Seoul, South Korea
Seoul, South Korea

Kyung Hee University is a private, research university encompassing an educational system from kindergarten to graduate school with campuses in Seoul, Suwon, and Gwangneung , South Korea. Kyung Hee has 24 colleges, 71 departments and majors, 65 master's and 63 doctorate programs, 18 professional and special graduate schools, and 43 auxiliary research institutions. The university counts Jason Barker and Slavoj Žižek among its renowned international professors.The university celebrated its sixtieth anniversary in 2009. In 1993 Kyung Hee received the UNESCO Prize for Peace Education. In 2006, Kyung Hee and the University of Pennsylvania initiated the Penn-Kyung Hee Collaborative Summer Program and two years later a formal Global Collaborative with Peking, Ritsumeikan, and Moscow State universities; the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs; and the Conference of NGOs . Kyung Hee's interdisciplinary bio-medical cluster maintains one of the world's leading research programs for the study of oriental medicine and its application to contemporary medical treatment in tandem with Western approaches, including the world's first successful drug-free acupunctural anesthesia demonstration in 1972. As of 2011 Kyung Hee University maintains sister relationships with 402 universities in 68 countries.Kyung Hee was founded in 1949 by Dr. Young Seek Choue, whose founding philosophy was "Toward a New Civilization." The university hosted the 1968 conference of the International Association of University Presidents, first proposed in 1981 the UN International Day of Peace, organized the 1999 Seoul International Conference of NGOs, held the 2009 World Civic Forum, ran the 2011 UNAI-Kyung Hee International Symposium, and has spearheaded the Global Common Society movement. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-05-30

Disclosed is a drug delivery implant implanted into a bone. The drug delivery implant includes an implant fixture provided with an inlet formed at the upper end thereof and a drug supply cartridge coupled to the fixture, the drug supply cartridge includes a cap to close the inlet of the fixture and a cartridge main body provided under the cap, coupled with the cap and accommodated in the fixture to release a drug, and a cartridge hole to accommodate the cartridge main body and drug channels to guide the drug released from the inside of the cartridge main body to the outside of the fixture are formed in the fixture. The drug delivery implant may continuously administer the drug into bone tissues and mount the drug cartridge together with the cap in the fixture, thus facilitating mount of the drug cartridge in the fixture and replacement of the drug cartridge.


The present invention provides a novel lactic acid bacterium having antioxidant and anti-aging functions and a dementia alleviation effect, and more specifically, provides Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 KCCM11291P and Lactobacillus curvatus C3 KCCM430009. In addition, the present invention provides an antioxidant and anti-aging pharmaceutical composition and a dietary supplement containing the Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 KCCM11291P or Lactobacillus curvatus C3 KCCM430009 of the present invention as an active ingredient, and a composition for preventing or treating dementia and a dietary supplement for preventing or alleviating dementia, containing Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 KCCM11291P or Lactobacillus curvatus C3 KCCM430009 as an active ingredient. Additionally, the present invention provides a composition for preventing or treating dementia, containg a fermentation composition, as an active ingredient, fermented by Lactobacullus pentosus var. plantarum C29 KCCM11291P or Lactobacillus curvatus C3 KCCM430009.


The present invention relates to a method for conducting deracemization using Taylor flow and a device for conducting the same. With respect to the deracemization of a racemate, it may be efficiently conducted with improved rapidity when a racemate-containing fluid is placed under Taylor flow.


Provided is a two-dimensional large-area growth method for a chalcogen compound, the method including: depositing a film of a transition metal element or a Group V element on a substrate; thereafter, uniformly diffusing a vaporized chalcogen element, a vaporized chalcogen precursor compound or a chalcogen compound represented by MX_(2+) within the film; and, thereafter, forming a film of a chalcogen compound represented by MX_(2 )by forming the chalcogen compound represented by MX_(2 )through post-heating.


The present invention relates to a pincer for binding to a target material, wherein an antibody or a fragment thereof binding to a first target site of the target material and an aptamer binding to a second target site are conjugated via a linker, a preparation method thereof, a composition for detecting or separating the target material comprising the pincer, a kit for detecting or separating the target material comprising the composition, and a method for detecting or separating the target material using the kit. Also, the present invention relates to a drug carrier comprising the pincer for binding to a target material, wherein an aptamer conjugated to a second target site of the pincer loads the drug. The antibody-aptamer pincer comprising the antibody and the aptamer, which target for the different binding sites on the same material of the present invention shows a ten- to hundred-fold increased binding affinity for the target molecule compared to using the antibody or the aptamer alone, and thus can be usefully applied for detection and/or separation of traces of the target material. Further, the affinity of the drug carrier prepared by the binding of the antibody with the aptamer for the target molecule is increased, and thus, it can be used as a drug carrier against harmful tumors.


Patent
Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-05-11

A 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivative or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a composition containing the same are provided. The 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivative or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof show activities of blocking an intracellular influx of calcium ions acting as a secondary signal essential to the proliferation and growth of cancer cells, thereby inducing the cell cycle arrest of cancer cells, and eventually reinforcing the efficacy of existing anti-cancer drugs. A combination comprising the above compound and another anti-cancer drug is also provided.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-11-03

The present invention relates to a method and device for sharing a candidate list. A method of generating a merging candidate list for a predictive block may include: producing, on the basis of a coding block including a predictive block on which a parallel merging process is performed, at least one of a spatial merging candidate and a temporal merging candidate of the predictive block; and generating a single merging candidate list for the coding block on the basis of the produced merging candidate. Thus, it is possible to increase processing speeds for coding and decoding by performing inter-picture prediction in parallel on a plurality of predictive blocks.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-07-27

Provided is a gate driving circuit. The gate driving circuit includes an ith modulation circuit and an ith line selection circuit (where i is a natural number greater than 1). The ith modulation circuit outputs an ith modulation voltage to an ith line selection circuit based on received first to third control signals. The ith line selection circuit includes a memory transistor that is turned on or turned off according to a level of the received ith modulation voltage.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-11-03

The present invention relates to a method and device for sharing a candidate list. A method of generating a merging candidate list for a predictive block may include: producing, on the basis of a coding block including a predictive block on which a parallel merging process is performed, at least one of a spatial merging candidate and a temporal merging candidate of the predictive block; and generating a single merging candidate list for the coding block on the basis of the produced merging candidate. Thus, it is possible to increase processing speeds for coding and decoding by performing inter-picture prediction in parallel on a plurality of predictive blocks.


Patent
Kyung Hee University | Date: 2017-04-05

The present invention relates to a 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivative or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, which can block the intracellular influx of calcium ions acting as a secondary signal essential to the proliferation and growth of cancer cells, thereby inducing the cell cycle arrest of cancer cells, and eventually reinforcing the efficacy of existing anti-cancer drugs, and a combination comprising the above compound and another anti-cancer drug.


Zare Y.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rhee K.Y.,Kyung Hee University
JOM | Year: 2017

In this paper, several models are introduced for tensile modulus and strength of polymer nanocomposites containing dispersed and networked carbon nanotubes (CNT) below and above percolation threshold. The model predictions are compared in similar conditions to determine the role of nanoparticle structure in the mechanical properties of polymer/CNT nanocomposites (PCNT). The predictions are also compared with the experimental data of several samples to offer the suitable models for the mechanical properties of PCNT. Lastly, the influences of the main parameters on the tensile modulus and strength of PCNT are studied. The networked nanoparticles cause higher levels of modulus and strength compared to the dispersed nanoparticles. The high level of the CNT aspect ratio causes a small percolation threshold in PCNT, but the Ouali model shows the ineffective role of this parameter in their predictions. © 2017 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society


Zare Y.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rhee K.Y.,Kyung Hee University
Composites Science and Technology | Year: 2017

The effective inverse aspect ratio (αeff) and volume fraction (φeff) of nanoparticles in polymer/CNT nanocomposites are defined accounting imperfect interfacial adhesion between polymer matrix and nanoparticles and percolation of interfacial regions as interphase percolation. After that, the tensile modulus and strength of nanocomposites are expressed by Halpin-Tsai and Pukanszky models to show the effects of radius (R) and length (l) of nanoparticles as well as the interphase thickness (t) and interfacial shear strength (τ) on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. The best levels of “αeff” and “φeff” are obtained by the thinnest and the longest nanotubes as well as the highest values of “t” and “τ” factors. The best relative modulus of 8 is calculated by R < 13 nm and l > 6500 nm, while the strength slightly improves by R < 17 nm. Likewise, the relative modulus of 9 is calculated at t > 20 nm and τ > 170 MPa, while the best relative strength of 4.5 is shown at the highest levels of t = 25 nm and τ = 300 MPa. Conclusively, the interphase properties further affect the mechanical properties of nanocomposites compared to material parameters. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Caglayan H.,Usak University | Caliskan H.,Usak University | Caliskan H.,Kyung Hee University
Energy | Year: 2017

In this study, the sustainability assessment is performed to the system known as heat exchanger unit with spray dryer. The five-different dead state temperatures (0-5-10-15-20 °C) are considered. It is found that the heat exchanger has the highest energy efficiency (63.32%), while the overall system has the lowest one (5.56%). So, the combination of the spray dryer with the heat exchanger is more effective. On the other hand, the overall exergy efficiency of the system is lower than the heat exchanger and spray dryer for all of the dead state (environmental) temperatures. The exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger is inversely proportional to the dead state temperature, and the maximum rate is found as 49.65% at 0 °C. Furthermore, the exergy efficiencies of the spray dryer and overall system are directly proportional to the dead state temperatures, and the corresponding maximum rates are found to be 26.41% and 24.32% at 20 °C, respectively. Also, the exergy destruction is directly proportional to the dead state temperatures. The minimum and maximum exergy destruction rates are found at the dead state temperatures of 0 °C and 20 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the most sustainable system is found as the heat exchanger unit. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Yeo M.-K.,Kyung Hee University
Molecular and Cellular Toxicology | Year: 2017

Silver nanomaterials are widely used in commercial products, because the released silver nanomaterials be worried about ecotoxicity of freshwater organisms in environment. We have focused on reducing nanotoxicity using environmentally-friendly biological process by hydra cells. The hydra has a strong regenerative capacity about toxic chemicals, excellent adhesion and aggregation of hydra cells through self-organization during hydra regeneration stages. The hydra regeneration test examined two types of silver nanocolloids (Ag NCs) and silver nanotubes (Ag NTs) at concentrations of 5, 10, 50, 100 mg/L, respectively. In addition, we compared to the antimicrobial effects against E. coli (Gram-negative) and S. aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria by Ag NCs, Ag NTs and the Ag NCs including hydra cells. The aim of this study is not only to investigate the reducing nanotoxic effects in bacteria by the mixed silver nanomaterials including hydra cells but also to compare the nanotoxicity between Ag NCs and Ag NTs. Our results suggest that the silver nanomaterials including hydra cells can be reduced to nanotoxic effects in both E. coli (Gram-negative) and S. aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. Because, the mixed Ag NCs including hydra cell were coiled around Ag NCs, which may inhibited by Ag NCs aggregations and the blocked silver ions. Furthermore, the shapes of silver nanomaterials are different nanotoxic effects according to the species sensitivity between hydra and bacteria. © 2017, The Korean Society of Toxicogenomics and Toxicoproteomics and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Shin J.,Kyung Hee University | Hwang W.-S.,Korea Institute for Industrial Economics & Trade
Energy Policy | Year: 2017

Total energy consumption of oil in 2050 is expected to increase to 1.6 times its level in 2005, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector will be second only to the electricity sector. In order to reduce GHG emissions in transportation, leading countries have started to implement renewable fuel standard (RFS) policies. Other countries such as Korea have recently started implementing RFS policies in order to comply with the proposed global GHG reduction target. However, previous research did not consider the impact of RFS policy on consumer acceptance levels. Therefore, this study analyzes consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for RFS. To provide detailed policy strategies, this study conducts additional analysis using market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. The results indicate that consumers generally accept the cost of implementing an RFS policy if the cost falls between KRW 101.78/liter (USD 0.33/gal) and KRW 187.26/liter (USD 0.60/gal). In addition, consumer WTP for implementing an RFS policy changes when the income exceeds KRW 5 million (USD 4229.1) in driver group, and relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies. Based on the results of this study, we can suggest proper pricing policies for each income group and a public relations strategy to improve the level of policy acceptance. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Fang H.,Nanjing Forestry University | Kim Y.,Kyung Hee University
Theoretical Chemistry Accounts | Year: 2017

The first excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) in 7-hydroxyquinoline (7HQ) mediated by water and methanol molecules in a nonpolar solution was studied by quantum mechanical calculations. The multiple proton transfer through a hydrogen-bonded channel consisting of two or three hydroxyl molecules occurs in a concerted and asynchronous pathway. When the H-bonded channel molecules are water or methanol, proton transfer takes place in a solvolytic or protolytic fashion, respectively. The barrier height of the ESPT depends on the basicity of the H-bonded channel. The predicted barrier height is 2.97 kcal/mol lower with two CH3OH than with two H2O since monomeric methanol is more basic than monomeric water in heptane and DPE. The ESPT barrier heights are 3–4 kcal/mol lower with three H-bonded molecules than with two. The rate constants and KIEs for the ESPT of 7HQ-(ROH)2 (ROH = H2O, CH3OH) were calculated and compared to the experimental values. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Jun T.,Kyung Hee University
Climatic Change | Year: 2017

Civil conflicts have swept through many parts of sub-Saharan Africa in the past half century. Recently, scholars from backgrounds as diver as climate science, economics, political science, and anthropology have explored the effects of climate change on these civil conflicts, with mixed results. Our empirical results confirm effects of temperature on the incidence of civil conflict. The key findings are as follows: (i) between 1970 and 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa, a high temperature during maize growing season reduced the crop’s yield, which in turn increased the incidence of civil conflict and (ii) future expected warming is expected to increase civil conflict incidence by 33% in the period 2031–2050, and by 100% in the period 2081–3010, compared to levels between 1981 and 2000. These results highlight the importance of sufficient food supplies and adaptation to increased climate warming to facilitate peace in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Do T.P.,Kyung Hee University | Song I.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kim Y.H.,Kyung Hee University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2017

We consider a simultaneous wireless transfer of information and power in a two-way relaying network, where a decode-and-forward protocol is employed for data exchange between two source devices at different rates. The data exchange is accomplished in two time phases (TPs) with possibly asymmetric TP ratios, where the relay is powered by the source devices in the first phase through simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) either by power splitting (PS) or by time switching (TS). For the network, resource allocation of the PS and TP ratios for the PS-based SWIPT and that of the TS and TP ratios for the TS-based SWIPT are studied to minimize the system outage probability. We first solve the joint optimization problem of each case with the instantaneous channel state information and then propose suboptimal schemes utilizing one or two values for the TP ratio to lower the implementation complexity. The results from analysis and simulation show that the proposed schemes outperform the benchmark scheme with equal resource allocation and that the gain gets more prominent as the rates of the data exchanged or the relay locations become more asymmetric. © 2017 IEEE.


This study investigated adverse childhood experiences of Korean college students and the impact such experiences have on students’ depression and alcohol abuse. Using an online questionnaire, 939 college students were surveyed regarding their adverse childhood experiences, depressive symptoms and alcohol use habits. About half of the participants claimed to have experienced at least one adversity in their childhood. Eight percent of participants reported experiencing four or more categories of adversity. The correlations between adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms, alcohol abusive behaviors, and the comorbid condition of the two outcomes were significant when students’ gender, geographical regions, maternal and paternal education, and family incomes were adjusted. Graded associations of cumulated adverse childhood experiences with the outcome variables were evident. These findings strengthen the link between child maltreatment and adult public health issues carrying socioeconomic burdens, two matters that have not been extensively studied in Korean contexts. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Ahn H.,Kyung Hee University | Park Y.K.,Kyung Hee University
Nutrition | Year: 2017

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy isoflavone on tibia length, bone mineral density (BMD), and structural parameters in growing female rats. Methods Three-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: control (CON: distilled water gavage); low-dose isoflavone (low-IF: 10 mg/kg body weight [BW]/d gavage); high-dose isoflavone (high-IF: 50 mg/kg BW/d gavage); and 17 β-estradiol (E2: subcutaneous injection of 10 μg). All animals received a soy-free diet and vaginal opening was monitored daily. After an 8-wk treatment period, bone-related parameters (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], osteocalcin [OC], N-terminal telopeptide [NTx], bone length, failure load, stiffness, BMD, and structural parameters) were analyzed. Results Serum ALP levels of the high-IF group were higher than those of the CON group (P < 0.05); however, serum OC levels of the high-IF group were lower than those of the CON, low-IF, and E2 groups (P < 0.05). The tibias and femurs of the low-IF group were longer than those of the CON and high-IF groups (P < 0.05). Bone volume, trabecular number, and BMD of trabecular bone of the high-IF and E2 groups were higher than those of the CON and low-IF groups (P < 0.05). The trabecular thickness of the high-IF group was higher than that of the CON and low-IF groups (P < 0.05). The failure load of the high-IF group was higher than those of the CON group (P < 0.05). Age and body weight at vaginal opening of the E2 group were significantly lower than those of the CON, low-IF, and high-IF groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that 8 wk of low-dose supplementation with soy isoflavone stimulates longitudinal bone growth. Additionally, high-dose supplementation with soy isoflavone may improve bone quality (BMD and structural parameters) in growing female rats. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Chang Y.W.,Kyung Hee University
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi | Year: 2016

Non-Helicobacter pylori, non-NSAID peptic ulcer disease (PUD), termed idiopathic PUD, is increasing in Korea. Diagnosis is based on exclusion of common causes such as H. pylori infection, infection with other pathogens, surreptitious ulcerogenic drugs, malignancy, and uncommon systemic diseases with upper gastrointestinal manifestations. The clinical course of idiopathic PUD is delayed ulcer healing, higher recurrence, higher re-bleeding after initial ulcer healing, and higher mortality than the other types of PUD. Genetic predisposition, older age, chronic mesenteric ischemia, cigarette smoking, concomitant systemic diseases, and psychological stress are considered risk factors for idiopathic PUD. Diagnosis of idiopathic PUD should systematically explore all possible causes. Management of this disease is to treat underlying disease followed by regular endoscopic surveillance to confirm ulcer healing. Continuous proton pump inhibitor therapy is an option for patients who respond poorly to the standard ulcer regimen.


Hussain M.,Kyung Hee University
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2015

With advanced technologies in hand, there exist potential applications and services built around monitoring activities of daily living (ADL) of elderly people at nursing homes. Most of the elderly people in these facilities are suffering from different chronic diseases such as dementia. Existing technologies are mainly focusing on non-medication interventions and monitoring of ADL for addressing loss of autonomy or well-being. Monitoring and managing ADL related to cognitive behaviors for non-medication intervention are very effective in improving dementia patients' conditions. However, cognitive functions of patients can be improved if appropriate recommendations of medications are delivered at a particular time. Previously we developed the Secured Wireless Sensor Network Integrated Cloud Computing for Ubiquitous-Life Care (SC(3)). SC(3) services were limited to monitoring ADL of elderly people with Alzheimer's disease and providing non-medication recommendations to the patient. In this article, we propose a system called the Smart Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) as an integral part of the SC(3) platform. Using the Smart CDSS, patients are provided with access to medication recommendations of expert physicians. Physicians are provided with an interface to create clinical knowledge for medication recommendations and to observe the patient's condition. The clinical knowledge created by physicians as the knowledge base of the Smart CDSS produces recommendations to the caregiver for medications based on each patient's symptoms.


Hussain Sk.K.,Kyung Hee University | Yu J.S.,Kyung Hee University
RSC Advances | Year: 2017

Eu2+ ions activated Sr3Y2Ge3O12 (SYGO) phosphors were synthesized by an efficient pechini-type sol-gel method. X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and spectrofluorometry measurements were performed to characterize the prepared phosphor samples after annealing under thermal CO reducing atmosphere. The phosphors showed nearly spherical-shaped morphology and their phase was identified to be cubic with the space group la3d (230). Under 468 nm blue excitation, the SYGO:Eu2+ phosphors exhibited a broadband red emission at 612 nm due to the 4f65d1 → 4f7 electronic transition of Eu2+ ions. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) emission properties, PL decay profile and quantum yield were measured for the optimized SYGO:0.01 mol Eu2+ (SYGO:0.01Eu2+) red phosphor. Furthermore, a white light-emitting diode (WLED) device was also fabricated by blending the SYGO:0.01Eu2+ red phosphor with a commercially available Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce3+) yellow phosphor on a 452 nm blue LED chip under 30 mA forward-bias current. The fabricated YAG:Ce3+/SYGO:0.01Eu2+-based WLED device showed Commission International de I'eclairage chromaticity coordinates in the natural white region (0.3300, 0.3439) with good color rendering index and correlated color temperature of 85.81 and 5483 K, respectively. These results imply that the SYGO:0.01Eu2+ is a potential red phosphor to obtain the warm white light under blue excitations. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Lee J.,Kyung Hee University
Proceedings of the 30th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, PACLIC 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper discusses predicative resultative constructions in Korean and argues that they are actually a kind of clausal resultative construction (see the two types of resultatives in Wechsler and Noh, 2001). In particular, I propose the following hypotheses: (i) the resultative predicate, X-key, is morphosyntactically an adverb rather than an adjective, (ii) X-key forms a fully saturated clause (i.e., result clause) (sometimes with the predication subject omitted), and (iii) the result clause is a complement of the main verb in a resultative sentence. Based on these properties, a unified analysis of the resultative constructions is formalized in Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) (Pollard and Sag, 1994; Sag et al., 2003).


