determine the effect of sciatic nerve damage on functional changes. A 1-cm length of spinal cord encompassing the L4-6 level was removed for Western blot analysis. The sciatic functional index significantly changed in both the ESWT and control groups after impairment. In the time course evaluation of the ankle angle in the toe off, the ESWT group had statistically significant increases from day 21 onward. There was a significant difference in neurotrophin-3 expression between the groups on days 1, 7 and 14 after impairment. Early application of ESWT increased the expression of neurotrophin-3 andneurotrophin-3 mRNA, and daily therapy facilitated the activity of macrophages and Schwann cells, which affect the survival and regeneration of neurons. © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.


Jang S.H.,Korea University | Lee J.-H.,Kyungdong University
Open Medicine (Poland) | Year: 2016

This study attempts to investigate the impact that the sensory integration training has on the recovery of balance among patients with stroke by examining the muscle activity and limit of stability (LOS). A total of 28 subjects participated. The subjects were randomly allocated by the computer program to one of two groups: control (CON) group (n=15), sensory integration training (SIT) group (n=13). The research subjects received intervention five days a week for a total of four weeks. The CON group additionally received 30-minute general balance training, while the SIT group additionally received 30-minute sensory integration training. In the muscle activity, the improvement of Erector spinae (ES) and Gluteus medius (GM) was more significant in the SIT group than in the CON group. In the LOS, the improvement of affected side and forward side was significantly higher in the SIT group compared to the CON group. Sensory integration training can improve balance ability of patients with stroke by increasing muscle activity of stance limb muscles such as GM and trunk extensor such as ES along with enhancement of the limit of stability. © 2016 Sang Hun Jang, Jung-Ho Lee published by De Gruyter Open.


Choi N.,Kyungdong University
International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology | Year: 2015

This study investigated the caring effect of hand massage using aroma essential oil and music therapy on an anxiety and sleeping for the 72 elderly comprising of groups I (24 elderly) and II (25) and a control group (23) living in the sanatorium. The group I was given with hand massage using aroma essential oil and music therapy at the same time twice a week, for 4 weeks, while group II was with only hand massage using aroma essential oil and the control group was with none. Despite no difference between beforehand between group I and II, the average anxiety scores (AAS) of the group I has statistically significantly reduced; AAS of the group I has reduced by 4 from beforehand 53 to afterward 49, while group II by 1 from 52 to 51. However, there was no significant difference in improvement in sleeping among groups. This study demonstrates that non-medicated, hand massage using aroma essential oil coupled with music therapy can be effective for relieving the anxiety of the elderly living in the sanatorium. © 2015 SERSC.


Kim J.-H.,Health Science University | Choi Y.-D.,Kyungdong University | Kim M.-J.,Kyungdong University | Kim J.,Korea University
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences | Year: 2013

We examined the changes in skin temperature before and after application of heat to abdominal regions of healthy volunteers. Eight healthy female subjects with no past history of disease were selected for this study. Time-dependent changes in skin temperature of the abdominal region were measured after 10, 20, and 30 min of heat stimulation using a digital infrared thermographic imaging device. Skin temperatures in the abdominal region significantly increased in a time-dependent manner after application of heat. In the resting state, with no application of heat, the body water and thermography were significantly greater in the trunk region compared with the lower limbs, whereas the impedance was significantly greater in both lower limbs compared with the trunk region. After application of a hot pack for 30 min, the thermography was significantly changed in the trunk region compared with both lower limbs. Similarly, as the duration of heat application increased, the thermography was significantly increased in both lower limbs compared with the trunk region. These results suggest that the effects of heat application on the distribution and variation of skin temperature may differ by body region. © 2013 Korean Society of Environmental Risk Assessment and Health Science and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kim S.-G.,Daegu University | Lee J.-H.,Kyungdong University
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2015

This study aimed to investigate the effect of horse riding simulation (HRS) on balance and trunk muscle activation as well as to provide evidence of the therapeutic benefits of the exercise. Thirty elderly subjects were recruited from a medical care hospital and randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group performed the HRS exercise for 20. min, 5 times a week, for 8 weeks, and conventional therapy was also provided as usual. The muscle activation and limits of stability (LOS) were measured. The LOS significantly increased in the HRS group (p< 0.05) but not in the control group (p> 0.05). The activation of all muscles significantly increased in the HRS group. However, in the control group, the muscle activations of the lateral low-back (external oblique and quadratus lumborum) and gluteus medius (GM) significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in other muscles. After the intervention, the LOS and all muscle activations significantly increased in the HRS group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the HRS exercise is effective for reducing the overall risk of falling in the elderly. Thus, it is believed that horse riding exercise would help to increase dynamic stability and to prevent elderly people from falling. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Choi J.-Y.,Korea University | Kim J.H.,Korea University | Kim H.J.,Kyungdong University | Glasauer S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kim J.S.,Seoul National University
Neurology | Year: 2015

Objective: The diagnosis of central paroxysmal positional nystagmus (CPPN) is challenging, and the mechanisms require further elucidation. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and mechanisms of CPPN. Methods: Seventeen patients with CPPN were subjected to analyses of their clinical findings, MRI lesions, and oculographic data on spontaneous and positional nystagmus. Results: The direction of CPPN was mostly aligned with that of the head motion during the positioning, and 3 types of CPPN were identified: downbeat nystagmus on straight-head hanging, upbeat nystagmus on uprighting, and apogeotropic nystagmus during supine head roll test. The direction of CPPN was aligned with the vector sum of the rotational axes of the semicircular canals that were normally inhibited during the positioning. The intensity of evoked nystagmus was at its peak initially and then decreased exponentially over time. The time constants (TC) of the vertical CPPN ranged from 3 to 8 seconds, which corresponds to the TC of the vertical rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex. Sixteen patients (94.1%) showed more than one type of CPPN. Furthermore, persistent downbeat or apogeotropic positional nystagmus was associated in 11 patients (64.7%). Most patients with CPPN from a circumscribed brain lesion showed an involvement of the cerebellar nodulus or uvula. Conclusion: CPPN may be ascribed to enhanced responses of the vestibular afferents due to lesions involving the nodulus and uvula. CPPN could be differentiated from benign paroxysmal positional nystagmus by positional nystagmus induced in multiple planes, temporal patterns of nystagmus intensity, and associated neurologic findings suggestive of central pathologies. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

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