Zare Y.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rhee K.Y.,Kyung Hee University
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2017

In this paper, a simple model is developed to predict the tensile modulus of polymer/carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanocomposites (PCNT) above percolation threshold. Since the conventional models such as Ouali and Lyngaae-Jorgensen (L-J) cannot predict the accurate results, a developed model is presented which calculates proper modulus as a function of aspect ratio (α) and volume fraction of CNT at percolation threshold (ϕp). The developed model can present accurate data, which agree with the experimental results at all filler concentrations. The high ranges of “α” and low values of “ϕp” achieve a desirable modulus. However, a high “ϕp” causes the poor modulus at different “α” demonstrating that the role of “α” is highlighted at slight “ϕp”. It is also possible to calculate the “α” and “ϕp” parameters by applying the developed model to the experimental data of modulus. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Utilization of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a by-product of the palm oil production, needs to be developed because of the expanding palm oil production scale. EFB saccharification residue was obtained as a by-product of the enzymatic preparation of sugar from EFB. The liquefaction of EFB saccharification residue was performed using a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) #300 and glycerol as a solvent and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The liquefaction conditions such as liquefaction solvent ratio, liquefaction temperature, catalyst loading, and liquefaction time were optimized, and up to 90% of biomass conversion of the EFB saccharification residue was obtained. The biopolyol with approximately 890 mg KOH/g hydroxyl number was used for the synthesis of bio-polyurethane and bio-polyester, and the polymerized products were confirmed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy analysis. Basic thermal characteristics such as glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature were determined to be 93.6 and 200°C using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. 2017 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Leem J.W.,Kyung Hee University | Yu J.S.,Kyung Hee University
Optics Express | Year: 2011

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with relatively high transparency and low absorption are prepared by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method and their effect on the device performance of a-Si:H/μc- Si:H tandem thin film solar cells is theoretically investigated by applying the experimentally measured physical data of the fabricated films to the simulation parameters. The GLAD of ITO produces inclined porous columnar nanostructures due to the atomic shadowing effect. With increasing the incident flux angle, the columns are increasingly inclined, thus resulting in the improved transmission property as well as the decrease of the refractive index and extinction coefficient because of enhanced porosity within the film. Furthermore, the antireflection characteristics are improved over a wide wavelength range of 300-1100 nm. For a-Si:H/μc- Si:H tandem thin film solar cell structure incorporated with the 0° ITO/80° ITO bi-layer structure, the conversion efficiency (η) of 13.6% is obtained from simulation under AM1.5g illumination, indicating an efficiency improvement compared to the device with the 0° ITO/0° ITO bi-layer structure (i.e. η = 12.58%). © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Ohk S.-M.,Kyung Hee University | Chung B.-J.,Kyung Hee University
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2017

We investigated the influences of length, diameter and Prandtl number on the natural convection heat transfer inside open vertical pipes. Numerical calculations were performed using FLUENT 6.3 varying the pipe length from 0.2 m to 1.0 m, the diameter from 0.003 m to 0.03 m and the Prandtl number from 0.7 to 2014. The numerical scheme was validated with mass transfer experiments employed to achieve high buoyancy. In large diameter pipes or high Prandtl number conditions, where relatively thin thermal boundary layers formed near the wall, the NuL values were similar to those observed on vertical plates. As the diameter decreased, the length increased, and the Prandtl number decreased, the heat transfer was impaired due to the interactions of thicker thermal boundary layers. The duct flow and chimney effects were analyzed and visualized using the velocity and temperature fields. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS


Zare Y.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rhee K.Y.,Kyung Hee University
Polymers for Advanced Technologies | Year: 2017

In this article, the effects of filler network and interphase between polymer matrix and nanoparticles on the tensile modulus of polymer/carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanocomposites are assumed by the effective volume fraction of nanoparticles. By this approach, the Takayanagi model is developed for polymer/CNT nanocomposites above percolation threshold. Also, the effective factors for filler network including the number (N), aspect ratio (α) and percolation threshold (ϕp) of CNT are correlated to three main parameters. The developed model is evaluated for some reported samples from previous papers, and the influences of main parameters on the modulus are examined. The acceptable predictability of the developed model for modulus of nanocomposites is illustrated by experimental results. The "α" and "N" parameters play positive roles in the modulus, while an inverse relation is observed between the modulus and the percolation threshold. The reasonable effects of these parameters on the tensile modulus of polymer/CNT nanocomposites are also discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Jafarzadeh S.,University of Oslo | Solanki S.K.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Solanki S.K.,Kyung Hee University | Stangalini M.,National institute for astrophysics | And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2017

We characterize waves in small magnetic elements and investigate their propagation in the lower solar atmosphere from observations at high spatial and temporal resolution. We use the wavelet transform to analyze oscillations of both horizontal displacement and intensity in magnetic bright points found in the 300 nm and the Ca ii H 396.8 nm passbands of the filter imager on board the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. Phase differences between the oscillations at the two atmospheric layers corresponding to the two passbands reveal upward propagating waves at high frequencies (up to 30 mHz). Weak signatures of standing as well as downward propagating waves are also obtained. Both compressible and incompressible (kink) waves are found in the small-scale magnetic features. The two types of waves have different, though overlapping, period distributions. Two independent estimates give a height difference of approximately 450 ± 100 km between the two atmospheric layers sampled by the employed spectral bands. This value, together with the determined short travel times of the transverse and longitudinal waves provide us with phase speeds of 29 ± 2 km s-1 and 31 ± 2 km s-1, respectively. We speculate that these phase speeds may not reflect the true propagation speeds of the waves. Thus, effects such as the refraction of fast longitudinal waves may contribute to an overestimate of the phase speed. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Ahn Y.,Kyung Hee University | Son J.Y.,Kyung Hee University
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2017

Resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted considerable attention due to its low operation voltage, rapid switching speed and simple structure for the next-generation memory. Herein, polycrystalline BiMnO3 (BMO) thin films were deposited on Pt/Ta/glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition. BMO thin films annealed in a hydrogen atmosphere (HBMO) exhibited a high leakage current with a ferroelectric hysteresis loop, which can be typically observed in ferroelectric thin films with increasing concentration of oxygen vacancies. In terms of the resistive switching characteristics of BMO and HBMO thin films, it is confirmed that the hydrogen annealing process makes it possible to reduce the SET and RESET voltages and clarify the difference between high-resistance and low-resistance states. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Kwak M.S.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2017

GOALS:: This study sought to clarify sex differences in KRAS mutations and clinical predictors of KRAS 13 codon mutations. BACKGROUND:: Sex differences in KRAS mutations and predictors for KRAS codon 13 mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) are unclear. STUDY:: Between October 2007 and May 2016, 328 patients underwent surgery for CRCs that were analyzed for KRAS mutations at a referral university hospital. Sex differences in the rates and distributions of KRAS mutations, and factors predictive of overall KRAS and KRAS codon 13 mutations were analyzed. RESULTS:: KRAS mutations were significantly more common in women than men patients (46.0% vs. 34.4%, P<0.033). However, no sex differences were detected for KRAS mutations by codon subtypes (P=0.592). The Gly13Asp (GGC>GAC) point mutation was identified only within codon 13 in both sexes. For right-sided CRC, KRAS mutations were twice as frequent in men as in women (univariate analysis; P=0.016, multivariate analysis; P=0.019). High-plasma cholesterol level was an independent predictive factor of KRAS codon 13 mutations by univariate (odds ratio, 1.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.003-1.023) and multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 1.011; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.021). CONCLUSIONS:: Sex differences may affect the presentation of KRAS mutations, as they were more frequently detected in women and in right-sided CRC in men. KRAS codon 13 mutations were significantly associated with high-plasma cholesterol. Further studies are needed on the clinical implications of this finding. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Agara T.M.,Kyung Hee University
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2017

The activity of a magnetic structure formed in the solar corona depends on a coronal current system developed in the structure, which determines how an electric current flows in the corona. To investigate structural properties of the coronal current system responsible for producing a solar flare, we perform magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an emerging magnetic flux tube which forms a coronal magnetic structure. Investigation using fractal dimensional analysis and electric current streamlines reveals that the flare-producing coronal current system relies on a specific coronal current structure of two-dimensional spatiality, which has a sub-region where a nearly anti-parallel magnetic field configuration is spontaneously generated. We discuss the role of this locally generated anti-parallel magnetic field configuration in causing the reconnection of a three-dimensional magnetic field, which is a possible mechanism for producing a flare. We also discuss how the twist of a magnetic flux tube affects structural properties of a coronal current system, showing how much volume current flux is carried into the corona by an emerging flux tube. This gives a way to evaluate the activity of a coronal magnetic structure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. All rights reserved.


Smitha H.N.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Anusha L.S.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Solanki S.K.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Solanki S.K.,Kyung Hee University | Riethmuller T.L.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2017

Small-scale internetwork (IN) features are thought to be the major source of fresh magnetic flux in the quiet Sun. During its first science flight in 2009, the balloon-borne observatory Sunrise captured images of the magnetic fields in the quiet Sun at a high spatial resolution. Using these data we measure the rate at which the IN features bring magnetic flux to the solar surface. In a previous paper it was found that the lowest magnetic flux in small-scale features detected using the Sunrise observations is 9 × 1014 Mx. This is nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the smallest fluxes of features detected in observations from the Hinode satellite. In this paper, we compute the flux emergence rate (FER) by accounting for such small fluxes, which was not possible before Sunrise. By tracking the features with fluxes in the range 1015- 1018 Mx, we measure an FER of 1100 Mx cm-2day-1. The smaller features with fluxes ≤ 1016 Mx are found to be the dominant contributors to the solar magnetic flux. The FER found here is an order of magnitude higher than the rate from Hinode, obtained with a similar feature tracking technique. A wider comparison with the literature shows, however, that the exact technique of determining the rate of the appearance of new flux can lead to results that differ by up to two orders of magnitude, even when applied to similar data. The causes of this discrepancy are discussed and first qualitative explanations proposed. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Choi S.-H.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2017

In recent years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been recognized as an attractive building block for electronic, photonic, and bio-molecular device applications. This paper reports the current status of studies on the novel properties of GQDs and their hybrids with conventional and low-dimensional materials for device applications. In this review, more emphasis is placed on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of GQDs, and device structures based on the combination of GQDs with various semiconducting/insulating materials such as graphene, silicon dioxide, Si quantum dots, silica nanoparticles, organic materials, and so on. Because of GQDs' unique properties, their hybrid structures are employed in high-efficiency devices, including photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, flash memory, and sensors. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Kahil F.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Riethmuller T.L.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Solanki S.K.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Solanki S.K.,Kyung Hee University
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2017

We investigate the relationship between the photospheric magnetic field of small-scale magnetic elements in the quiet-Sun (QS) at disk center and the brightness at 214, 300, 313, 388, 397, and 525.02 nm. To this end, we analyzed spectropolarimetric and imaging time series acquired simultaneously by the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment magnetograph and the SuFI filter imager on board the balloon-borne observatory SUNRISE during its first science flight in 2009, with high spatial and temporal resolution. We find a clear dependence of the contrast in the near ultraviolet and the visible on the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field, BLOS, which is best described by a logarithmic model. This function effectively represents the relationship between the Ca II H-line emission and BLOS and works better than the power-law fit adopted by previous studies. This, along with the high contrast reached at these wavelengths, will help with determining the contribution of small-scale elements in the QS to the irradiance changes for wavelengths below 388 nm. At all wavelengths, including the continuum at 525.40 nm, the intensity contrast does not decrease with increasing BLOS. This result also strongly supports the fact that SUNRISE has resolved small strong magnetic field elements in the internetwork, resulting in constant contrasts for large magnetic fields in our continuum contrast at 525.40 nm versus the BLOS scatterplot, unlike the turnover obtained in previous observational studies. This turnover is due to the intermixing of the bright magnetic features with the dark intergranular lanes surrounding them. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


This study examined the association between household secondhand smoke exposure (HSHSE) and health status among non-smoking adolescents in Korea using two subsamples obtained from nationally representative cross-sectional secondary data: males (n = 25,653) and females (n = 31,187). Two self-reported HSHSE measures included exposure to household secondhand smoke during the week before the survey (yes or no) and number of days of HSHSE (1–7 days); and five self-reported health problems included asthma, perceived stress, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-rated health. For each subsample, this study performed (1) multivariate logistic regressions to examine HSHSE effects on asthma, depression, and suicidal ideation; and (2) multiple linear regressions to examine HSHSE effects on perceived stress and self-rated health. The rate and number of days of HSHSE were significantly higher among females (30.1% and 3.4 days) than among males (25.9% and 3.1 days). In both subsamples, HSHSE was associated with all five health problems (ORs 1.15–1.32; βs: 0.04–0.14). An increase in the number of days of HSHSE was positively associated with (1) greater perceived stress and poorer self-rated health in both subsamples (βs: 0.01–0.04), and (2) greater odds of asthma, depression, and suicidal ideation in the female subsample (ORs 1.03–1.12). Given the findings related to the strong associations (1) between HSHSE and physical, mental, and general health problems; and (2) between days of HSHSE and a greater number of health problems in females, health professionals should actively implement interventions that encourage adult smokers to stop smoking in their homes. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Shin D.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Hong J.-W.,Kyung Hee University
International Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2017

It remains unclear how a limited amount of maternal transcription factor Dorsal (Dl) directs broad expression of short gastrulation (sog) throughout the presumptive neurogenic ectoderm in the Drosophila early embryo. Here, we present evidence that the sog shadow enhancer employs dual modes of transcriptional synergy to produce this broad pattern. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that a minimal enhancer region, systematically mapped in vivo, contains five Dl-, three Zelda (Zld)-, and three Bicoid (Bcd)-binding sites; four of these five Dl-binding sites are closed linked to two Zld- and two Bcd-binding sites. Mutations of either the linked Zld- or Bcd-binding sites led to severe reduction in lacZ expression width, length, and/or strength in transgenic embryos. In addition, alteration of the helical phasing in this enhancer region by insertion of spacer sequences between linked sites also resulted in aberrant lacZ expression.These results suggest that synergistic interactions between Dl and Zld and between DI and Bcd are required for broad sog expression. © 2017 UPV/EHU Press.


Kim M.-J.,Kyung Hee University | Kim H.-Y.,Kyung Hee University
Food Control | Year: 2017

The direct pentaplex PCR assay was developed for simultaneous identification using species-specific primer sets and a universal eukaryotic primer set in processed jerky products without DNA extraction. The specific primer sets of target meat species amplified the expected 83-, 133-, 166-, and 204-bp PCR products for pork, chicken, beef, and duck, respectively, and obtained no cross-reactivity against a total of sixteen animal species. A universal eukaryotic primer set amplified a 99-bp conserved fragment in all meat species. To evaluate the sensitivity of this assay, the different percentages of jerky samples were prepared with the meat species having the possibility to be mixed. Adulterated beef jerky samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 50% pork and adulterated duck jerky samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 50% chicken were prepared in a laboratory. The detection level of direct pentaplex PCR was below 0.1% pork in adulterated beef jerky and 0.1% chicken in adulterated duck jerky. The optimized assay was also applied to the analysis of commercial food and feed jerky products. The meat species in commercial jerky products were successfully identified without DNA extraction. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Lee S.,Kyung Hee University | Shin J.,Kyung Hee University | Jang J.,Kyung Hee University
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2017

The effect of active layer (amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide, a-IGZO) splitting on the performances of back-channel-etched (BCE) and etch-stopper (ES) thin-film transistors (TFTs) on polyimide substrate is studied. While the performance of BCE TFT is independent of active layer splitting, the performance of ES TFT is improved significantly by splitting the active layer into 2-4 μm width along the channel. The saturation mobility is enhanced from 24.3 to 76.8 cm2 V-1 s-1 and this improvement is confirmed by the operation of a ring oscillator made of the split TFTs also. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the split a-IGZO indicates the incorporation of F at the island interface and thus improves the top interface quality, leading to a significant improvement of the top channel TFT mobility from 0.25 to 24.22 cm2 V-1 s-1. This improvement is correlated with bonding of In with F at the top interface according to XPS results. The bias stability, hysteresis, and mechanical stability of the ES a-IGZO TFT are also remarkably improved by splitting a-IGZO active layer. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Park S.-Y.,National University of Singapore | Nam Y.,Kyung Hee University
Micromachines | Year: 2017

Digital microfluidics (DMF) driven by electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) has recently been attracting great attention as an effective liquid-handling platform for on-chip cooling. It enables rapid transportation of coolant liquid sandwiched between two parallel plates and drop-wise thermal rejection from a target heating source without additional mechanical components such as pumps, microchannels, and capillary wicks. However, a typical sandwiched configuration in DMF devices only allows sensible heat transfer, which seriously limits heat rejection capability, particularly for high-heat-flux thermal dissipation. In this paper, we present a single-sided digital microfluidic (SDMF) device that enables not only effective liquid handling on a single-sided surface, but also two-phase heat transfer to enhance thermal rejection performance. Several droplet manipulation functions required for two-phase cooling were demonstrated, including continuous droplet injection, rapid transportation as fast as 7.5 cm/s, and immobilization on the target hot spot where heat flux is locally concentrated. Using the SDMF platform, we experimentally demonstrated high-heat-flux cooling on the hydrophilic-coated hot spot. Coolant droplets were continuously transported to the target hot spot which was mitigated below 40 K of the superheat. The effective heat transfer coefficient was stably maintained even at a high heat flux regime over ~130 W/cm2, which will allow us to develop a reliable thermal management module. Our SDMF technology offers an effective on-chip cooling approach, particularly for high-heat-flux thermal management based on two-phase heat transfer. © 2017 by the authors.


Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College | Yoon P.H.,Kyung Hee University | Sarfraz M.,The University of Lahore
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2017

Protons and electrons observed in the solar wind possess temperature anisotropies for which upper and lower bounds appear to be partially regulated by marginal conditions associated with various kinetic plasma instabilities. Such features are most clearly seen when a collection of measurements is plotted as a two-dimensional histogram in phase space. While the partial outer boundaries of such data distribution may well be explained by various instability threshold conditions, an outstanding issue is that the majority of data points are actually located sufficiently away from the boundaries and reside in near isotropic conditions. This implies that certain processes are operative that counteract the adiabatic effect in the radially expanding solar wind, without which solar wind plasma will inexorably be forced to proceed toward the marginal firehose condition. A number of physical processes have been proposed in the literature to explain such a feature. The present paper suggests yet another mechanism. It considers dynamic electrons and protons in the quasilinear evolution of anisotropy-driven instabilities, which is in contrast to previous studies where either protons or electrons are assumed to be stationary when considering the dynamics of the other particle species. It is shown that the dynamical interplay between the two species during the quasilinear development of parallel electron firehose and proton-cyclotron instabilities leads to a counter-balancing effect, which prevents the uniform progression of the solar wind protons toward the marginal firehose state. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Kim H.,Kyung Hee University
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2017

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether enterotypes in the gut microbiome could be determined by clustering validity indexes and whether these enterotypes were associated with individual differences in temperament traits. METHODS: Sixty healthy Korean participants (21 men; 27.5 ± 8.1 years, 39 women; 34.5 ± 14.3 years) were asked to answer 60 temperament questions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) from the Korean version of the temperament and character inventory-125 (K-TCI-125). The participants’ stool samples were submitted, and relative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were calculated using 16S rRNA gene-based microarrays. Differences between sexes and age-related effects on the temperament and OTU abundances were determined, and optimal clustering numbers related to enterotypes were examined using connectivity and silhouette width (SW) indexes. Finally, the differences in temperament between enterotypes were examined. RESULTS: There was no significant effect of sex or age on gut microbiota and temperament scores. The hierarchical dendrogram, connectivity, and SW analysis indicated bimodal enterotypes. Bacteroidaceae were more abundant in enterotype 1 (46.24%, n = 45), whereas Prevotellaceae were more abundant in enterotype 2 (43.83%, n = 15). Among the four temperament dimensions, novelty seeking and reward dependence scores were higher in enterotype 1 (10.82 ± 2.99 and 8.07 ± 2.51 points) than in enterotype 2 (8.87 ± 2.42 and 5.73 ± 1.03 points). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest an association between temperament and enterotypes in healthy Korean adults. It is conceivable that this association may develop early in life as a result of biological processes catalyzed by the gut microbiota during infancy. Copyright © 2017 by American Psychosomatic Society


The extended phase matching properties of two kinds of periodically-poled ferroelectric crystals that are highly useful for the generation of polarization-entangled photon-pair in the nearand mid-infrared spectral regions are presented.


Lee C.K.,Kyung Hee University
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi | Year: 2015

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a long-standing disease that often requires long-term use of immunosuppressive agents including immunomodulators (such as azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate) and tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (such as infliximab and adalimumab). Introduction of immunosuppressive therapies, however, involves the risk of host susceptibility to opportunistic infections in this patient population. Therefore, adequate immunization for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases is currently recommended for all patients with IBD and is emerging as an important target for quality improvements in IBD care. However, ongoing issues regarding underuse of immunization, safety and efficacy of vaccines in patients with IBD remain. For quality improvements in IBD care, all physicians should follow the recent immunization guidelines proposed by professional IBD societies. Additionally, there are ongoing needs for intensive educational programs regarding a role of immunization in long-term care of IBD and up-to-date immunization guidelines. Immunization status should be checked at the time of diagnosis of IBD and timely vaccination before initiation of immunosuppressive therapies can be a practical solution for maximizing the efficacy of vaccination at this point. Inactivated vaccines can be used safely irrespective of immunization status of patients, while attenuated vaccines are contraindicated in patients on immunosuppressive therapies. This article reviews an ideal strategy for vaccinating patients with IBD based on the currently recommended immunization guidelines.


Kwack K.H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee H.-W.,Kyung Hee University
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2017

We have examined the effect of progranulin (PGRN) on human T cell proliferation and its underlying mechanism. We show that PGRN inhibits the PHA-induced multiplication of T lymphocytes. It increases the number of iTregs when T lymphocytes are activated by PHA but does not do so in the absence of PHA. PGRN-mediated inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation, as well as the induction of iTregs, was completely reversed by a TGF-β inhibitor or a Treg inhibitor. PGRN induced TGF-β secretion in the presence of PHA whereas it did not in the absence of PHA. Our findings indicate that PGRN suppresses T lymphocyte proliferation by enhancing the formation of iTregs from activated T lymphocytes in response to TGF-β. © 2017 Kyu Hwan Kwack and Hyeon-Woo Lee.


Lee S.M.,Kyung Hee University
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to find the ideal femoral tunnel position in single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) by comparing clinical scores, stability of the knee joint, and graft signal intensity on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that positioning the femoral tunnel near the anteromedial bundle or center would lead to better results in terms of clinical outcomes and graft signal intensity on follow-up MRI than would positioning the tunnel near the posterolateral bundle.METHODS: Two hundred patients underwent arthroscopic single-bundle ACL reconstruction with a soft-tissue graft; all patients had the same surgeon, surgical technique (anteromedial transportal technique), and rehabilitation protocol. Each patient underwent 3D-CT within 1 week after the operation and MRI at 1 year after the operation. Outcomes were evaluated in terms of clinical scores and the stability of the knee joint. We classified patients into three groups based on the femoral tunnel position: the anteromedial position group, the posterolateral position group, and the center position group. We evaluated graft signal intensity on follow-up MRI.RESULTS: This study included 77 patients: 25 patients in the anteromedial position group, 15 patients in the posterolateral position group, and 33 patients in the center position group. Four patients had an eccentric tunnel position and were excluded. The 3 groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) in preoperative demographic characteristics. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between groups in clinical outcomes. However, patients in the anteromedial position group and in the center position group had better graft signal intensity on follow-up MRI than those in the posterolateral position group.CONCLUSIONS: Positioning the femoral tunnel near the anteromedial bundle and center led to better graft signal intensity on follow-up MRI in anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction than did positioning the femoral tunnel near the posterolateral bundle. There were no differences in clinical scores or stability of the knee joint among the three groups.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Ronald P.C.,University of California at Davis | Ronald P.C.,Joint BioEnergy Institute | Ronald P.C.,Kyung Hee University | Beutler B.,Scripps Research Institute
Science | Year: 2010

The last common ancestor of plants and animals may have lived 1 billion years ago. Plants and animals have occasionally exchanged genes but, for the most part, have countered selective pressures independently. Microbes (bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses) were omnipresent threats, influencing the direction of multicellular evolution. Receptors that detect molecular signatures of infectious organisms mediate awareness of nonself and are integral to host defense in plants and animals alike. The discoveries leading to elucidation of these receptors and their ligands followed a similar logical and methodological pathway in both plant and animal research.


Lee J.H.,Kyung Hee University | Kim C.,Kyung Hee University | Sethi G.,National University of Singapore | Ahn K.S.,Kyung Hee University
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Persistent phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently observed in tumor cells. We found that brassinin (BSN) suppressed both constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation in lung cancer cells. Moreover, BSN induced PIAS-3 protein and mRNA, whereas the expression of SOCS-3 was reduced. Knockdown of PIAS-3 by small interfering RNA prevented inhibition of STAT3 and cytotoxicity by BSN. Overexpression of SOCS-3 in BSNtreated cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation and cell viability. BSN down-regulated STAT3-regulated gene products, inhibited proliferation, invasion, as well as induced apoptosis. Most importantly, when administered intraperitoneally, combination of BSN and paclitaxel significantly decreased the tumor development in a xenograft lung cancer mouse model associated with down-modulation of phospho-STAT3, Ki- 67 and CD31. We suggest that BSN inhibits STAT3 signaling through modulation of PIAS-3 and SOCS-3, thereby attenuating tumor growth and increasing sensitivity to paclitaxel.


Kim N.,Kyung Hee University | Kim N.,Institute for Advanced Study
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We compute the holographic entanglement entropy for confining gauge theories with matter fields using the formula of Ryu and Takayanagi. The gravity solutions of our interest are the wrapped D5-brane solutions of Maldacena and Nunez, and the generalizations with extra matter fields. We obtain the relation between the entanglement entropy vs. size of the subsystem, and find that the critical length is increased as we add more matter fields. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Kim N.,Kyung Hee University | Kim N.,Institute for Advanced Study
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

For supersymmetric solutions of D3-(M2-) branes with AdS 3(AdS 2) factor, it is known that the internal space is expressible as U(1) fibration over Kähler space which satisfies a specific partial differential equation involving the Ricci tensor. In this paper we study the wrapped brane solutions of D3- and M2-branes, which were originally constructed using gauged supergravity and uplifted to D=10 and D=11. We rewrite the solutions in canonical form, identify the backreacted Kähler geometry, and present a class of solutions which satisfy the Killing spinor equation. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Park C.-J.,University of California at Davis | Ronald P.C.,University of California at Davis | Ronald P.C.,Kyung Hee University
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

Plants and animals carry specific receptors that recognize invading pathogens and respond by activating an immune response. The rice XA21 receptor confers broad-spectrum immunity to the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae upon recognition of a small protein, Ax21, that is conserved in all Xanthomonas species and related genera. Here we demonstrate that XA21 is cleaved to release the intracellular kinase domain and that this intracellular domain carries a functional nuclear localization sequence. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays indicate that the XA21 intracellular domain interacts with the OsWRKY62 transcriptional regulator exclusively in the nucleus of rice protoplasts. In vivo cleavage of XA21 and translocalization of the intracellular kinase domain to the nucleus is required for the XA21-mediated immune response. These results suggest a new model for immune receptor function: on receptor recognition of conserved microbial signatures, the associated kinase translocates to the nucleus where it directly interacts with transcriptional regulators. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Han S.-W.,University of California at Davis | Lee S.-W.,Kyung Hee University | Ronald P.C.,University of California at Davis | Ronald P.C.,Kyung Hee University
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2011

Innate immunity provides a first line of defense against pathogen attack and is activated rapidly following infection. Although it is now widely appreciated that host receptors of conserved microbial signatures play a key role in innate immunity in plants and animals, very little is known about the biological function of the microbially derived molecules recognized by such receptors. We have recently demonstrated that the rice XA21 receptor binds the AxY S22 peptide corresponding to the N-terminal region of Ax21, a type I-secreted protein that is highly conserved in all Xanthomonas species as well as in Xylella fastidiosa and the human pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We hypothesize that post-translational modification of Ax21 is carried out by the RaxP, RaxQ, and RaxST proteins and that perception and regulation of Ax21 is controlled by the RaxR/H and PhoP/Q 2-component regulatory systems. Ax21 is predicted to serve as an inducer of quorum sensing (QS), a process where bacteria communicate with one another. Because this is the first example of a conserved microbial signature that binds a host receptor and is also predicted to serve as an inducer of QS, this work has revealed fundamental new principles governing host-microbe interactions and has provided insight into the signaling dynamics of microbial communities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Chiu J.C.,Rutgers University | Chiu J.C.,University of California at Davis | Ko H.W.,Rutgers University | Ko H.W.,Kyung Hee University | Edery I.,Rutgers University
Cell | Year: 2011

The speed of circadian clocks in animals is tightly linked to complex phosphorylation programs that drive daily cycles in the levels of PERIOD (PER) proteins. Using Drosophila, we identify a time-delay circuit based on hierarchical phosphorylation that controls the daily downswing in PER abundance. Phosphorylation by the NEMO/NLK kinase at the "per-short" domain on PER stimulates phosphorylation by DOUBLETIME (DBT/CK1δ/ε) at several nearby sites. This multisite phosphorylation operates in a spatially oriented and graded manner to delay progressive phosphorylation by DBT at other more distal sites on PER, including those required for recognition by the F box protein SLIMB/β-TrCP and proteasomal degradation. Highly phosphorylated PER has a more open structure, suggesting that progressive increases in global phosphorylation contribute to the timing mechanism by slowly increasing PER susceptibility to degradation. Our findings identify NEMO as a clock kinase and demonstrate that long-range interactions between functionally distinct phospho-clusters collaborate to set clock speed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Nam S.,Kyung Hee University | Park J.-D.,Kyung Hee University | Yi S.-H.,Sogang University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We obtain mass and angular momentum of black holes as conserved charges in three-dimensional new massive gravity, after presenting the explicit expression for the potential of the conserved charges. This confirms the expression of those charges obtained in several ways, in particular, through AdS/CFT correspondence, and shows us that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is valid in these black holes. We also comment about conserved charges in new type black holes with the emphasis on the AdS/CFT correspondence as the guiding principle. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Patent
Electronic And Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-07-17

A video decoding method for depth information in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention includes generating a prediction block of a current block for the depth information, generating a restored block of the current block based on the prediction block, and performing filtering on the restored block, whether or not to perform the filtering can be determined based on block information about the current block and coding information about the current block.


Yang S.J.,Chonnam National University | Lim Y.,Kyung Hee University
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2014

Objective Resveratrol (RSV) regulates NAD bioavailability and sirtuin-related metabolism, which relates to aging, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on hepatic metaflammation in a rodent model of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO). Materials/Methods DIO was induced in a subset of mice given an HF diet (45% kcal fat). After 6 weeks of HF diet feeding, RSV was delivered via an osmotic pump for 4 weeks. The experimental groups were as follows: 1) lean control fed with a standard diet, 2) HF diet-induced obese control, and 3) HF-RSV (8 mg/kg/day). After 4 weeks of each treatment, blood and liver tissues were collected and the indices of glucose control, serum and liver triglyceride (TG), sirtuin pathway, inflammation, and NOD-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were analyzed. Results Body weight and food intake were not altered by administering resveratrol. Glucose control was impaired, and serum and liver TG levels were increased by the HF diet. Hepatic inflammation was aggravated in mice fed with the HF diet, as shown by the increased levels of the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the liver. However, resveratrol administration significantly improved glucose control, and serum and liver TG contents. Also, resveratrol treatment reduced the levels of the pro-inflammatory markers. These improvements were accompanied by alterations in sirtuin pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Conclusion These results demonstrate that resveratrol ameliorates hepatic metaflammation, accompanied by alterations in NLRP3 inflammasome. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Kim S.S.,Chonnam National University | Park Y.-K.,Kyung Hee University
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2014

Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and characterized by aggressive biologic behavior of metastatic propensity to the lung. Change of treatment paradigm brings survival benefit; however, 5-year survival rate is still low in patients having metastastatic foci at diagnosis for a few decades. Metastasis-associated protein (MTA) family is a group of ubiquitously expressed coregulators, which influences on tumor invasiveness or metastasis. MTA1 has been investigated in various cancers including osteosarcoma, and its overexpression is associated with high-risk features of cancers. In this review, we described various molecular studies of osteosarcoma, especially associated with MTA1. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Lee J.C.,Soonchunhyang University | Lee S.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Peters C.,University of Washington | Riew K.D.,University of Washington
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume | Year: 2014

Background: Adjacent-segment pathology is an important issue involving the cervical spine, but there have been few comprehensive studies of this problem. The purpose of the current study was to determine the risk factors for adjacent-segment pathology and to compare the survivorship of adjacent segments in patients who underwent cervical spine operations including arthrodesis and motion-sparing procedures.Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 1358 patients with radiculopathy, myelopathy, or myeloradiculopathy who underwent cervical spine surgery performed by a single surgeon. We calculated the annual incidence of adjacent-segment pathology requiring surgery and, with use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, determined survivorship. Cox regression analysis was used to identify risk factors.Results: The index surgical procedures included cervical arthrodesis (1095 patients; 1038 anterior, twenty-nine posterior, and twenty-eight combined anterior and posterior), posterior decompression (214 patients; 145 laminoplasty and sixty-nine foraminotomy), arthroplasty (thirty-two patients), and a combination of arthroplasty and anterior arthrodesis (seventeen patients). Secondary surgery on adjacent segments occurred at a relatively constant rate of 2.3% per year (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 2.9). Kaplan-Meier analysis predicted that 21.9% of patients would need secondary surgery on adjacent segments by ten years postoperatively. Factors increasing the risk were smoking, female sex, and type of procedure. The posterior arthrodesis group (posterior-only or combined anterior and posterior arthrodesis) had a 7.5-times greater risk of adjacent-segment pathology requiring reoperation than posterior decompression, and a 3.0-times greater risk than the anterior arthrodesis group. However, when we compared the anterior cervical arthrodesis group, the arthroplasty group (arthroplasty or hybrid arthroplasty), and the posterior decompression group to each other, there were no significant differences. Age, neurological diagnosis, diabetes, and number of surgically treated segments were not significant risk factors.Conclusions: Patients treated with posterior or combined anterior and posterior arthrodesis were far more likely to develop clinical adjacent-segment pathology requiring surgery than those treated with posterior decompression or anterior arthrodesis. Smokers and women had a higher chance of clinical adjacent-segment pathology after cervical spine surgery.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.


Leem J.W.,Kyung Hee University | Song Y.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Yu J.S.,Kyung Hee University
Optics Express | Year: 2011

We fabricated the germanium (Ge) subwavelength structures (SWSs) using gold (Au) metallic nanopatterns dewetted by rapid thermal annealing and inductively coupled plasma etching in SiCl4 plasma for Ge-based photovoltaic cells. Using the optimized Au nanopatterns as an etch mask, the Ge SWSs were formed by varying the etching parameters to achieve the better antireflection properties. The reflectance of Ge SWSs depended strongly on their period, height, and shape which are closely related to the refractive index profile between air and the Ge substrate. The tapered cone Ge SWSs reduced considerably the reflectance compared to the samples with a truncated cone shape as well as the Ge substrate due to the linearly graded refractive index distribution from air to the Ge substrate. The Ge SWS with the tapered cone shape and high height exhibited a dramatic decrease in the reflectance (i.e., <10%) over a wide wavelength region of 350-1800 nm, thus leading to a low solar weighted reflectance of ∼3.6%. The reflectance was also lower than ∼8.8% at a wavelength of 633 nm in the incident angle range of 15-85°. The measured reflectance data of Ge SWSs showed similar trends to the calculated results in a rigorous coupled wave analysis simulation. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Li T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li T.,Kyung Hee University | Lee J.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Wang R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Kang Y.T.,Kyung Hee University
Energy | Year: 2013

A latent heat storage nanocomposite made of stearic acid (SA) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is prepared for thermal energy storage application. The thermal properties of the SA/MWCNT nanocomposite are characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) analysis techniques, and the effects of different volume fractions of MWCNT on the heat transfer enhancement and thermal performance of stearic acid are investigated during the charging and discharging phases. The SEM analysis shows that the additive of MWCNT is uniformly distributed in the phase change material of stearic acid, and the DSC analysis reveals that the melting point of SA/MWCNT nanocomposite shifts to a lower temperature during the charging phase and the freezing point shifts to a higher temperature during the discharging phase when compared with the pure stearic acid. The experimental results show that the addition of MWCNT can improve the thermal conductivity of stearic acid effectively, but it also weakens the natural convection of stearic acid in liquid state. In comparison with the pure stearic acid, the charging rate can be decreased by about 50% while the discharging rate can be improved by about 91% respectively by using the SA/5.0% MWCNT nanocomposite. It appears that the MWCNT is a promising candidate for enhancing the heat transfer performance of latent heat thermal energy storage system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hahn W.-H.,Soonchunhyang University | Bae C.-W.,Kyung Hee University
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2014

Background: A number of recent reports have suggested that the cystatin C/creatinine (CysC/Cr) ratio might be a useful biomarker of renal function in pediatric patients. In this study we investigated the reference intervals of the serum CysC/Cr ratio for neonates including very low birth weight infants. Case-Diagnosis/Treatment: A total of 883 blood samples were collected from 246 neonates during the first 30 days of life for the concurrent measurement of serum CysC and Cr levels. Infants with symptoms or signs of acute kidney injury, systemic illness, congenital anomaly, or renal pathology were excluded. The association between serum CysC/Cr ratio and the subgroups of patients was also analyzed. Reference intervals of serum CysC/Cr ratio were determined according to the postnatal age and post-conceptional age (PCA). CysC/Cr ratio level increased according to PCA, except in the first three postnatal days. The serum CysC/Cr ratio correlated positively with gestational age at birth, birth weight, postnatal age, and PCA, and negatively with serum CysC and Cr (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Reference levels of serum CysC/Cr ratio were determined according to postnatal age and PCA. As the serum CysC/Cr ratio is dependent on several clinical parameters, these should be considered when assessing the serum CysC/Cr ratio in neonates. © 2013 IPNA.


Leem J.W.,Kyung Hee University | Song Y.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Yu J.S.,Kyung Hee University
Optics Express | Year: 2011

Broadband wide-angle antireflection characteristics of aluminumdoped zinc oxide (AZO)/silicon (Si) shell/core subwavelength grating (SWG) structures with a hydrophobic surface, together with theoretical prediction using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation, were investigated for Si-based solar cells. The AZO films with different thicknesses were deposited on Si SWGs by rf magnetron sputtering method, which forms a shell/core structure. The AZO/Si shell/core SWGs reduced significantly the surface reflection compared to the AZO films/Si substrate. The coverage of AZO films on Si SWGs improved the antireflective property over a wider incident angle. The AZO/Si shell/core SWG structure with a 200 nm-thick AZO layer deposited at an rf power of 200 W exhibited a water contact angle of 123°. This structure also exhibited a low average reflectance of ∼2% over a wide wavelength range of 300-2100 nm with a solar weighted reflectance of 2.8%, maintaining a reflectance of < 9.2% at wavelengths of 300-2100 nm up to the incident angle of θi = 70°. The effective electrical properties of AZO films in AZO/Si shell/core SWGs were also analyzed. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Lee J.C.,Soonchunhyang University | Lee S.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Peters C.,University of Washington | Riew K.D.,University of Washington
Spine | Year: 2015

Study Design. A retrospective study. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine, using survivorship analysis, the rate of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) development and to identify the risk factors for reoperation. Summary of Background Data. The study of Hilibrand defined "adjacent segment disease" as symptomatic radiculopathy or myelopathy due to an adjacent segment documented on 2 consecutive office visits. In addition to being somewhat subjective, their criterion is not as practical as identifying the rate of adjacent pathology by the need for reoperation. Methods. This was a retrospective analysis of 1038 consecutive patients who underwent primary anterior cervical spine arthrodesis for radiculopathy and/or myelopathy by 1 surgeon. Annual incidence and prevalence of ASP requiring surgery were calculated and survivorship was determined. We used the Cox regression for risk factor analysis. Results. Secondary surgery on adjacent segments occurred at a relatively constant rate of 2.4% per year (95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.0). The Kaplan-Meier analysis predicted that 22.2% of patients would need reoperation at adjacent segments by 10 years postoperatively. Factors increasing the risk were smoking, female sex, and the number of arthrodesis segments. One or 2-segment arthrodesis had an 1.8 times greater risk than arthrodesis involving 3 or more segments. Age, neurological diagnosis, diabetes, Klippel-Feil syndrome, and noncontiguous segmental-type ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament were not significant risks. Conclusion. Patients treated with 1- or 2-segment anterior cervical arthrodesis are more likely to develop ASP than those treated with arthrodesis involving 3 or more segments. Smokers and women had a higher ASP reoperation rate. Our series, the largest in the literature, predicts that 22.2% of patients will require reoperation for ASP within 10 years, substantially higher than the Hilibrand study. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Lee M.,Kyung Hee University | Lim J.S.,Institute Of Fisica Interdisciplinar I Of Sistemes Complexos Ifisc Csic Uib | Lopez R.,Institute Of Fisica Interdisciplinar I Of Sistemes Complexos Ifisc Csic Uib | Lopez R.,University of the Balearic Islands
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

We investigate the dynamical and transport features of a Kondo dot side coupled to a topological superconductor (TS). The Majorana fermion states (MFSs) formed at the ends of the TS are found to be able to alter the Kondo physics profoundly: For an infinitely long wire where the MFSs do not overlap (εm=0) a finite dot-MFS coupling (Γm) reduces the unitary-limit value of the linear conductance by exactly a factor 3/4 in the weak-coupling regime (ΓmTK), on the other hand, the spin-split Kondo resonance takes place due to the MFS-induced Zeeman splitting, which is a genuine many-body effect of the strong Coulomb interaction and the topological superconductivity. We find that the original Kondo resonance is fully restored once the MFSs are strongly hybridized (εm>Γ m). This unusual interaction between the Kondo effect and the MFS can thus serve to detect the Majorana fermions unambiguously and quantify the degree of overlap between the MFSs in the TS. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Kim W.-C.,Michigan State University | Ko J.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Han K.-H.,Michigan State University | Han K.-H.,Chonnam National University
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

While many aspects of primary cell wall have been extensively elucidated, our current understanding of secondary wall biosynthesis is limited. Recently, transcription factor MYB46 has been identified as a master regulator of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. To gain better understanding of this MYB46-mediated transcriptional regulation, we analyzed the promoter region of a direct target gene, AtC3H14, of MYB46 and identified a cis-acting regulatory motif that is recognized by MYB46. This MYB46-responsive cis-regulatory element (M46RE) was further characterized and shown to have an eight-nucleotide core motif, RKTWGGTR. We used electrophoretic mobility shift assay, transient transcriptional activation assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis to show that the M46RE was necessary and sufficient for MYB46-responsive transcription. Genome-wide analysis identified that the frequency of M46RE in the promoters were highly enriched among the genes upregulated by MYB46, especially in the group of genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kim J.E.,Kyung Hee University | Kim J.E.,Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

Heavy axion-like particles, called axizillas, are simple extensions of the standard model (SM). An axizilla is required not to couple to the quarks, leptons, and Brout-Englert-Higgs doublets of the SM, but couple to the gauge anomalies of the W±, Z and photon. It is possible to have its branching ratios (BRs) to two photons greater than 10% and to two Z's less than 10%. To have a (production cross section).(BR to di-photons) at a 10-38 cm2 level, a TeV scale heavy quark Q is required for the gluon-quark fusion process. The decay of Q to axizilla plus quark, and the subsequent decay of the axizilla to two photons can be fitted at the required level of 10-38 cm2. © 2016 The Author.


Hwang W.J.,Kyung Hee University | Hong O.,University of California at San Francisco
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing | Year: 2012

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality. Numerous investigations have linked occupational factors and CVD. Occupational factors such as overtime work have an enormous effect on the CVD risk of industrial workers. However, risk factors for CVD are not systematically reviewed in the workplace. The purpose of the paper is to review work-related risk factors for CVD. Methods: A systematic review of work-related CVD risk factors was performed, yielding 180 articles. All articles were assessed in relation to inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in 44 articles being reviewed. The sole inclusion criteria was work-related environmental factors and intra/inter-personal factors (psychosocial factors), which is based on the socioecological perspective. The articles were also assessed regarding the quality of each study using the scoring methods developed by Cesario et al. and Brown et al. Conclusion: The literature review demonstrated that work environment factors such as shift work, overtime work, and noise and chemical exposures; and psychosocial factors such as job stress, social support, and socioeconomic status cannot be explained or intervened by one single risk factor. Furthermore, certain occupational factors were shown to aggravate or attenuate other risk factors. The implication of these findings is to incorporate work-related environmental and psychosocial factors into assessment of the patient's CVD risks and intervention plan. Future research should also incorporate a well-defined conceptual framework to address the effects of work-related environmental and psychosocial factors on CVD among CVD patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.


Lee C.K.,Kyung Hee University | Lee S.-H.,Soonchunhyang University | Hwangbo Y.,Soonchunhyang University
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy | Year: 2011

Background: Digital chromoendoscopy (DCE) has the potential for the in vivo optical diagnosis of colon polyps. However, no comparison of different DCE technologies currently exists. Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficacies of narrow-band imaging (NBI) with those of I-Scan for the real-time histological prediction of diminutive colonic polyps (DCPs) (≤5 mm) by using the simple unified endoscopic classification. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Academic hospital. Patients: In total, 296 DCPs from 142 patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy were assessed. Interventions: All DCPs detected during withdrawal were evaluated for the surface details by using high-definition white-light colonoscopy, and thereafter by using DCE (NBI or I-Scan) without optical magnification. The histology of all polyps was predicted in real-time and confirmed through the evaluation of biopsy or polypectomy specimens. Main Outcome Measurements: Diagnostic efficacies of NBI and I-Scan. Results: NBI and I-Scan displayed a significantly higher sensitivity and improved accuracy compared with high-definition white-light colonoscopy for the prediction of adenomas (P <.05). No significant differences were evident between the NBI and I-Scan (sensitivity, 88.8% vs 94.6%; specificity, 86.8% vs 86.4%; accuracy, 87.8% vs 90.7%, respectively; P >.05). Additionally, substantial levels of intra- and interobserver agreement between the NBI and I-Scan were measured (κ values >0.7). Limitations: No randomized or crossover design. Conclusions: NBI and I-Scan displayed a similar efficacy for the real-time histological prediction of DCPs. The simple unified endoscopic classification can be used for the interpretation of DCE, regardless of the type of technology. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT1133041.) © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.


Rabbachin A.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Quek T.Q.S.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Shin H.,Kyung Hee University | Win M.Z.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2011

Opportunistic spectrum access creates the opening of under-utilized portions of the licensed spectrum for reuse, provided that the transmissions of secondary radios do not cause harmful interference to primary users. Such a system would require secondary users to be cognitivethey must accurately detect and rapidly react to varying spectrum usage. Therefore, it is important to characterize the effect of cognitive network interference due to such secondary spectrum reuse. In this paper, we propose a new statistical model for aggregate interference of a cognitive network, which accounts for the sensing procedure, secondary spatial reuse protocol, and environment-dependent conditions such as path loss, shadowing, and channel fading. We first derive the characteristic function and cumulants of the cognitive network interference at a primary user. Using the theory of truncated-stable distributions, we then develop the statistical model for the cognitive network interference. We further extend this model to include the effect of power control and demonstrate the use of our model in evaluating the system performance of cognitive networks. Numerical results show the effectiveness of our model for capturing the statistical behavior of the cognitive network interference. This work provides essential understanding of interference for successful deployment of future cognitive networks. © 2006 IEEE.


Kim Y.,University of Minnesota | Kim Y.,Kyung Hee University | Mohrig J.R.,Carleton College | Truhlar D.G.,University of Minnesota
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Distinguishing between the concerted second-order mechanism for I-eliminations and nonconcerted mechanisms with discrete carbanion intermediates is very difficult experimentally, but the ability of quantum chemistry to find stationary points of the free-energy surface in liquid-phase solutions, even for complex reagents, provides a new tool for elucidating such mechanisms. Here we use liquid-phase density functional theory calculations to find transition states and intermediates on the free-energy surfaces of four base-initiated α, β-eliminations of acetoxy and mesyloxy esters and their analogous thioesters. The geometries, free energies, and charge distributions of these structures support a stepwise irreversible first-order elimination from a conjugate base (E1cBI) mechanism with acetoxy ester 3, acetoxy thioester 4, and mesyloxy thioester 6. However, mesyloxy ester 5, which has an excellent nucleofuge and a less-acidic proton, follows a concerted but asynchronous E2 mechanism with an E1cB-like transition state. The anti transition state is more favorable than the syn one, even for the poorer nucleofuge and more-acidic thioesters. The article includes a general scheme for describing liquid-phase reactions in terms of free-energy surfaces. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Lee M.-S.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Lee K.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Kim S.-Y.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Lee H.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | And 7 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

Transparent electrodes that can remain electrically conductive and stable under large mechanical deformations are highly desirable for applications in flexible and wearable electronics. This paper describes a comprehensive study of the electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional graphene and networks of one-dimensional metal nanowires, and their use as transparent and stretchable electrodes. Low sheet resistance (33 Ω/sq) with high transmittance (94% in visible range), robust stability against electric breakdown and oxidation, and superb flexibility (27% in bending strain) and stretchability (100% in tensile strain) are observed, and these multiple functionalities of the hybrid structures suggest a future promise for next generation electronics. The use of hybrid electrodes to fabricate oxide semiconductor transistors and single-pixel displays integrated on wearable soft contact lenses with in vivo tests are demonstrated. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Yeo M.-K.,Kyung Hee University | Nam D.-H.,Chonnam National University
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

We investigated the environmental fate and bioaccumulation of TiO 2 nanomaterials in a simplified paddy microcosm over a period of 17 days. Two types of TiO2 nanomaterials, nanoparticles (TiO 2-NP) and nanotubes (TiO2-NT), were synthesized to have a negative surface charge. Ti concentrations in the environmental media (water, soil), crops (quillworts, water dropworts), and some lower and higher trophic organisms (biofilms, algae, plant-parasitic nematodes, white butterfly larva, mud snail, ricefish) were quantified after exposure periods of 0, 7, and 17 days. The titanium levels of the two nanomaterials were the highest in biofilms during the exposure periods. Bioaccumulation factors indicated that TiO 2-NP and TiO2-NT were largely transferred from a prey (e.g., biofilm, water dropwort) to its consumer (e.g., nematodes, mud snail). Considering the potential entries of such TiO2 nanomaterials in organisms, their bioaccumulation throughout the food chain should be regarded with great concern in terms of the overall health of the ecosystem. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Leem J.W.,Kyung Hee University | Kim S.,Yonsei University | Lee S.H.,Kyung Hee University | Rogers J.A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Energy Materials | Year: 2014

Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films with 2D periodic inverted moth-eye nanopatterns on one surface are implemented as antireflection (AR) layers on a glass substrate for efficient light capture in encapsulated organic solar cells (OSCs). The inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS (IMN PDMS) films are fabricated by a soft imprint lithographic method using conical subwavelength grating patterns formed by laser interference lithography/dry etching. Their optical characteristics, together with theoretical analysis using rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation, and wetting behaviors are investigated. For a period of 380 nm, IMN PDMS films laminated on glass substrates exhibit a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (θCA) of ≈120° and solar weighted transmittance (SWT) of ≈94.2%, both significantly higher than those (θCA≈ 36° and SWT ≈ 90.3%) of bare glass substrates. By employing IMN PDMS films with a period of 380 nm on glass substrates for OSCs, an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.19% is obtained mainly due to the increased short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 19.74 mA cm-2 compared to the OSCs with the bare glass substrates (PCE = 5.16% and Jsc = 17.25 mA cm-2). For the OSCs, the device stability is also studied. Inverted moth-eye nanopatterned poly-dimethylsiloxane (IMN PDMS) films fabricated by soft imprint lithography serve as antireflection (AR) layers on glass substrates for encapsulated organic solar cells. The AR IMN PDMS film, which has a hydrophobic surface, increases the short-circuit current density and thus improves the power conversion efficiency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hwang H.,Jamsil High School | Park S.,Kyung Hee University
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2015

Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between the four components of sensation seeking (i.e., disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, and boredom susceptibility) and three types of smoking behavior (i.e., non-smoking, experimental smoking, and current smoking) among high school students in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed using two models. In Model 1, the four subscales of sensation seeking were used as covariates, and in Model 2, other control factors (i.e., characteristics related to demographics, individuals, family, school, and friends) were added to Model 1 in order to adjust for their effects. Results: In Model 1, the impact of disinhibition on experimental smoking and current smoking was statistically significant. In Model 2, the influence of disinhibition on both of these smoking behaviors remained statistically significant after controlling for all the other covariates. Also, the effect of thrill and adventure seeking on experimental smoking was statistically significant. The two statistically significant subscales of sensation seeking were positively associated with the risk of smoking behaviors. Conclusions: According to extant literature and current research, sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition, is strongly associated with smoking among youth. Therefore, sensation seeking should be measured among adolescents to identify those who are at greater risk of smoking and to develop more effective intervention strategies in order to curb the smoking epidemic among youth. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Sungkyunkwan University and Kyungpook National University | Date: 2015-02-18

The present invention relates to a building energy simulation method may include the steps of: inputting building geometry and coded material information into a building information input program to generate a building information file; importing the building information file into a middleware; mapping the imported coded material information with the imported building geometry through the middleware; and converting the mapped building geometry and the mapped coded material information into an energy simulation program file through the middleware. The building geometry, the coded material information, and the coded space type information may be interconnected through the building information input program which supports BIM, and energy-simulated on the energy simulation program (EnergyPlus or program based on ISO 13790).


The present invention relates to a transformed continuously reinforced concrete pavement structure using a short reinforcing bar and crack induction, the structure including: a crack induction part combined with short reinforcing bars spaced apart from each other, the short reinforcing bars replacing a predetermined number of continuous reinforcing bars in a concrete pavement layer of a continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) structure.


Pereira J.P.A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Kim D.-J.,Kyung Hee University | Duarte C.A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Computational Mechanics | Year: 2012

This paper presents a generalized finite element method (GFEM) for crack growth simulations based on a two-scale decomposition of the solution-a smooth coarse-scale component and a singular fine-scale component. The smooth component is approximated by discretizations defined on coarse finite element meshes. The fine-scale component is approximated by the solution of local problems defined in neighborhoods of cracks. Boundary conditions for the local problems are provided by the available solution at a crack growth step. The methodology enables accurate modeling of 3-D propagating cracks on meshes with elements that are orders of magnitude larger than those required by the FEM. The coarse-scale mesh remains unchanged during the simulation. This, combined with the hierarchical nature of GFEM shape functions, allows the recycling of the factorization of the global stiffness matrix during a crack growth simulation. Numerical examples demonstrating the approximating properties of the proposed enrichment functions and the computational performance of the methodology are presented. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Sadleir R.J.,University of Florida | Grant S.C.,Florida A&M University | Woo E.J.,Kyung Hee University
NeuroImage | Year: 2010

We sought to determine the feasibility of directly studying neural tissue activity by analysis of differential phase shifts in MRI signals that occurred when trickle currents were applied to a bath containing active or resting neural tissue. We developed a finite element bidomain model of an aplysia abdominal ganglion in order to estimate the sensitivity of this contrast mechanism to changes in cell membrane conductance occurring during a gill-withdrawal reflex. We used our model to determine both current density and magnetic potential distributions within a sample chamber containing an isolated ganglion when it was illuminated with current injected synchronously with the MR imaging sequence and predicted the resulting changes in MRI phase images. This study provides the groundwork for attempts to image neural function using Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT). We found that phase noise in a candidate 17.6T MRI system should be sufficiently low to detect phase signal differences between active and resting membrane states at resolutions around 1mm3. We further delineate the broad dependencies of signal-to-noise ratio on activity frequency, current application time and active tissue fractions and outline strategies that can be used to lower phase noise below that presently observed in conventional MREIT techniques. We also propose the idea of using MREIT as an alternative means of studying neuromodulation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Lim Y.T.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Son J.Y.,Kyung Hee University | Rhee J.-S.,Kyung Hee University
Ceramics International | Year: 2013

We report a vertical ZnO nanorod array as a highly sensitive hydrogen gas sensor. The vertical ZnO nanorod array on an Nb/Si substrate was fabricated using an anodized aluminum oxide nanotemplate and an atomic layer deposition method. The vertical ZnO nanorod array hydrogen gas sensor exhibited a high sensitivity for hydrogen in a wide concentration range. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.


Lee J.-H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Jeong Y.K.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Park J.H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Oak M.-A.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

SmFeO3, a family of centrosymmetric rare-earth orthoferrites, is known to be nonferroelectric. However, we have found that SmFeO3 is surprisingly ferroelectric at room temperature with a small polarization along the b axis of Pbnm. First-principles calculations indicate that the canted antiferromagnetic ordering with two nonequivalent spin pairs is responsible for this extraordinary polarization and that the reverse Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction dominates over the exchange-striction mechanism in the manifestation of the improper ferroelectricity. SmFeO3 further exhibits an interesting phenomenon of spontaneous magnetization reversal at cryogenic temperatures. This reversal is attributed to the activation of the Sm-spin moment which is antiparallel to the Fe-spin moment below ∼5K. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Todorovic M.S.,University of Belgrade | Todorovic M.S.,Kyung Hee University | Kim J.T.,Kyung Hee University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2012

Further advance of the healthy building's energy efficiency and sustainability is inextricably linked to the building's envelopes/facades physics study, particularly fundamentals of the dynamic control of sunlight and optimal control of solar heat gains. Based on the improved understanding of mechanism which physically control specific materials intensity, e.g. absorption, reflection and transmission of solar radiation, are to be improved strategies to dynamically control separation of the daylight admittance from the solar heat gains. Relevant dynamic control mathematical models and algorithms, as well as infrastructure/hardware and software integrated performance prediction and validation are to be further developed. This paper reviews the most recent research and development results, the current state of the science and art, as well as some of the ongoing R&D at the edge of new breakthroughs of the healthy buildings daylighting dynamic control's performance prediction and validation. Finally defined is a challenging future research goal - tuning control of buildings glazing's transmittance dependence on the solar radiation wavelength to optimize daylighting and building's energy efficiency. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cho J.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Lee J.,Kyung Hee University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013

As the number of new products developed by new technologies has increased, the importance of the commercialization of new technology products has become crucial to manufactures in the successful delivery of valuable new products and services. This study classified success factors for commercialization of new products and analyzed which factors should be primarily considered. Based on the literature review and Delphi method, we identified four decision areas and further prioritized the sixteen factors under a hierarchy model structured by fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process) approach. The FAHP is conducted by 111 R&D and business experts working at the world's major players in machinery industry; using the priorities of success factors derived by FAHP, we devise an example of commercialization assessment model. The paper drives the assessment initiatives of the new product development in manufactures and provides them with practical implications about the commercialization of new technology product. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Choi B.G.,KAIST | Hong J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Hong W.H.,KAIST | Hammond P.T.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Park H.,Kyung Hee University
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Rhyee J.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Ahn K.,Samsung | Lee K.H.,Samsung | Ji H.S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Shim J.-H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

The state-of-the-art record of thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) of 1.53 at 425 °C is achieved by chlorine doping in In4Se 3-xCl0.03 bulk crystalline materials as used for n-type thermoelectric energy harvesting. The low-dimensional property imparted by chlorine doping significantly increases the electrical conductivity and reduces the thermal conductivity resulting in a high power factor over a wide temperature range. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Ashoorioon A.,Lancaster University | Dimopoulos K.,Lancaster University | Sheikh-Jabbari M.M.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | Sheikh-Jabbari M.M.,Kyung Hee University | And 2 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The BICEP2 experiment has announced a signal for primordial gravity waves with tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.2-0.05+0.07 [1]. There are two ways to reconcile this result with the latest Planck experiment [2]. One is by assuming that there is a considerable tilt of r, Tr, with a positive sign, Tr=dlnr/dlnk≳0.57-0.27+0.29 corresponding to a blue tilt for the tensor modes of order nT≃0.53-0.27+0.29, assuming the Planck experiment best-fit value for tilt of scalar power spectrum n S. The other possibility is to assume that there is a negative running in the scalar spectral index, dn S/dln k ≃ - 0.02 which pushes up the upper bound on r from 0.11 up to 0.26 in the Planck analysis assuming the existence of a tensor spectrum. Simple slow-roll models fail to provide such large values for Tr or negative runnings in n S [1]. In this note we show that a non-Bunch-Davies initial state for perturbations can provide a match between large field chaotic models (like m2φ2) with the latest Planck result [3] and BICEP2 results by accommodating either the blue tilt of r or the negative large running of n S. © 2014 The Authors.


Kim J.T.,Kyung Hee University | Todorovic M.S.,Kyung Hee University | Todorovic M.S.,University of Belgrade
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2013

Further advance of glazed, healthy building's energy efficiency and sustainability is inextricable linked to the building's envelopes/facades fundamental physics study related to the dynamic control of sunlight and optimal control of solar heat gains. Relevant mathematical models and algorithms, as well as infrastructure/hardware and software integrated performance prediction and validation are studied. Reviewed is the most recent analytical and experimental research, current state of science and art, as well as some of the on-going R&D at the edge of new breakthroughs of the healthy buildings daylighting dynamic control's performance prediction and validation. It has been shown that, concerning the variability of the solar radiation spectra incident on the building's envelope, and also variability of outdoor and indoor air temperature differences, it is necessary tuning control of glazing's transmittance dependence on the solar radiation wavelength, with an aim to optimize daylighting with the reference to people needs (their health and comfort), and energy (thermal and electrical loads minimization). Finally, presented are elements of an analytical modeling approach, as initial results of study, aimed to reach a challenging research goal - Tuning control of buildings Glazing's transmittance dependence on the solar radiation wavelength to optimize daylighting and building's energy efficiency. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kim J.T.,Kyung Hee University | Todorovic M.S.,Kyung Hee University | Todorovic M.S.,University of Belgrade
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2013

As, fossil energy resources are closer to their exhaustion, global warming in raise, and more catastrophic weather extremes are occurring worldwide, there are more and more warnings that the risks to the Earth humanity survival are also in growth. The Earth/humanity as a whole is becoming more complex system than ever. Trying to find a way to make a turn from the current one-way irreversibility to sustainability, it is necessary to find universal schemes, quantities, indicators and criteria relevant for the Earth and humanity's resilience and sustainability. Presented is a review of the multi-criteria sustainability analysis methods (intrinsic thermodynamic based on energy, exergy, sustainability index, analytic hierarchy process, etc.). It has been shown that crucial sensitivity of all methods is related to the selected sets of energy criteria (economical, social and environmental) and to the mathematical algorithms for the determination of the weighted factor and sub-indicators agglomeration. Also, shown is that concerning buildings sustainability is missing indicator relevant to the indoor comfort and people health, accompanied with a comprehensive, physically sound assessment methodology for building's synergetic environmental performance - twofold metrics with the reference to outdoor and indoor built environment concerning people health and comfort. A scheme of a structure and spatio-temporal vision of the Global sustainable development is presented - showing that the approach to the global sustainable development can be reliable only if it is based on a system of real human and ethical values applicable to every social, cultural and economic situation. Finally paper summarizes needs for future multidisciplinary, inter- and cross-disciplinary study on healthy sustainable buildings, interwoven with harmony and holistic people health and well-being research. That research is to be physically sound - intrinsic thermodynamic, harmonious green, and relevant metrics is to be free of the short-term politically shaped and quasi-economically distorted approaches, because the world is to get what is painfully missing - a standard metrics of the sustainability index, universally acceptable. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Choi B.G.,KAIST | Park H.S.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

The micro- and macroscopic structures of functional films strongly influence the critical properties, such as superhydrophobicity, which exhibits super water repellency with a water contact angle (CA) larger than 150° for self-cleaning and antimicrobial surfaces. However, it is difficult to achieve the structural hierarchy of two-dimensional graphene for superhydrophobicity. Herein, we report the fabrication of superhydrophobic graphene/Nafion nanohybrid films by controlling the structures with respect to the chemical composition from an interpenetrating networked and compactly interlocked structure (surface area of 9.56 m 2 g -1) to the hierarchical petal-like, porous structure (surface area of 413.46 m 2 g -1). The superhydrophobicity of hybrid thin films with a CA of ∼161° was derived from the petal-like structure with hierarchical roughness, where microscale roughness was produced in the lateral direction of hybrid sheets while nanoscopic roughness was created on the edges of hybrid sheets. Furthermore, the wettability and optical and electrical properties of hybrid thin films can be controlled by manipulating the micro- and macroscale structures through the composition-dependent structural changes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Todorovic M.S.,University of Belgrade | Todorovic M.S.,Kyung Hee University | Kim J.T.,Kyung Hee University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2012

Emphasizing that sustainable development, health, social security and renewable energy sources implementation are inextricably linked, paper examines the state of the art of building's health and sustainability relevant technologies. Sustainability definitions, relevant criteria and indicators related to healthy buildings have been searched and studied. Reviewed is the wide range of physically sound interdisciplinary research, results of which are new knowledge and developed synergetic analytical/experimental methods that lead to a sustainable, healthy, comfortable/productive indoor and outdoor environment. Research and knowledge based building intelligence and e-automation are elucidated as crucial technologies and techniques for design, construction and operation of sustainable buildings. Study shows, that qualitative relations and relevant comparative evaluation methods between indoor environmental quality and work performance or health, and further relation of both to the energy and energy efficiency, are not enough neither known nor searched. Initiated research is devoted to the healthy and sustainable buildings relevant performance modeling, evaluation methods and metrics investigation, and determination of all relevant interdependent relations, as well as determination of the relevant synergetic sustainability criteria and indicators. Initial results of related research are presented. Further research needs are outlined, drawing the attention on the role of harmony and interdisciplinarity in synergetic buildings health/sustainability study. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Park J.,KAIST | Nguyen K.T.,KAIST | Park E.,KAIST | Jeon J.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Choi G.,KAIST
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

DELLA proteins, consisting of GA INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3, RGA-LIKE1 (RGL1), RGL2, and RGL3, are central repressors of gibberellin (GA) responses, but their molecular functions are not fully understood. We isolated four DELLA- interacting RING domain proteins, previously designated as BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 INTERACTOR (BOI), BOI-RELATED GENE1 (BRG1), BRG2, and BRG3 (collectively referred to as BOIs). Single mutants of each BOI gene failed to significantly alter GA responses, but the boi quadruple mutant (boiQ) showed a higher seed germination frequency in the presence of paclobutrazol, precocious juvenile-to-adult phase transition, and early flowering, all of which are consistent with enhanced GA signaling. By contrast, BOI overexpression lines displayed phenotypes consistent with reduced GA signaling. Analysis of a gai-1 boiQ pentuple mutant further indicated that the GAI protein requires BOIs to inhibit a subset of GA responses. At the molecular level, BOIs did not significantly alter the stability of a DELLA protein. Instead, BOI and DELLA proteins are targeted to the promoters of a subset of GA-responsive genes and repress their expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the DELLA and BOI proteins inhibit GA responses by interacting with each other, binding to the same promoters of GA-responsive genes, and repressing these genes. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.


Kim Y.-H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Cho H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Heo J.H.,Kyung Hee University | Kim T.-S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2015

(Graph Presented).Bright organic/inorganic hybrid perov-skite light-emitting diodes (PrLEDs) are realized by using CH3NH3PbBr3 as an emitting layer and self-organized buffer hole-injection layer (Buf-HIL). The PrLEDs show high luminance, current efficiency, and EQE of 417 cd m-2, 0.577 cd A-1, and 0.125%, respectively. Buf-HIL can facilitate hole injection into CH3NH3PbBr3 as well as block exciton quenching. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Hur S.-T.,Kyung Hee University | Lee B.R.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Gim M.-J.,Kyung Hee University | Park K.-W.,Kyung Hee University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

A lasing peak shift of more than 100 nm is realized due to the large shift of a photonic bandgap of a liquid-crystalline blue phase. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


De Gonzalez A.B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Kim K.-P.,Kyung Hee University | Smith-Bindman R.,University of San Francisco | McAreavey D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Circulation | Year: 2010

Background-: Myocardial perfusion scans contribute up to 20% of the estimated annual collective radiation dose to the US population. We estimated potential future cancer risk from these scans by age at exposure and current frequency of use in the United States. Methods and results-: Usage patterns were determined from national survey data, and radionuclide dosage was based on current guidelines. Cancer risk projection models were generated on the basis of the National Research Council Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII report, under the assumption that risk has a linear relationship with radiation exposure even at low doses. The mean projected number of radiation-related incident cancers and 95% uncertainty intervals were estimated with the use of Monte Carlo simulations. Estimated risks for a scan performed at age 50 years ranged from 2 cancers per 10 000 scans (95% uncertainty interval, 1 to 5) for a positron emission tomography ammonia-13 test to 25 cancers per 10 000 scans (95% uncertainty interval, 9 to 58) for a dual-isotope (thallium-201 plus technetium-99m) scan. Risks were 50% lower at age 70 years but were similar for men and women. The combination of cancer risk estimates and data on frequency of use suggests that the 9.1 million myocardial perfusion scans performed annually in the United States could result in 7400 (95% uncertainty interval, 3300 to 13 700) additional future cancers. Conclusions-: The lifetime cancer risk from a single myocardial perfusion scan is small and should be balanced against likely benefit and appropriateness of the test. The estimates depend on a number of assumptions, including life expectancy. They apply directly to asymptomatic individuals with life expectancies similar to those of the general population. For individuals with a symptomatic clinical profile, on whom such scans are typically performed, the risks will be lower because of shorter life expectancy. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.


Kim H.H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee C.-O.,KAIST
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2011

A two-level nonoverlapping Schwarz algorithm is developed for the Stokes problem. The main feature of the algorithm is that a mixed problem with both velocity and pressure unknowns is solved with a balancing domain decomposition by constraints (BDDC)-type preconditioner, which consists of solving local Stokes problems and one global coarse problem related to only primal velocity unknowns. Our preconditioner allows to use a smaller set of primal velocity unknowns than other BDDC preconditioners without much concern on certain flux conditions on the subdomain boundaries and the inf-sup stability of the coarse problem. In the two-dimensional case, velocity unknowns at subdomain corners are selected as the primal unknowns. In addition to them, averages of each velocity component across common faces are employed as the primal unknowns for the three-dimensional case. By using its close connection to the Dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting (FETI-DP algorithm) (SIAM J Sci Comput 2010; 32: 3301-3322; SIAM J Numer Anal 2010; 47: 4142-4162], it is shown that the resulting matrix of our algorithm has the same eigenvalues as the FETI-DP algorithm except zero and one. The maximum eigenvalue is determined by H/h, the number of elements across each subdomains, and the minimum eigenvalue is bounded below by a constant, which does not depend on any mesh parameters. Convergence of the method is analyzed and numerical results are included. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Park B.J.,Kyung Hee University | Lee D.,University of Pennsylvania
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2014

Particles ranging in size from a few nanometers to tens of micrometers have a strong tendency to adsorb at interfaces between two immiscible fluids (e.g., water and oil or air). The driving force for this strong interfacial attachment is a reduction in interfacial area, and thus, interfacial energy. To design and engineer the structure and properties of materials constructed by such colloidal systems, it is imperative to understand the behavior of particles at fluid interfaces at the single-particle level and to establish the relationship between the microscopic behavior of interfacial particles and the bulk properties of particle-laden interfaces. In this article, we present background information on the behavior of particles at fluid-fluid interfaces and highlight recent advances in understanding the effects of particle shape and surface wettability on the behavior of particles at the interfaces. We also discuss recent advances in using interfacial attachment to direct the assembly of nanomaterials to create hierarchical structures with designed properties. © Materials Research Society 2014.


Zhao L.,University of Pennsylvania | Zevallos S.E.,University of Pennsylvania | Rizzoti K.,UK National Institute for Medical Research | Jeong Y.,University of Pennsylvania | And 3 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2012

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a congenital brain anomaly that results in pituitary, optic nerve, and midline forebrain defects. The etiology of SOD is poorly understood, with the majority of cases being sporadic. In rare instances, SOD is caused by mutations in Sox2, Sox3, or Hesx1, but how this manifests in disease is not entirely certain. We demonstrate here that mouse embryos lacking Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the prospective hypothalamus exhibit key features of SOD, including pituitary hypoplasia and absence of the optic disc. The hypothalamic source of Shh is required to maintain gene expression boundaries along the anteroposterior and mediolateral neural axes that are important for proper pituitary and eye development, respectively. We further reveal that Sox2 and Sox3 are dose-dependent regulators of Shh transcription that directly bind and activate a long-range Shh forebrain enhancer. These data indicate that reduced levels of Shh expression in the hypothalamus cause SOD. Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a congenital brain anomaly resulting in pituitary hormone deficiency and blindness. Zhao et al. reveal that reducing hypothalamic Sonic hedgehog (Shh) production causes SOD-like phenotypes in mice. Transcription factors mutated in human SOD patients regulate hypothalamic Shh expression, suggesting a unified model for the disorder. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Ha T.-L.,Kyung Hee University | Kim J.G.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Kim S.M.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Lee I.S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Annealing of MnO@SiO2 nanospheres in a reducing gas environment resulted in the transformation of the core-shell structure into a hollow structure as a result of outward diffusion of MnO species into the thermodynamically more stable silicate phase. When the hollow silicate nanospheres were oxidized, the interior cavities were refilled with a Mn 3O4 phase segregated from the silicate phase, and the hollow structure reverted to the initial core-shell structure. More interestingly, when catalytically active Pt nanocrystals were introduced into the manganese oxide/silica system, the Mn3O4 was readily reduced to the chemically reactive MnO, even at low temperature, which enabled reconversion of the solid nanospheres with a Mn3O4 core to hollow nanostructures during reductive annealing. Therefore, when MnO@SiO 2Pt(II) nanospheres were subjected to an oxidation/reduction cycle by repeatedly switching the flowing gas between air and hydrogen, the nanospheres underwent a reversible change between solid and hollow structures, depending on the gas environment. The solid-to-hollow-to-solid transformation was successfully cycled many times simply by repeatedly switching the flowing gas during annealing. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Shin Y.-S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Son J.Y.,Kyung Hee University | Jo M.-H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Shin Y.-H.,University of Ulsan | Jang H.M.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are fabricated by dip-pen nanolithography and polystyrene etching techniques on a SrTiO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate. A GNR field-effect transistor (FET) shows bipolar FET behavior with a high mobility and low operation voltage at room temperature because of the atomically flat surface and the large dielectric constant of the insulating SrTiO3 layer, respectively. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Kim J.W.,KAIST | Park S.C.,Kyung Hee University
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

This paper considers 'two-stage' call centers where some incoming calls are completed by first service while others require an additional second service. Although this type of call center is not uncommon, it has not been dealt with, if any, in the call center literature. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the 'two-stage' call center and discuss its features. Furthermore, we develop an effective outsourcing strategy in 'two-stage' call centers. To this end, we model 'two-stage' service system and propose several call routing structures. The structures are compared through numerical test and conventional queueing theories form the theoretical basis of our study. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kim S.M.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Jeon M.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Kim K.W.,Kyung Hee University | Park J.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Lee I.S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A postsynthetic protocol of functionalizing the preformed hollow nanoparticles with metal nanocrystals was developed based on galvanic replacement reaction on the Mn3O4 surface inside the cavity. The developed protocol produced hollow nanoreactor systems, in which a high density of ultrafine catalytic nanocrystals of a range of noble metals, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ir and their alloys, are dispersively immobilized on an interior surface enclosed by a selectively permeable silica shell. The fabricated hollow nanoreactor exhibited highly enhanced activity, selectivity, and recyclability in catalyzing the oxidation of hydrosilanes, which are attributable to the synergistic combination of the porous silica nanoshell and the oxide-immobilized catalyst system. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Son J.Y.,Kyung Hee University | Lee J.-H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Song S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Shin Y.-H.,University of Ulsan | Jang H.M.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

Multiferroics that show simultaneous ferroic responses have received a great deal of attention by virtue of their potential for enabling new device paradigms. Here, we demonstrate a high-density four-states multiferroic memory using vertically aligned Mn-doped BaTiO3 nanorods prepared by applying the dip-pen nanolithography technique. In the present nanorods array, the polarization (P) switching by an external electric field does not influence the magnetization (M) of the nanorod owing to a negligible degree of the P-M cross-coupling. Similarly, the magnetic-field-induced M switching is unaffected by the ferroelectric polarization. On the basis of these, we are able to implement a four-states nonvolatile multiferroic memory, namely, (+P,+M), (+P,-M),(-P,+M), and (-P,-M) with the reliability in the P and M switching. Thus, the present work makes an important step toward the practical realization of multistate ferroic memories. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Kim K.W.,Kyung Hee University | Kim S.M.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Choi S.,Chungbuk National University | Kim J.,Chungbuk National University | Lee I.S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Figure Persented: A novel electroless Pt deposition method was exploited by employing the galvanic replacement process occurring between the Mn 3O 4 surface and PtCl 4 2- complexes. The newly discovered process provides a simple protocol to produce the catalytic nanocomposite, in which a high density of ultrafine Pt nanocrystals is stably immobilized in a homogeneously dispersive state on the surface of Mn 3O 4 nanoparticles. When the eletrocatalytic activity was tested for the oxygen reduction reaction, which limits the rate of the overall process in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, the resulting Pt/Mn 3O 4 nanocomposite showed highly enhanced specific activity and durability, compared with those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Kim S.A.,Kyung Hee University | Liddle A.R.,University of Sussex | Seery D.,University of Sussex
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We study perturbations in the multifield axion N-flation model, taking account of the full cosine potential. We find significant differences from previous analyses which made a quadratic approximation to the potential. The tensor-to-scalar ratio and the scalar spectral index move to lower values, which nevertheless provide an acceptable fit to observation. Most significantly, we find that the bispectrum non-Gaussianity parameter fNL may be large, typically of order 10 for moderate values of the axion decay constant, increasing to of order 100 for decay constants slightly smaller than the Planck scale. Such a non-Gaussian fraction is detectable. We argue that this property is generic in multifield models of hilltop inflation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Kang M.,Kyung Hee University | Im T.,Florida State University
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2013

Interaction in the online learning environment has been regarded as one of the most critical elements that affect learning outcomes. This study examined what factors in learner-instructor interaction can predict the learner's outcomes in the online learning environment. Learners in K Online University participated by answering the survey, and data from 654 respondents were analysed for this study. Results showed that factors related to instructional interaction predicted perceived learning achievement and satisfaction better than factors related to social interaction. However, it was revealed that social interaction such as social intimacy could negatively affect perceived learning achievement and satisfaction. This study has value because it found factors under learner-instructor interaction which predict perceived learning achievement and satisfaction with empirical evidence. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Ma H.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Li H.,Kyung Hee University
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2013

The oscillation of frequency in power grid is studied in this paper. The possibility association of frequencies measured at different locations are modeled by a Bayesian network with the logical structure learned using Bayesian structure learning and real measurements in the U.S. power grid. Frequency data analysis and the detection of incorrect frequency measurements (caused by equipment error or malicious attack) are performed over the logical Bayesian network structure. Such application of Bayesian network is a powerful mathematical tool in computational intelligence. Without the physical power network topology information, a two-branch search-and-score structure learning algorithm with L -1 regulation is proposed to learn the logical structure, achieving around 97% correct prediction rate for future frequency and 92% detection rate for false frequency data with 2% false alarm rate. The tool of epidemic propagation over this logical network is also exploited to analyze the propagation of frequency changes. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, such logical structure is demonstrated to be well approximated by the Small World network model. And the propagation of frequency changes is demonstrated to be described by the Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model quite well. The Bayesian structure obtained from the real measurement is statistically validated using a 5-fold training data and the Pearson system. © 2012 IEEE.


Lee J.-H.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lee J.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Ang J.K.,University of California at Los Angeles | Xiao X.,University of California at Los Angeles
RNA | Year: 2013

RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies hold enormous promise for novel discoveries in genomics and transcriptomics. In the past year, a surge of reports has analyzed RNA-Seq data to gain a global view of the RNA editome. Opposing results have been presented, giving rise to extensive debate surrounding one of the first such studies in which a daunting list of all 12 types of RNA-DNA differences (RDDs) were identified. Although a consensus is forming that some of the initial "paradigm-shifting" results of this study may be questionable, recent reports on this topic differed in terms of the number and relative abundance of each type of RDD. Many outstanding issues exist, most importantly, the choice of bioinformatic approaches. Here we discuss the critical data analysis and experimental design issues of such studies to enable improved systematic investigation of the largely unexplored frontier of single-nucleotide variants in RNA. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Copyright © 2013 RNA Society.


Wang Y.,Cornell University | Wang Y.,Kyung Hee University | Liu T.,Medimagemetric, Llc
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine | Year: 2015

In MRI, the main magnetic field polarizes the electron cloud of a molecule, generating a chemical shift for observer protons within the molecule and a magnetic susceptibility inhomogeneity field for observer protons outside the molecule. The number of water protons surrounding a molecule for detecting its magnetic susceptibility is vastly greater than the number of protons within the molecule for detecting its chemical shift. However, the study of tissue magnetic susceptibility has been hindered by poor molecular specificities of hitherto used methods based on MRI signal phase and T2∗ contrast, which depend convolutedly on surrounding susceptibility sources. Deconvolution of the MRI signal phase can determine tissue susceptibility but is challenged by the lack of MRI signal in the background and by the zeroes in the dipole kernel. Recently, physically meaningful regularizations, including the Bayesian approach, have been developed to enable accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for studying iron distribution, metabolic oxygen consumption, blood degradation, calcification, demyelination, and other pathophysiological susceptibility changes, as well as contrast agent biodistribution in MRI. This paper attempts to summarize the basic physical concepts and essential algorithmic steps in QSM, to describe clinical and technical issues under active development, and to provide references, codes, and testing data for readers interested in QSM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Park K.-S.,University of Virginia | Park K.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Gumbiner B.M.,University of Virginia
Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

We previously provided evidence that cadherin-6B induces de-epithelialization of the neural crest prior to delamination and is required for the overall epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, de-epithelialization induced by cadherin-6B was found to be mediated by BMP receptor signaling independent of BMP. We now find that de-epithelialization is mediated by non-canonical BMP signaling through the BMP type II receptor (BMPRII) and not by canonical Smad dependent signaling through BMP Type I receptor. The LIM kinase/cofilin pathway mediates non-canonical BMPRII induced de-epithelialization, in response to either cadherin-6B or BMP. LIMK1 induces de-epithelialization in the neural tube and dominant negative LIMK1 decreases de-epithelialization induced by either cadherin-6B or BMP. Cofilin is the major known LIMK1 target and a S3A phosphorylation deficient mutated cofilin inhibits de-epithelialization induced by cadherin-6B as well as LIMK1. Importantly, LIMK1 as well as cadherin-6B can trigger ectopic delamination when co-expressed with the competence factor SOX9, showing that this cadherin-6B stimulated signaling pathway can mediate the full EMT in the appropriate context. These findings suggest that the de-epithelialization step of the neural crest EMT by cadherin-6B/BMPRII involves regulation of actin dynamics via LIMK/cofilin. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Jung H.S.,Korea University | Han J.H.,Kyung Hee University | Habata Y.,Toho University | Kang C.,Kyung Hee University | Kim J.S.,Korea University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

An 'ensemble'-based fluoregenic chemodosimeter 1-Cu(ii) for detection of thiols is reported. Complex 1-Cu(ii) sensitively senses thiols followed by hydrolysis to give a marked fluorescence enhancement over other amino acids at pH 7.4 under aqueous media. Confocal microscopic imaging of complex 1-Cu(ii) is also herewith demonstrated for cellular thiol detection in HepG2 cells. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Baer H.,University of Oklahoma | Choi K.-Y.,Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute | Kim J.E.,Kyung Hee University | Roszkowski L.,National Center for Nuclear Research
Physics Reports | Year: 2015

Increasingly stringent limits from LHC searches for new physics, coupled with lack of convincing signals of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) in dark matter searches, have tightly constrained many realizations of the standard paradigm of thermally produced WIMPs as cold dark matter. In this article, we review more generally both thermally and non-thermally produced dark matter (DM). One may classify DM models into two broad categories: one involving bosonic coherent motion (BCM) and the other involving WIMPs. BCM and WIMP candidates need, respectively, some approximate global symmetries and almost exact discrete symmetries. Supersymmetric axion models are highly motivated since they emerge from compelling and elegant solutions to the two fine-tuning problems of the Standard Model: the strong CP problem and the gauge hierarchy problem. We review here non-thermal relics in a general setup, but we also pay particular attention to the rich cosmological properties of various aspects of mixed SUSY/axion dark matter candidates which can involve both WIMPs and BCM in an interwoven manner. We also review briefly a panoply of alternative thermal and non-thermal DM candidates. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Nguyen T.V.,Kyung Hee University | Shin H.,Kyung Hee University | Quek T.Q.S.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Win M.Z.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

In a cognitive radio network, opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) to the underutilized spectrum involves not only sensing the spectrum occupancy but also probing the channel quality in order to identify an idle and good channel for data transmissionparticularly if a large number of channels is open for secondary spectrum reuse. Although such a joint mechanism, referred to as active sensing, may improve the OSA performance due to diversity, it inevitably incurs additional energy consumption. In this paper, we consider a wideband cognitive radio network with limited available frame energy and treat a fundamental energy allocation problem: how available energy should be optimally allocated for sensing, probing, and data transmission to maximize the achievable average OSA throughput. By casting this problem into the multiarmed bandit framework under probably approximately correct (PAC) learning, we put forth a proactive strategy for determining the optimal sensing cardinality (the number of channels chosen to sense) and probing cardinality (the number of channels chosen to probe) that maximize the average throughput of the secondary user with limited available frame energy. This framework determines the optimal amount of pure exploration for the active sensing OSA bandit problem in which we refine the action (median) elimination algorithm for channel probing to minimize the sample complexity in PAC learning. Numerical results show that the optimal active sensing achieves a significant throughput gain over the (even optimal) sensing alone. Therefore, this work provides an energy allocation policy to optimally balance the available energy between exploration (sensing and probing) and exploitation (data transmission), giving the optimal diversity-energy tradeoff for the average OSA throughput. © 2011 IEEE.


Patent
Korea Food & Drug Administration, Kyung Hee University and Snu R&Db Foundation | Date: 2014-10-08

The pharmaceutical composition of the present invention, which comprises spinosin or a spinosin-containing herbal extract, is a composition for preventing and treating cognitive function disorders, and can effectively improve memory and learning ability, and effectively treat and prevent cognitive function disorders such as dementia and amnesia.


The technique uses a Digital Light Processing (DLP) projector, similar to those used in projection TVs, to generate lithographic patterns. By overlapping low-resolution frames of the DLP projector a much higher-resolution frame can be produced. The technique described in this week's journal, Applied Physics Letters, could improve 3-D printer performance. At the heart of the DLP projector is a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD), a small electro-mechanical device which is fabricated through a Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) process. The DMD is essentially an array of very small, controllable mirrors. By reflecting UV light from the mirror array and dynamically controlling each pixel of the array, various UV patterns are projected. The resolution, however, is strictly limited the pixel size of the DMD. Increasing the resolution of DMD to match that of other lithographic techniques is a challenge that was addressed by using this wobulation technique. "Wobulation works much like when two transparent, plaid backgrounds are stacked one above the other, the result would be a denser-looking plaid, but the square shape of the plaid is still obvious," said Wook Park, a physicist at Kyung Hee University in Seoul, South Korea. "If we instead shift one layer a bit with respect to the other, the ragged edge of the plaid pattern in much less obvious. In much the same way, we tried to better define the lithographic edge by exposing a UV pattern twice, staggering the second exposure with respect to the first, and by cutting the exposure time of each layer in half. Applying this wobulation technique we achieved an effect just as if a higher-resolution pattern was exposed for the whole exposure time." There were several benefits to this technique. For example, in the past high, magnification lenses were used to improve lithographic resolution, but this narrowed the field of view. With this approach, resolution is enhanced while maintaining the same field of view, reducing roughness without reducing throughput. The next step is to create more complex, three-dimensional hydrogel microstructures that can become a customized bio-fabrication platform. This will allow the development of a 3-D printer that combines a microfluidic device and 3-D printing techniques, providing the capability to continuously produce microcarriers, incorporating biomaterials. Application of the wobulation technique will enable the DLP-based 3-D printer to produce the more sophisticated microstructures needed for these applications. The team looks forward to realizing the potential of this technique. "One of the biggest challenges in developing 3-D printers is improving the resolution," Park said. "By applying wobulation to address that challenge, we expect to be able to improve the performance of already commercialized DLP 3-D printers." Explore further: HP Technology Doubles the Resolution of Digital Projection Displays More information: "Lithographic resolution enhancement of a maskless lithography system based on a wobulation technique for flow lithography," Applied Physics Letters, scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/109/23/10.1063/1.4967373


News Article | December 7, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

LUGANO-SINGAPORE, 7th December, 2016 - Pain relief and other forms of supportive care for cancer patients are insufficient, researchers report at the ESMO ASIA 2016 Congress in Singapore. They also highlight that side-effects to chemotherapy must be treated efficiently and that doctors should ensure end-of-life treatment meets patients' expectations. Despite existing recommendations on the need for early supportive care interventions for cancer patients (1,2,3) researchers are still reporting inadequate efforts to address pain, anxiety and other side effects of cancer treatment. A study from India presented at ESMO Asia 2016 shows that, for patients on government-funded health schemes, medical care for the toxic effects of chemotherapy is often highly restricted and this delays cancer treatment cycles. Drugs are often not fully funded so patients have to pay for them out of their own pocket. If they cannot afford to do this, then their supportive care is inadequate and they will suffer side effects from cancer drugs. This means they are unlikely to adhere to treatment for subsequent chemotherapy cycles. "The majority of patients treated under government schemes had poor quality of supportive care while on chemotherapy," said lead author Assistant Professor Himanshu Patel, a clinical pharmacist, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore, India. "We found its use was highly restricted, leading to side effects such as vomiting and infections, meaning the rescheduling of chemotherapy cycles for many patients.There's an urgent need for better treatment policies from government," he said. Supportive care such as pain relief, antibiotics and drugs to prevent nausea is recommended for advanced cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy by ESMO (1,2) and the World Health Organisation (3), among others. The study by Dr Patel (4) included interviews about supportive care with 850 patients over six months. Researchers reviewed what support was used including pain-relief, antibiotics and protein supplements. Results showed that access to drugs proven to be more effective in treating nausea and vomiting was highly restricted for patients on government-funded schemes in India. The same was true for medications to reduce infection risk and boost white blood cell production in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as protein supplements. To relieve cancer-related pain, four in five participants were prescribed tramadol, with access to morphine and other more effective painkillers limited. Privately-insured patients did not face the same limited access as those on government-funded schemes, which often did not cover out-of-pocket costs. Patel said: "Public cancer care schemes should follow guidelines and include adjuvant treatments in their budgets, according to international recommendations." Cure or symptom relief: what do cancer patients expect from treatment? Patients' expectations from palliative chemotherapy as well as their concerns as treatment progresses are explored in another study (5) reported at the ESMO Asia 2016 Congress. Results found that expectations among patients changed as care progressed. Nearly a third (n=11) on first line treatment expected a cure whereas later line patients said they anticipated an ordinary life with controlled symptoms. All patients put drug toxicity as their top concern, although anxiety around disease progression increased as patients advanced through treatment. Lead author Nobumichi Takeuchi, director of medical oncology, Ina Central Hospital, Ina, Japan, said: "Oncologists should assist end-of-life patients to focus on positive experiences such as a family event so they don't lose hope. The patient should drive this process with medical staff guiding and encouraging them with a questionnaire to identify their expectations." Cancer pain and how to prioritise its treatment is the focus of a study (6) which evaluated the difference in quality of life (QoL) and demand for pain relief. Researchers compared the experiences of patients with background cancer pain (BCP) - persistent pain lasting at least 12 hours - and breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) where patients experience brief but severe flare-ups of discomfort. Results found that patients with uncontrolled BCP had a lower QoL than those with BTcP. Those with moderate or severe BCP experienced sleep disorders and dissatisfaction with pain control compared with BTcP patients (p Lead author Assistant Professor Sun Kyung Baek, a medical oncologist, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea, said: "Pain is one of the most feared symptoms in cancer patients and impacts significantly on their well-being. Physicians should be aware of and control background pain first, even though acute pain also has a negative impact on quality of life ." A total of 1,841 patients were recruited including those experiencing high (n=496) to moderate (n=736) pain, and BTcP (n=609). They completed a questionnaire on their experiences including pain severity, treatment, and satisfaction with how their cancer pain was dealt with. Commenting on the results of these studies, Dr Grace Yang, a consultant at the National Cancer Centre, Singapore, said: "The findings from these studies highlight the need to improve both the effectiveness of, as well as access to, supportive care measures that can relieve cancer-related symptoms and treatment-related side effects. "This will improve patient quality of life, enable cancer therapy to be administered, and is aligned with the expectations of patients themselves."


Seo Y.,Korea Expressway Corporation | Kim S.-M.,Kyung Hee University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The first attempt has been made in Korea to quantify the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from the consumption of main and basic materials for road, bridge and tunnel constructions. These materials-induced CO2 emissions were estimate using the amount of materials consumed and corresponding CO2 emission factors. A simple linear relation was developed between unit price and emission factor for some of basic materials whose emission factors were not available. To demonstrate overall and unit emissions, twelve expressway sections constructed between 2006 and 2007 have been selected and consumed materials have been identified. The unit emissions were then utilized to estimate the total emissions that might have been released from all types of roads (expressways, national highways and local roads) up to the year 2007. Also, the effects of number of traffic lanes and bridge types on the CO 2 emissions were briefly discussed. Finally, average annual CO 2 emissions were predicted based on road construction plans from 2009 to 2020. One of the results suggested that bridges should induce the largest emissions per meter (120.1 tCO2/m), followed by tunnels (29.6 tCO2/m) and road-only sections (7.5 tCO2/m) due to the consumption of main construction materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Jung U.,Dongguk University | Seo D.W.,Kyung Hee University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2010

As countries strive to become more efficient in investing limited resources in various national R&D projects, the evaluation of project has become increasingly important. However, due to the heterogeneity of the objectives of national R&D programs, few studies have been conducted on comparing programs on the basis of performance. This study explores the application of the analytic network process (ANP) approach for the evaluation of R&D projects that are elements of programs with heterogeneous objectives. The ANP produced the final priorities of projects with respect to benefits and costs when there are interdependencies between programs and evaluation criteria. The paper provides value to practitioners by providing a generic model for project evaluation. For researchers, the paper demonstrates a novel application of ANP under specific situation of heterogeneous objectives. The ANP approach is tested against empirical data drawn from R&D projects sponsored by the Korean government. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kim K.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Egan J.M.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Jang H.-J.,Kyung Hee University
Diabetologia | Year: 2014

Aims/hypothesis This study was designed to ascertain whether human enteroendocrine cells express bitter taste receptors, and whether activation of these receptors with bitter-tasting ligands induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). Methods We used human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells, isolated duodenal segments from mice, and whole mice as our experimental systems for investigating stimuli and mechanisms underlying GLP-1- and PYY-stimulated release. We measured hormone levels by ELISA and determined bitter taste receptor expression by real-time quantitative PCR. We adopted a pharmacological approach using inhibitors and enhancers of downstream signalling pathways known to be involved in bitter taste transduction in taste bud cells to investigate these pathways in NCI-H716 cells. Results Using a pharmacological approach, we identified signalling pathways triggered by the denatonium benzoate (DB)-activated bitter receptors. This involved activation of α-gustducin (Gαgust)-the specific G-protein subunit that is also present in taste bud cells-reduction of intracellular cAMP levels and enhancement of phospholipase C (PLC) activity, which ultimately led to increased intracellular calcium concentrations and hormone release. Gavage of DB, followed by gavage of glucose, to db/db mice stimulated GLP-1 and subsequent insulin secretion, leading to lower blood glucose levels. Conclusions/interpretation Our study demonstrates that activation of gut-expressed bitter taste receptors stimulates GLP-1 secretion in a PLC-dependent manner. In diabetic mice, DB (a ligand of bitter taste receptor cells), when given via gavage, lowers blood glucose levels in diabetic mice after oral glucose administration, through increased secretion of GLP-1. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ha Y.-M.,Gyeongsang National University | Hwang W.J.,Kyung Hee University
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction | Year: 2014

Internet addiction, especially its prevalence among adolescents and its predictors, has been the focus of much research. Few studies have investigated gender differences in the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological health among adolescents. The present study investigated gender differences in Internet addiction associated with self-rated health, subjective happiness, and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18 years using a nationally representative dataset. Data from 56,086 students (28,712 boys and 27,374 girls) from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools were analyzed. We found that 2.8 % of the students (3.6 % boys and 1.9 % girls) were addicted users, and the prevalence of Internet addiction was higher in boys than in girls. In multiple logistic regression analysis, three psychological health indicators including poor self-rated health, subjective unhappiness, and depressive symptoms were significantly related with Internet addiction in boys and girls. Girls with emotional difficulties such as subjective unhappiness or depressive symptoms had much higher risks of Internet addiction than did boys with similar problems. Further attention should be given to developing Internet addiction prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to fit boys’ and girls’ different needs. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Lee Y.,Kyung Hee University | Kwon O.,Kyung Hee University | Kwon O.,San Diego State University
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications | Year: 2011

To date, plenty of theories, such as the expectation-confirmation model (ECM), have been proposed to explain why and how consumers are motivated to continue to use web-based services. In particular, various affective factors have been proposed to explain user satisfaction and continued use of web-based services recently in the IS community. In IS continuance research, several affective factors, such as perceived playfulness, perceived enjoyment and pleasure, have been examined. Affective factors discussed in the existing continuance intention-related studies are mostly short-term emotional factors like this. However, if a user's continued usage of a web-based service can be interpreted as a long-term relationship between a user and the service, then the factors such as familiarity and intimacy which are the emotions created accumulatively over time based on an established relationship with the user can be helpful for better explaining the user's continuance intention. Also, if relationships between consumers and web-based services have been built up due to repetitive usage, then we can assume that both affective and cognitive factors may explain consumers' continuance intention. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to propose an extended ECM. We focus on two new constructs, familiarity and intimacy, as persistent affective factors. To investigate how cognitive and affective factors are interrelated in continuance intention, we conducted surveys focusing on users' continued intention to use web-based services. The results indicate that continuance intention is affected conjointly by cognitive factors, such as perceived usefulness, and affective factors, such as familiarity and intimacy. However, the effects of affective factors such as intimacy were larger than those of cognitive factors such as perceived usefulness. In addition, the results indicate that intimacy, a purer affective concept than familiarity, affects users' continuance intention more than familiarity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hoang P.H.,Chungnam National University | Park H.,Kyung Hee University | Kim D.-P.,Chungnam National University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Despite many efforts on the synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials with uniform structure and narrow size distribution in a fast and continuous way, it is still a critical challenge in the chemistry research community due to the uncontrollable mass and heat transfer and the harsh experimental conditions of high temperature and pressure. Here we report a droplet- and ionic liquid-assisted microfluidic (DIM) synthesis method, which takes full advantage of both ionic liquids and droplet-assisted microreaction systems, for an ultrafast, mild, and continuous synthesis of various inorganic nanomaterials that takes only tens of minutes rather than days that are usually needed to synthesize. In particular, unaccommodating inorganic nanomaterials that are difficult to produce, such as nanoporous ZSM-5, γ-AlOOH, and β-FeOOH nanorods, were synthesized in only "20 minutes" of reaction time even with simple instrument. The DIM method delineated herein would offer a breakthrough synthetic approach for functional but unaccommodating inorganic nanomaterials in a continuous and mild manner. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Park S.K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Ryoo J.-H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Ryoo J.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Kim M.-G.,Dongguk University | Shin J.-Y.,Seoul National University
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - Elevated serum ferritin has been known to be associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, there was no research to examine whether serum ferritin levels have been actually associated with the prospective development of MetS. Accordingly, we carried out a prospective study to evaluate the longitudinal effects of baseline serumferritin levels on the development of MetS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A MetS-free cohort of 18,022 healthy Korean men, who had participated in a medical health checkup program in 2005, was followed until 2010. MetS was defined according to the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Cox proportional hazards models were performed. RESULTS - During 45,919.3 person-years of follow-up, 2,127 incident cases of MetS developed between 2006 and 2010. After adjusting for multiple covariates, the hazard ratios (95%CI) for incident MetS comparing the second quintile to the fifth quintile of serumferritin levels versus the first quintile were 1.19 (0.98-1.45), 1.17 (0.96-1.43), 1.36 (1.12-1.65), and 1.66 (1.38-2.01), respectively (P for trend >0.001). These associations were apparent in the clinically relevant subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS - Elevated serum ferritin levels were independently associated with future development of MetS during the 5-year follow-up period. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.


Han H.,Dongguk University | Tai Kim J.,Kyung Hee University
Energy | Year: 2010

A fiber optic solar concentrator system with a simple parabolic profile is designed and fabricated to deliver a stream of high-density solar flux into the interior of a building for indoor illumination. The system consists of a small dish concentrator (30 cm in diameter), an optical fiber cable and a diffuser at the end. A series of tests are performed using a goniophotometer and spectrometer to investigate the photometric characteristics of the system in terms of luminous intensity distribution and spectral radiance, which are used in link with the actual photometric measurements for a lightless mock-up space of 4.9 m × 4.9 m × 2.6 m. The illuminance on the working plane was continuously monitored at 25 points by using photometric sensors. Measurements clearly indicate the photometric characteristics of the present system where a constant level of indoor illumination is observed depending on the sky clearness. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shin S.-H.,Chungnam National University | Kim Y.-H.,Chungnam National University | Lee M.H.,Kyung Hee University | Jung J.-Y.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials | Nah J.,Chungnam National University
ACS Nano | Year: 2014

We report high-performance flexible nanogenerators (NGs) based on a composite thin film, composed of hemispherically aggregated BaTiO3 nanoparticles (NPs) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) P(VDF-HFP). The hemispherical BTO-P(VDF-HFP) clusters were realized by a solvent evaporation method, which greatly enhanced piezoelectric power generation. The flexible NGs exhibit high electrical output up to ∼75 V and ∼15 μA at the applied force normal to the surface, indicating the important role of hemispherical BTO clusters. Besides, the durability and reproducibility of the NGs were tested by cyclic measurement under bending stage, generating the output of ∼5 V and ∼750 nA. The approach we introduce here is simple, cost-effective, and well-suited for large-scale high-performance flexible NG fabrication. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Park M.,Gyeongsang National University | Seo S.,Gyeongsang National University | Lee I.S.,Kyung Hee University | Jung J.H.,Gyeongsang National University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2010

A new fluorogenic based aminonaphthalimide-functionalized Fe 3O4@SiO2 core/shell magnetic nanoparticles 1 has been prepared, and its abilities to sense and separate metal ions were evaluated by fluorophotometry. The nanoparticles 1 exhibited a high affinity and selectivity for Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ ions over competing metal ions. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Lee S.J.,Kyung Hee University | Mekjian A.Z.,Rutgers University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

A study of the properties of the symmetry energy of nuclei is presented based on density-functional theory. Calculations for finite nuclei are given so that the study includes isospin-dependent surface symmetry considerations as well as isospin-independent surface effects. Calculations are done at both zero and nonzero temperature. It is shown that the surface symmetry energy term is the most sensitive to the temperature while the bulk energy term is the least sensitive. It is also shown that the temperature-dependence terms are insensitive to the force used and even more insensitive to the existence of neutron skin. Results for a symmetry energy with both volume and surface terms are compared with a symmetry energy with only volume terms along the line of β stability. Differences of several MeV are shown over a good fraction of the total mass range in A. Also given are calculations for the bulk, surface and Coulomb terms. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Objective: The objectives of this study are (1) to establish a ubiquitous healthcare (u-healthcare) center for those who wish to use u-healthcare, allowing them to experience the service, and (2) to evaluate the users' awareness and expectations of the service based on their overall assessment. Materials and Methods: To establish the u-healthcare center, a kiosk, devices for health checkup, a body-type examination system, and a physical fitness assessment system were installed. Also, a u-healthcare Web site was developed. A survey was conducted on 280 individuals who visited the u-healthcare center and used the service, to determine (1) individual awareness of u-healthcare before using the service and their change of perception after use, (2) factors that affect the use of u-healthcare, and (3) the effects of disease awareness on exercise habits. Results: Only 25.4% of the participants were aware of u-healthcare, and only 36% who saw the u-healthcare center recognized that it was where the u-healthcare service was provided. The group of individuals who were willing to use the u-healthcare showed statistically significant differences in their satisfaction with the overall environment of the center, as well as the specificity of the descriptions, examination results, kindness of the staff, and their responses. Additionally, the group of individuals who were diagnosed with chronic diseases and the group who were not showed statistically significant differences in the number of days on which they exercised lightly or took a walk. Conclusions: To promote the usage of u-healthcare service, the understanding of the service and the credibility of examination results need to be increased by sharing successful cases. Furthermore, to expand the use of the system that allows a person to regularly check his or her state of health, a lifelong periodical management system linked with another medical welfare program will be needed. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.


Kwon O.,Kyung Hee University | Lee N.,Kyung Hee University | Shin B.,San Diego State University
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2014

Big data analytics associated with database searching, mining, and analysis can be seen as an innovative IT capability that can improve firm performance. Even though some leading companies are actively adopting big data analytics to strengthen market competition and to open up new business opportunities, many firms are still in the early stage of the adoption curve due to lack of understanding of and experience with big data. Hence, it is interesting and timely to understand issues relevant to big data adoption. In this study, a research model is proposed to explain the acquisition intention of big data analytics mainly from the theoretical perspectives of data quality management and data usage experience. Our empirical investigation reveals that a firm's intention for big data analytics can be positively affected by its competence in maintaining the quality of corporate data. Moreover, a firm's favorable experience (i.e., benefit perceptions) in utilizing external source data could encourage future acquisition of big data analytics. Surprisingly, a firm's favorable experience (i.e., benefit perceptions) in utilizing internal source data could hamper its adoption intention for big data analytics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Yu C.W.F.,International Society of the Built Environment | Kim J.T.,Kyung Hee University
Indoor and Built Environment | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the emission of formaldehyde and VOCs from wood-based panel products and the effect on indoor air quality (IAQ). The formaldehyde concentration monitored in four energy efficient test houses over a 7-year period has been included to illustrate the long-term effect of emissions from E1 wood-based panels used in dwellings. Formaldehyde emissions from wood-based floorboard obtained from investigation of sick buildings are included for comparison. Also discussed was the impact of fitting of a "low formaldehyde emitting" wardrobe in an energy-efficient test house and in an apartment home. The exposure risk of an individual unpacking the packages of the flat-packed wardrobes and during assembly was illustrated by measurement made in a 22 m3 chamber and in a test house. A variety of VOCs can be released from wood-based panels and associated materials. There is also a concern about the possible emission of wood preservative residues, such as pentachlorophenol from products made from contaminated wood sources. To minimise impact of formaldehyde and VOC emissions in homes and other buildings, building developers and designers should insist on certification of products based on available labelling schemes and this is required in some countries for assessment of Green Buildings. © The Author(s), 2011. Reprints and permissions.


The present invention relates to a peptide separated from the fraction of oyster enzyme hydrate displaying the ability of suppressing angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and a pharmaceutical composition for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease comprising the said peptide as an active ingredient. Particularly, the peptide separated from the fraction of the oyster enzyme hydrate of the present invention significantly inhibits ACE activity, and thus brings blood pressure regulating effect and antihypertensive effect. Therefore, the fraction of the oyster enzyme hydrate of the invention or the peptide separated from the same can be effectively used as an active ingredient of a pharmaceutical composition for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease.


Lee J.-W.,Kyung Hee University | Kim B.-S.,Sungkyunkwan University
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters | Year: 2010

This letter reports a K-band high-voltage power amplifier delivering 100 mW output power in CMOS technology. The amplifier used series-bias of four cascode power cells to increase operating voltage and achieve high output power. The two-stage series-bias amplifier showed a maximum small-signal gain of 19.5 dB, an output power of 20 dBm, and a PAE of 12.4% at 21 GHz. The results of this study will be useful for realizing a fully integrated single-chip transceiver at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. © 2010 IEEE.


Mandal D.,Kyung Hee University | Mandal D.,Jadavpur University | Yoon S.,Kyung Hee University | Kim K.J.,Kyung Hee University
Macromolecular Rapid Communications | Year: 2011

A single stage electrospinning process can give rise to preferentially oriented induced dipoles in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] nanofibers. The piezoelectricity of as-electrospun P(VDF-TrFE) nanofiber webs opens up new possibilities for their use as a flexible nanogenerators and nano-pressure sensors. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Lee J.,Dongseo University | Kim S.S.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Cyclophilins (Cyps), the intracellular receptor for immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA), play important cellular roles through activities of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and chaperones. Cyps are structurally conserved and found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including humans which contain 16 Cyp isoforms. Although human Cyps were identified about 25 years ago, their physiological and pathological roles have only been the focus of attention recently because of their possible involvement in diseases and ailments such as HIV infection, hepatitis B and C viral infection, atherosclerosis, ER stress-related diseases and neurodegenerative diseases, etc. There are reports for upregulated Cyps in many human cancers and there are also strong correlations found between Cyps overexpression and malignant transformation. This review discusses the important and diverse roles of Cyps overexpression in human cancers. Understanding biological functions of Cyps will eventually lead to improved strategies for cancer treatment and prevention. © 2010 Lee and Kim; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Hong J.-W.,Kyung Hee University | Park K.W.,Sungkyunkwan University
Experimental and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2010

Obesity is a leading risk factor for insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular complications, collectively referred to as metabolic diseases. Given the prevalence of obesity and its associated medical problems, new strategies are required to prevent or treat obesity and obesity-related metabolic effects. Here we summarize contributors of obesity, and molecular mechanisms controlling adipogenesis from studies in mammalian systems. We also discuss the possibilities of using Drosophila as a genetic model system to advance our understanding of players in fat biology.


You Y.,Kyung Hee University | Nam W.,Ewha Womans University
Chemical Science | Year: 2014

Metabolism of molecular oxygen in the human body inevitably produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the family of ROS, those exhibiting very high reactivities, including OH, OOH, ONOO-, HOCl, HOBr, and 1O2, remain relatively underexplored. While emerging evidence suggests that these ROS are critically involved in physiological function as well as the genesis and development of diseases, the scarcity of the knowledge about these species hampers full understanding of the pathophysiology caused by the oxidative metabolism. To unveil the molecular mechanisms of the ROS, photoluminescent probes capable of reporting identity, concentration, and trafficking of the individual class of the ROS are in great demand. In this Perspective, we focus on 1O2and OH and summarize the known principles for designing photoluminescent molecular probes for these species. Special emphasis is placed on molecular design to selectively detect 1O2and OH. Disadvantages and limitations of using the established probes for detection of biological 1O2and OH are discussed as well. Finally, we address the importance of metal-oxygen species, such as iron-oxygen complexes of peroxo, superoxo, and oxo ligands, in oxidative processes and modulation of ROS. Despite the fact that the very high reactivity of the metal-oxygen species is recognized to be a key factor in many oxidative metabolic pathways, strategies for rational design of photoluminescent probes for detection of these species have yet to be established. As an initial step, we summarize the reactivities of the iron-oxygen species and propose potential approaches for creation of fluorescent molecular probes in the future. The principles provided in this Perspective will be helpful for designing photoluminescent ROS probes capable of applications in the biological milieu. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


You Y.,Kyung Hee University | Cho S.,Ewha Womans University | Nam W.,Ewha Womans University
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Phosphorescence signaling provides a valuable alternative to conventional bioimaging based on fluorescence. The benefits of using phosphorescent molecules include improved sensitivity and capabilities for effective elimination of background signals by time-gated acquisition. Cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes are promising candidates for facilitating phosphorescent bioimaging because they provide synthetic versatility and excellent phosphorescence properties. In this Forum Article, we present our recent studies on the development of phosphorescence sensors for the detection of metal ions based on cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes. The constructs contained cyclometalating (C^N) ligands with the electron densities and band-gap energies of the C^N ligand structures systematically varied. Receptors that chelated zinc, cupric, and chromium ions were tethered to the ligands to create phosphorescence sensors. The alterations in the C^N ligand structures had a profound influence on the phosphorescence responses to metal ions. Mechanistic studies suggested that the phosphorescence responses could be explained on the basis of the modulation of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from the receptor to the photoexcited iridium species. The PeT behaviors strictly adhered to the Rehm-Weller principle, and the occurrence of PeT was located in the Marcus-normal region. It is thus anticipated that improved responses will be obtainable by increasing the excited-state reduction potential of the iridium(III) complexes. Femtosecond transient absorption experiments provided evidence for the presence of an additional photophysical mechanism that involved metal-ion-induced alteration of the intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) transition state. Utility of the mechanism by PeT and ILCT has been demonstrated for the phosphorescence sensing of biologically important transition-metal ions. In particular, the phosphorescence zinc sensor could report the presence of intracellular zinc pools by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and photoluminescence lifetime imaging microscopy techniques. We hope that the significant knowledge gained from our studies will be of great help in the design of new molecules as phosphorescence sensors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Kim S.,Kyung Hee University | Yoon P.H.,Kyung Hee University | Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College | Choe G.S.,Kyung Hee University | Wang L.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

This paper presents a theory for the asymptotically steady-state solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) in a local equilibrium with plasma wave turbulence. By treating the local solar wind electron VDF as superposition of three populationsthe low-energy Maxwellian core electrons with an energy range of tens of eV, the intermediate ∼103105 eV energy-range halo electrons, and the high ∼103105 eV energy-range superhalo electronsthe present paper puts forth a model in which the halo electrons are in dynamical steady state with the pervasive whistler fluctuations, while the superhalo electrons maintain dynamical steady-state equilibrium with the Langmuir fluctuations, known as the quasi-thermal noise. Customary models of the solar wind electrons include only the Maxwellian core and the halo (plus highly field-aligned strahl). While the present paper does not consider the strahl population in the discussion, the highly energetic superhalo component, which is observed to be present in all solar conditions, is explicitly taken into account as part of the total solar wind electron model. Comparisons with STEREO and WIND spacecraft observations are also made. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights.


Ryoo J.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Park S.K.,Sungkyunkwan University
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Background and objective: There have been reports for the association between elevated serum apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and several cardiometabolic disorders. However, it remains unclear whether serum ApoB level predicts the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Accordingly, we carried out a prospective study to evaluate the longitudinal effects of baseline serum ApoB levels on the development of MetS. Patients and methods: A cohort of 25,193 healthy Korean men without MetS had been followed up prospectively. Baseline serum ApoB levels were categorized to following quintiles (quintile 1-5: <76.4, 76.4-88.4, 88.4-99.5, 99.5-113.0, ≥113.0). We evaluated the differences in the incidence of MetS according to quintiles of serum ApoB levels. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for MetS. Results: During follow-up, 5407 (21.5%) cases developed MetS between 2006 and 2010. Incidence of MetS increased according to quintiles of serum ApoB levels [quintile 1-5: 9.1%, 16.4%, 22.1%, 27.3%, 36.4%, respectively (P for trend <0.001)]. Even after adjusting for various covariates including non-HDL-cholesterol, the hazard ratios (95% CI) for MetS increased in proportion to the quintiles of serum ApoB levels, compared to quintile 1 [quintile 2-5: 1.64 (1.43-1.89), 1.98 (1.71-2.31), 2.32 (1.96-2.75) and 2.92 (2.37-3.60), respectively (P for trend <0.001)]. These associations were apparent still in the clinically relevant subgroup analyses. Conclusions: Serum ApoB levels predict MetS, independent of baseline confounding variables including non-HDL-cholesterol. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College | Yoon P.H.,Kyung Hee University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

A recent observation shows that large-amplitude whistler waves propagating obliquely with respect to the ambient magnetic field may be responsible for energizing the radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies (MeV) within a time scale as short as a fraction of a second. Test-particle simulations available in the literature invariably adopt simple model wave forms for the oblique whistlers, such that rigorous analysis of these waves have not been performed to this date. The present Letter solves fully nonlinear cold electron fluid equation for obliquely propagating large-amplitude whistlers. Relativistic test particle simulation is then performed over these exact wave solutions, and it is shown that a population of initially low energy electrons can be accelerated tocal O 10 MeV energies, within a few seconds time scale. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College | Yoon P.H.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Geophysical Research A: Space Physics | Year: 2015

Spacecraft measurements of charged particles in the solar wind show that their velocity distributions deviate from thermal Maxwellian model, having energetic components with quasi-scale-free power law velocity dependence, f μ v-α, in the high-velocity range. It is customary to model such a feature by means of the kappa distribution, first introduced in the 1960s to empirically fit the data, but attempts have been made to understand the kappa distribution in terms of nonextensive statistical mechanics. A recent series of papers explore an alternative model, which may be interrelated with the nonextensive thermostatistical concept. According to the model, the electron kappa distribution is understood as a self-consistent steady state solution of the weak turbulence equation in which the electrons and electrostatic Langmuir turbulence are in dynamic equilibrium state. These papers also compared the theoretical kappa parameter with observations of quiet time solar wind electrons near 1 AU. However, the electrostatic Langmuir turbulence, also known as the quasi-thermal noise, requires a more in-depth analysis. The present paper extends the recent theory by including a discussion of electrostatic fluctuations in greater detail, thus bringing the theory to a full closure. Key Points Electron kappa VDF is asymptotic state of weak turbulenceThe associated quasi-thermal noise spectrum is calculatedComparison with observation is excellent ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College | Yoon P.H.,Kyung Hee University
Physics of Plasmas | Year: 2012

The suprathermal electron distributions with non-Maxwellian tail are commonly detected in space environment as well as in the laboratory. In a previous article [P. H. Yoon, Phys. Plasmas 18, 122303 (2011)], a self-consistent theory of asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity was formulated in which the steady-state electron distribution is obtained by balancing the spontaneous (or collisional) drag term and velocity space diffusion term, while the steady-state turbulence intensity was obtained by balancing spontaneous and induced processes. The resulting electron distribution function was a type of kappa distribution that features a non-Maxwellian energetic tail component. However, such a discussion was based upon the assumption that both electrons and Langmuir waves are confined to one-dimensional space along the direction of the implicit ambient magnetic field. However, such an assumption may be invalidated when the implicit ambient magnetic field is sufficiently weak or absent. Consequently, in this paper the assumption of one-dimensionality is relaxed to three-dimensional situation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Seough J.,Kyung Hee University | Yoon P.H.,Kyung Hee University | Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2012

The solar wind and the Earth's magnetosheath frequently possess proton temperature anisotropies that violate the predictions of adiabatic fluid theory. In the literature, various threshold conditions expressed as inverse correlations between the proton anisotropy, T⊥/T ∥, and parallel beta, β∥, have been constructed on the basis of linear stability analysis for anisotropy-driven instabilities, hybrid simulations, or by simply fitting the observations. For T⊥/T∥ > 1, proton cyclotron and mirror instabilities are operative, while for T∥ > T ⊥, parallel and oblique firehose instabilities can be taken into account in the construction of the inverse correlation. In the present paper, quasilinear kinetic theory of parallel proton cyclotron and firehose instabilities are employed to self-consistently construct the T ⊥/T∥ vs β∥ threshold conditions. In principle, such an approach eliminates the necessity for empirical models of inverse correlations, since inverse correlations should naturally emerge as the time-asymptotic states of quasilinear processes. It is found that the self-consistent threshold conditions constructed on the basis of quasilinear formalism compare reasonably well with available models, thus confirming that quasilinear method is a reasonable approach. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Hong J.-W.,Kyung Hee University | Park K.W.,Sungkyunkwan University | Levine M.S.,University of California at Berkeley
Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Differentiation of a specific organ or tissue requires sequential activation of regulatory genes. However, little is known about how serial gene expression is temporally regulated. Here, we present evidence that differential expression of single-minded (sim) target genes can be attributed, in part, to the number of Sim and Tango (Tgo) heterodimer binding sites within their enhancer regions. The Sim, termed a master regulator, directs ventral midline differentiation of Drosophila central nervous system (CNS). According to data on the onset timing of ventral midline gene expression, sim target genes are classified into at least 2 groups (early and late). The sim and rhomboid (rho) genes are activated during early midline differentiation whereas orthodenticle (otd), CG10249, and slit (sli) genes undergo activation during later stages of midline differentiation. Germline transformation and in situ hybridization with transgenic embryos demonstrate that enhancers activating sim and rho expression contain 4 Sim-Tgo binding sites whereas only 1 Sim-Tgo binding site is found in an enhancer of sli. A mutagenized version of the rho enhancer lacking either 1, 2, or 3 Sim-Tgo binding sites mediated progressively more delayed expression of a lacZ reporter gene in the ventral midline. In contrast, a modified sli enhancer displayed progressively earlier onset of lacZ expression when 1, 2, or 3 more Sim-Tgo binding sites were added. Taken together, these results suggest that the number of Sim-Tgo-binding sites is decisive in determining the timing of gene expression in the developing ventral midline. We also discuss a combinatorial model accounting for the sequential expression of sim target genes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Heo J.H.,Kyung Hee University | Han H.J.,Kyung Hee University | Kim D.,Sungkyunkwan University | Ahn T.K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Im S.H.,Kyung Hee University
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Hysteresis-less inverted ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3)/PCBM/Au planar hybrid solar cells with 18.1% average power conversion efficiency irrespective of the scan rate were fabricated by depositing dense pinhole-free MAPbI3 perovskite on a PEDOT:PSS/ITO substrate via a single-step spin-coating of solubility controlled MAPbI3 solution. The conductivities of PEDOT:PSS, PCBM, poly(triaryl amine) (PTAA):tert-butylpyrridne (tBP) + Li-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), MAPbI3, and TiO2 were 0.014, 0.016, 0.034, 0.015, and 0.00006 mS cm-1, respectively. The average PL lifetimes (τav) of the inverted and normal cell were 1.277 and 1.94 ns, respectively. The diffusion coefficient (Dn) and charge carrier lifetime (τn) for the inverted MAPbI3 planar hybrid solar cells were increased by 1.14-fold and 1.1-fold, respectively, compared with the conventional FTO/TiO2/MAPbI3/PTAA:tBP + Li-TFSI/Au planar hybrid cells. Hence, the inverted MAPbI3 planar hybrid solar cells exhibited better power conversion efficiency and stability than the conventional MAPbI3 cells because (i) the electron extraction from MAPbI3 to the electron conductor was improved because the electron conductivity of PCBM is higher than that of TiO2; (ii) the EQE value was increased by the better charge injection/separation efficiency between MAPbI3 and PCBM, and by the higher charge collection efficiency than the conventional cell; (iii) the fill factor is improved by the increased Dn and τn; and (iv) the air and humidity stability is improved by the absence of corrosive additives in the device architecture and the hydrophobicity of the PCBM top layer. The reduced current density-voltage (J-V) hysteresis with respect to the scan rate and scan direction in the inverted planar hybrid solar cells could be attributed to a more balanced electron flux (Je) and hole flux (Jh), and a reduced number of surface traps. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Yoon P.H.,Kyung Hee University | Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College | Seough J.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2012

The solar wind and the Earth's magnetosheath are often characterized by proton temperature anisotropies that cannot be discussed by adiabatic fluid theory. An excessive perpendicular temperature anisotropy may result when the plasma undergoes compression. The proton temperature anisotropy, T ⊥/T∥ > 1, leads to the proton cyclotron and mirror instabilities. Marginal stability conditions for these instabilities may be expressed as inverse correlations between T⊥/T ∥ and parallel beta, β. In the literature, these correlations are constructed on the basis of linear theory, hybrid simulations, or observational fitting. The present paper makes use of quasilinear theory for the proton cyclotron and mirror instabilities. In such an approach the inverse correlation naturally emerges as the time-asymptotic states of self-consistent evolution. The inverse correlation thus constructed shows the predominance of proton cyclotron instability for low β∥ regime, while for high β∥ values, the mirror instability dictates the inverse correlation. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Lee K.C.,Sungkyunkwan University | Chung N.,Kyung Hee University | Lee S.,Sejong University
Information and Management | Year: 2011

Due to competition, most firms try to retain and lock in customers; this is likely to ensure a greater market profit than that gained by acquiring new customers. While many studies have investigated customer satisfaction and retention in online and offline firms, scant research exists on customer satisfaction and customer retention in the context of brick-and-click firms: i.e., those that conduct business both online and in stores. Such firms encourage trust transfer among their customers. However, most studies have failed to consider the role of personal schema in trust transfer. Based on social exchange, investment, and information integration theories, we analyzed the impact of trust transfer, switching costs, and personal schema on customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions in the context of an offline bookstore that has now launched an online business. Our results indicated that trust transfer and switching costs had a small effect on customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions. Personal schema, however, affected both customer satisfaction and repurchase intention. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Yoo E.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Kim D.,Sungkyunkwan University
International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction | Year: 2013

Introduction and hypothesis: The study sought to identify the risk factors of postoperative use of antimuscarinics after transobturator surgery in women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) displaying both urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and involuntary detrusor contraction (IDC) with leakage in urodynamic study. Methods: The clinical data of 103 patients with MUI who underwent transobturator tape (TOT) sling surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were followed at least a year. To determine risk factors for postoperative use of antimuscarinics, variables of only those with P values < 0.05 on univariate analysis were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis with forward stepwise building. Results: Eight-four (81.6 %) of 103 patients were included in this study. The cure rate of urge urinary incontinence (UUI) was 69.0 % (58/84). Antimuscarinics were prescribed postoperatively in 22 (26.2 %) of 84 patients. Variables affecting postoperative use of antimuscarinics were age, parity, episode of any UUI, preoperative use of antimuscarinics, predominant urgency incontinence type, detrusor pressure at maximum flow, and Urogenital Distress Inventory 6. Increasing age and preoperative use of antimuscarinics increased the odds of postoperative use of antimuscarinics following TOT surgery. Conclusion: Patients who were older and had taken antimuscarinics preoperatively were significantly associated with postoperative use of antimuscarinics. © 2012 The International Urogynecological Association.


Park S.K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Seo M.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Shin H.C.,Sungkyunkwan University | Ryoo J.-H.,Kyung Hee University
Hepatology | Year: 2013

There have been several reports about the clinical association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, most of the studies were about the unilateral effects of type 2 DM on NAFLD, and studies on the reverse relation are rare. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the effect of NAFLD on type 2 DM. We conducted a prospective cohort study on 25,232 Korean men without type 2 DM for 5 years. We serially checked the various metabolic factors including fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and monitored the development of type 2 DM. The incidence rate of type 2 DM was compared according to the degree of NAFLD (normal, mild, and moderate to severe), and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to measure the hazard ratios (HRs) of NAFLD on type 2 DM. The incidence rate of type 2 DM increased according to the degree of NAFLD (normal: 7.0%, mild: 9.8%, moderate to severe: 17.8%, P < 0.001). Even after adjusting for other multiple covariates, the HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) for type 2 DM development was higher in the mild group (1.09; 0.81-1.48) and moderate to severe group (1.73; 1.00-3.01) compared to the normal group, respectively (P for trend <0.001). Conclusion: The development of type 2 DM is potentially more associated with more progressive NAFLD than a normal or milder state. In addition, NAFLD was an independent risk factor for the future development of type 2 DM. These results suggest the potential availability of NAFLD as an early predictor of type 2 DM. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Jang M.,Kyung Hee University | Kim S.S.,Kyung Hee University | Lee J.,Dongseo University
Experimental and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Cancer cell metabolism is characterized by an enhanced uptake and utilization of glucose, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. The persistent activation of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells can be linked to activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors, thereby fundamentally advancing cancer progression. In this respect, inhibition of glycolytic capacity may contribute to an anticancer effect on malignant cells. Understanding the mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis may present a new basis for cancer treatment. Accordingly, interrupting lactate fermentation and/or other cancer-promoting metabolic sites may provide a promising strategy to halt tumor development. In this review, we will discuss dysregulated and reprogrammed cancer metabolism followed by clinical relevance of the metabolic enzymes, such as hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase M2, lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and glutaminase. The proper intervention of these metabolic sites may provide a therapeutic advantage that can help overcome resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. © 2013 KSBMB.


Kim H.,Kyung Hee University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University
Reports on Mathematical Physics | Year: 2012

In this paper, some new traveling wave solutions of the (4 + 1)-dimensional Fokas equation, (3 + 1)-dimensional Jumbo. --Miwa equation and (2 + 1)-dimensional Boiti. --Leon. --Pempinelli equation are obtained through the (G′?G)-expansion technique. The key idea of this technique is to take full advantage of a Riccati equation involving two parameters and use its solutions in obtaining the traveling wave solutions. The results reveal that this technique is very effective and powerful for solving higher-dimensional nonlinear problems arising in mathematical physics. © 2012 Polish Scientific Publishers.


Kang M.H.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | Oh D.-J.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | Kang J.,Kyung Hee University | Rhee D.J.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE. An increased aqueous level of TGF-β has been found in many primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Secreted Protein, Acidic, and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC)-null mice have a lower intraocular pressure. The mechanistic relationship between SPARC and TGF-β in trabecular meshwork (TM) is unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β upregulates SPARC expression in TM. METHODS. Cultured TM cells were incubated with selective inhibitors for p38 MAP kinase (p38), Smad3, p42, JNK, RhoA, PI3K, or TGF-β receptor for 2 hours, and then TGF-β was added for 24 hours in serum-free media. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunoblot analysis were performed. Immunofluorescent microscopy was used to determine nuclear translocation of signaling proteins. Ad5.hSPARC and Lentiviral shRNA for p38 and Smad3 were constructed, and infected human TM cells. RESULTS. SPARC was upregulated by TGF-β in the human TM cells (3.8 6 1.7-fold, n 1/4 6, P 1/4 0.01 for protein and 7.1 6 3.7-fold, n 1/4 6, P 1/4 0.01 for mRNA), while upregulation of SPARC had no effect on TGF-β. TGF-β-induced SPARC expression was suppressed by inhibitors against p38 (-40.3±20.9%, n=10, P = 0.0001), Smad3 (56.2± 18.9%, n = 10, P = 0.0001), JNK (-49.1±24.6%, n = 10, P = 0.0001), and TGF-β receptor (-83.6±14.4%, n = 6, P = 0.003). Phosphorylation and translocation of Smad3, p38, and MAPKAPK2 were detected at 30 minutes and 1 hour, respectively, following TGF-β treatment. Phosphorylation of JNK and c-jun was detected before TGF-β treatment. SPARC was suppressed 31±13% (n = 5, P < 0.0001) by shRNA-p38 and 41 6 3% (n 1/4 5, P < 0.0001) by shRNA-Smad3. CONCLUSIONS. TGF-β upregulates SPARC expression in human TM through Smad-dependent (Smad2/3) or-independent (p38) signaling pathways. SPARC may be a downstream regulatory node of TGF-β-mediated IOP elevation.


Sivasubramanian M.,Kyung Hee University | Thambi T.,Sungkyunkwan University | Park J.H.,Sungkyunkwan University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

The extensive therapeutic potential of protein drugs has been severely limited by their instability and short biological half-lives in vivo. To prolong their therapeutic effects, a sustained delivery system is required. In this study, cyclodextrin-based polymeric nanoparticles (CD-NPs), mineralized by calcium phosphate as the diffusion barrier, were developed as a carrier for sustained protein delivery. Spherical CD-NPs were readily prepared by a conjugate, composed of β-CD as the protein-binding moiety and carboxymethyl dextran as the substrate for mineralization in a physiological solution. Owing to the presence of carboxylic acids in CD-NPs, they were effectively mineralized by sequential addition of calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate. The physicochemical characteristics of mineralized CD-NPs were characterized using FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mineralization reduced CD-NP particle size from 310 nm to 121 nm in PBS (pH 7.4) indicating the formation of compact nanoparticles. Carbonic anhydrase B (CAB), chosen as the model protein, was loaded into the mineralized CD-NPs with a high loading efficiency (80%) by a simple dialysis method. In vitro release tests showed that CAB was completely released from bare CD-NPs in 3 days. Interestingly, the mineralized CD-NPs released CAB in a sustained manner for 21 days, which was due to the stable calcium phosphate barrier inhibiting CAB release. The enzymatic activity of CAB, which was released from the nanoparticles, did not significantly deteriorate compared to native CAB. Overall, mineralized CD-NPs could be a promising carrier for sustained protein delivery. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shin N.-R.,Kyung Hee University | Lee J.-C.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee H.-Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim M.-S.,Kyung Hee University | And 3 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2014

Background: Recent evidence indicates that the composition of the gut microbiota contributes to the development of metabolic disorders by affecting the physiology and metabolism of the host. Metformin is one of the most widely prescribed type 2 diabetes (T2D) therapeutic agents. Objective: To determine whether the antidiabetic effect of metformin is related to alterations of intestinal microbial composition. Design: C57BL/6 mice, fed either a normal-chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), were treated with metformin for 6 weeks. The effect of metformin on the composition of the gut microbiota was assessed by analysing 16S rRNA gene sequences with 454 pyrosequencing. Adipose tissue inflammation was examined by flow cytometric analysis of the immune cells present in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Results: Metformin treatment significantly improved the glycaemic profile of HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice treated with metformin showed a higher abundance of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia than HFD-fed control mice. In addition, the number of mucin-producing goblet cells was significantly increased by metformin treatment (p<0.0001). Oral administration of Akkermansia muciniphila to HFD-fed mice without metformin significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and attenuated adipose tissue inflammation by inducing Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the VAT. Conclusions: Modulation of the gut microbiota (by an increase in the Akkermansia spp. population) may contribute to the antidiabetic effects of metformin, thereby providing a new mechanism for the therapeutic effect of metformin in patients with T2D. This suggests that pharmacological manipulation of the gut microbiota in favour of Akkermansia may be a potential treatment for T2D.


Hwang Y.,DePaul University | Hwang Y.,Kyung Hee University | Lee K.C.,Sungkyunkwan University
Information and Management | Year: 2012

Building online trust and understanding its relationship to online customer purchase decision making is important to e-commerce companies. We decided to investigate the moderating role of uncertainty avoidance on the relationship between subjective norms and online trust (integrity, ability, and benevolence) as well as purchase intention on a model we had developed. We generated a questionnaire and first pilot tested it (n = 116), and then modified it before performing the main test of our model (n = 209). Specifically, trust (cognition and affect based) was adapted to better understand social and cultural factors in online customer behavior. Uncertainty avoidance was found to moderate the relationships between subjective norms and two dimensions of cognition-based trust, (integrity and ability). Benevolence, however, was not found to have any relationship to cultural values or purchase intention. Normative influence on ability belief about the website was significant only when the online consumer had a high sense of uncertainty avoidance. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Kim H.-S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Im S.H.,Kyung Hee University | Park N.-G.,Sungkyunkwan University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014

Organolead-halide-perovskite-based solar cells have recently received significant attention due to their excellent photovoltaic performance and low cost. The general formula of this perovskite light harvester is RPbX 3, where R and X stand for a monovalent organic cation and halide anion, respectively. Structures of the perovskite solar cell are designed based on the function of the perovskite. Organolead halide perovskites can be used either as sensitizers or n- or p-type light harvesters. Rapid progress has been made over the past year since the first report on long-term, durable, 9.7% efficiency perovskite solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI 3-sensitized TiO2 in 2012. As a result, power conversion efficiencies as high as 16% have been achieved. Further improvement is expected from this material in terms of understanding charge accumulation and transport properties. Organolead halide perovskite is now regarded as a promising solar cell material, opening new horizons in solar cell research. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Noh J.H.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | Im S.H.,Kyung Hee University | Heo J.H.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | Mandal T.N.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | And 2 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

Chemically tuned inorganic-organic hybrid materials, based on CH 3NH3(=MA)Pb(I1-xBrx)3 perovskites, have been studied using UV-vis absorption and X-ray diffraction patterns and applied to nanostructured solar cells. The band gap engineering brought about by the chemical management of MAPb(I1-xBr x)3 perovskites can be controllably tuned to cover almost the entire visible spectrum, enabling the realization of colorful solar cells. We demonstrate highly efficient solar cells exhibiting 12.3% in a power conversion efficiency of under standard AM 1.5, for the most efficient device, as a result of tunable composition for the light harvester in conjunction with a mesoporous TiO2 film and a hole conducting polymer. We believe that the works highlighted in this paper represent one step toward the realization of low-cost, high-efficiency, and long-term stability with colorful solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Heo J.H.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | Im S.H.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | Im S.H.,Kyung Hee University | Noh J.H.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | And 10 more authors.
Nature Photonics | Year: 2013

Inorganic-organic hybrid structures have become innovative alternatives for next-generation dye-sensitized solar cells, because they combine the advantages of both systems. Here, we introduce a layered sandwich-type architecture, the core of which comprises a bicontinuous three-dimensional nanocomposite of mesoporous (mp)-TiO 2, with CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite as light harvester, as well as a polymeric hole conductor. This platform creates new opportunities for the development of low-cost, solution-processed, high-efficiency solar cells. The use of a polymeric hole conductor, especially poly-triarylamine, substantially improves the open-circuit voltage V oc and fill factor of the cells. Solar cells based on these inorganic-organic hybrids exhibit a short-circuit current density J sc of 16.5 mA cm -2, V oc of 0.997 V and fill factor of 0.727, yielding a power conversion efficiency of 12.0% under standard AM 1.5 conditions. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Park S.-B.,Sungkyunkwan University | Chung N.,Kyung Hee University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2011

Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs), which allow simultaneous participation of several gamers, have attracted a great deal of attention recently. Since MMORPGs can be categorized as a type of online community, the behavior of MMORPGs users needs to be considered as the general behavior in online communities. However, previous studies of online communities did not pay enough attention to MMORPGs, in which users can express themselves by interacting actively through games and game avatars. Understanding the characteristics of MMORPGs as online game communities where users communicate and interact will allow games to be vitalized and users to be immersed in games in a more positive way. Hence, using self-presentation theory and social identity theory, this study examined the factors influencing self-presentation desire and the mediating role of self-presentation desire examined in terms of trust of and commitments to online game communities. The results showed that the interactivity in the spaces of MMORPGs had the biggest impacts on self-presentation desire; personal innovativeness and game design quality also was influential. The results also indicated that self-presentation desire caused trust of online games and eventually led to even stronger commitments to gamers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Patent
Ewha Womans University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-01-07

A data transmission method in an ad-hoc network includes: a determining step in which a data sink node determines information of a route from a source node to the data sink node and a kind of data collected by the source node; a selecting step in which the data sink node selects a target node to compress data from the source node and a relay node with respect to the source node to minimize estimated total energy consumption of the network and a kind of a compression algorithm to be used by the target node using the information of the route and the kind of data; an informing step in which the data sink node informs the target node of data compression information including the kind of a compression algorithm depending on the information of the route and the kind of data; and a compressing and transmitting step in which the target node compresses collected or received data according to the data compression information and transmits the data.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Ewha Womans University | Date: 2016-03-09

The present invention relates to a mixed extract of Atractylodes Rhizome white and Taraxacum Herba, a pharmaceutical composition for preventing or treating an inflammatory bowel disease comprising same as an active ingredient, a method for preventing or treating the inflammatory bowel disease using same, and a use thereof. The mixed extract of Atractylodes Rhizome white and Taraxacum Herba according to the present invention shows an excellent effect of preventing or treating the inflammatory bowel disease by having an inhibitory and therapeutic effect on inflammation with regard to the inflammatory bowel disease.


Choi S.H.,Seoul National University | Byun K.M.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2010

A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging biosensor based on silver substrates was investigated to demonstrate that silver could be used as a substrate material for sensitive detection of biomolecular interactions, despite its poor chemical stability. The calculation results showed that oxidation of silver film may lead to a decrease in the sensitivity due to a variation in SPR characteristics such as a broader curve width and shallower minimum reflectance at resonance. The effect of a change in the refractive index of target analytes on the sensitivity was also explored. In particular, it is noteworthy that Ag/Au bimetallic substrates with a thin gold protection layer to prevent oxidation of a silver film can provide a significant amplification of SPR imaging signals in comparison with conventional gold substrates. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Kim W.-H.,Samsung | Yeog Son J.,Kyung Hee University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanodots were prepared on two substrate types, a Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) and a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), using elaborately controllable dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) technology. The lateral dimension and thickness of the formed BFO nanodots exhibited the substrate dependency, resulting in higher aspect ratio with smaller lateral dimension and higher thickness on the hydrophobic HOPG substrate than that of the Nb:STO substrate. Based on piezoelectric force microscope (PFM) measurements, superior ferroelectricity in d33 hysteresis loop of the BFO nanodots on the HOPG was demonstrated by significant reduction in the substrate clamping effect, compared to that on the Nb:STO. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Kim W.-H.,Samsung | Yeog Son J.,Kyung Hee University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

We report the influence of La substitution in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films prepared by pulsed layer deposition on a Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate, focusing on ferroelectric domain structure, leakage current, and multiferroic properties. Enhanced ferroelectric remanent polarization and reduced leakage current density were established via La substitution in the BiFeO3 film. Based on leakage conduction mechanism and piezoelectric force microscopy studies, this is indicative of reduced trap densities and increased domain energy. Besides that, the ferromagnetic properties were improved by the La doping as well. The possible mechanisms for the enhancement of electrical and multiferroic characteristics are extensively discussed. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Hwang T.,Kyung Hee University | Kang S.,Samsung | Kim J.T.,Kyung Hee University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2012

This study aims to analyze the maximum electric energy production according to the inclination and direction of photovoltaic (PV) installations and the effects of the installation distance to the module length ratio. The annual solar insolation on PV panels was calculated for various faades of two buildings, and an analysis of different horizontal and vertical inclinations of PV panels was also conducted in consideration of the effects of panel shading from other panels and surrounding buildings. As a result, the electric energy production due to the use of the PV system can cover approximately 1-5% of the electric energy consumption of a typical office building in Korea in terms of proper combinations of the following installation factors: inclination, module type, installation distance to module length ratio, and direction. However, if in the building all measures, currently known and technically available would be implemented, the percentage of covering by PV can be significantly bigger. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yu C.W.F.,International Society of the Built Environment ISBE | Jeong T.K.,Kyung Hee University
Indoor and Built Environment | Year: 2011

This paper provides a review of the building environmental schemes for rating of indoor air quality which could have an important impact on health and wellbeing of occupants in sustainable homes and buildings. The majority of the building environmental assessment schemes introduced in different countries of the world are based on the BREEAM and LEED model. BREEAM has a major emphasis on energy efficiency whereas ''Indoor Environmental Quality'' and ''Health and Wellbeing'' are the most central issues for LEED. The criteria included in BREEAM, LEED and HK BEAM rating systems for assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) are illustrated. There should be an IAQ management plan for any housing or building development, which should include a certification of the IAQ of the living spaces prior to occupancy and that low emitting materials should be used in the new build. There should also be an ongoing maintenance of the ventilation and HVAC system for the building and this should be part of an IAQ management plan for the building operation and maintenance. © 2011 SAGE Publications.


Kang D.,Kyung Hee University | Kang D.,University of Suwon | Lansey K.,University of Arizona
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management | Year: 2014

Long-range infrastructure planning is fraught with uncertainties. Population growth may occur faster or slower than expected, regulations may change, and public sentiment can shift. In the face of these uncertainties, water system managers must plan for large infrastructure investments and the questions about when it is desirable to invest in infrastructure and what is the appropriate infrastructure component size to meet growing demands. One of the most powerful and intuitive ways to incorporate uncertainties is to use scenarios that represent plausible futures. Scenario-based planning is gaining acceptance in the water resources community. Preparing for a range of possible futures provides flexibility and adds robustness to the system so it can respond to uncertain events at reasonable costs while maintaining community confidence in their utilities. In this paper, novel scenario-based planning and optimization approaches are presented for the optimal design of regional-scale water supply infrastructure in a multiperiod planning framework. For demonstration, water demand projections are considered as uncertain and multiperiod construction projects are selected to minimize the economic costs. The solution approaches are applied to a decentralized water reclamation planning project in a green-field development area in southeast Tucson, Arizona, where water reclamation is viewed as a potential component for a sustainable water supply. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Kang D.,Kyung Hee University | Kang D.,University of Suwon | Lansey K.,University of Arizona
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management | Year: 2014

This paper presents a data-driven simulation-based burst detection approach in water distribution systems using control limit analysis. System specific burst sensitivity tables are developed by synthetically generating burst events and analyzing the system hydraulic responses to the given bursts. Potential locations of pressure and flow meters are suggested based on the sensitivity tables. By matching the field observation data with the developed burst sensitivity tables, potential burst hotspots are identified. Using simulated bursts for a simple literature network, it was found that the proposed approach is effective to quickly locate bursts and reduce response times. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Heo S.H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee S.-H.,Seoul National University
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2010

Background: Uric acid has been known to exert neuroprotective effects by acting as a free radical scavenger; however, several observational studies indicated that high levels of serum uric acid increased the risk of cardiovascular events or stroke. We sought to determine whether increased levels of uric acid are associated with the presence of silent brain infarction (SBI). Methods: We recruited a consecutive series of non-stroke individuals who visited the Healthcare System in our hospital and underwent brain MRI (n = 1577). We conducted intensive interviews and laboratory examinations, including serum uric acid. We examined associations between SBI and vascular risk factors including uric acid by controlling possible confounders. Results: Of the 1577 subjects recruited, 921 were men and 656 were women, and the uric acid level was much higher in the men (6.3 ± 1.3) than in the women (4.7 ± 1.0). There was a strong dose-response relationship between the quartiles of uric acid and the presence of SBI in women (p = 0.001), but not in men. Multivariable analysis showed that the highest quartile of uric acid level was an independent risk factor for the presence of SBI in total patients (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.11-2.91). However, this association remained significant in women (adjusted OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.17-5.91), but not in men. Conclusions: Our results suggest that an increased level of uric acid may be a risk factor for the presence of SBI. Serum uric acid level might be a good serum marker of underlying SBI or future stroke, especially in women. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Soh Y.S.,California Institute of Technology | Quek T.Q.S.,Singapore University of Technology and Design | Kountouris M.,Supelec | Shin H.,Kyung Hee University
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2013

With the exponential increase in mobile internet traffic driven by a new generation of wireless devices, future cellular networks face a great challenge to meet this overwhelming demand of network capacity. At the same time, the demand for higher data rates and the ever-increasing number of wireless users led to rapid increases in power consumption and operating cost of cellular networks. One potential solution to address these issues is to overlay small cell networks with macrocell networks as a means to provide higher network capacity and better coverage. However, the dense and random deployment of small cells and their uncoordinated operation raise important questions about the energy efficiency implications of such multi-tier networks. Another technique to improve energy efficiency in cellular networks is to introduce active/sleep (on/off) modes in macrocell base stations. In this paper, we investigate the design and the associated tradeoffs of energy efficient cellular networks through the deployment of sleeping strategies and small cells. Using a stochastic geometry based model, we derive the success probability and energy efficiency in homogeneous macrocell (single-tier) and heterogeneous K-tier wireless networks under different sleeping policies. In addition, we formulate the power consumption minimization and energy efficiency maximization problems, and determine the optimal operating regimes for macrocell base stations. Numerical results confirm the effectiveness of switching off base stations in homogeneous macrocell networks. Nevertheless, the gains in terms of energy efficiency depend on the type of sleeping strategy used. In addition, the deployment of small cells generally leads to higher energy efficiency but this gain saturates as the density of small cells increases. In a nutshell, our proposed framework provides an essential understanding on the deployment of future green heterogeneous networks. © 1983-2012 IEEE.


Lee G.-H.,Seoul National University | Park C.,Korea Institute for Advanced Study | Lee M.G.,Seoul National University | Choi Y.-Y.,Kyung Hee University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We investigate the dependence of the occurrence of bars in galaxies on galaxy properties and environment. We use a volume-limited sample of 33,391 galaxies brighter than Mr = -19.5 + 5logh at 0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.05489, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We classify the galaxies into early and late types, and identify bars by visual inspection. Among 10,674 late-type galaxies with axis ratio b/a > 0.60, we find 3240 barred galaxies (f bar = 30.4%) which divide into 2542 strong bars (f SB1 = 23.8%) and 698 weak bars (f SB2 = 6.5%). We find that f SB1 increases as u - r color becomes redder and that it has a maximum value at intermediate velocity dispersion (σ ≃150kms -1). This trend suggests that strong bars are dominantly hosted by intermediate-mass systems. Weak bars prefer bluer galaxies with lower mass and lower concentration. In the case of strong bars, their dependence on the concentration index appears only for massive galaxies with σ > 150kms-1. We also find that f bar does not directly depend on the large-scale background density when other physical parameters (u - r color or σ) are fixed. We discover that f SB1 decreases as the separation to the nearest neighbor galaxy becomes smaller than 0.1 times the virial radius of the neighbor regardless of neighbor's morphology. These results imply that strong bars are likely to be destroyed during strong tidal interactions and that the mechanism for this phenomenon is gravitational and not hydrodynamical. The fraction of weak bars has no correlation with environmental parameters. We do not find any direct evidence for environmental stimulation of bar formation. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Lee J.,Seoul National University | Choi Y.-Y.,Kyung Hee University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Lee J.,Seoul National University | Kwon J.E.,Seoul National University | You Y.,Kyung Hee University | Park S.Y.,Seoul National University
Langmuir | Year: 2014

A novel salicylidene aniline-based wholly π-conjugated molecule that could be self-assembled into an organogel was synthesized. The rigid organogel collapsed into fluid solutions with significant changes in UV-vis absorption and fluorescence colors in response to fluoride ions. It was found that the hydroxyl group in the salicylidene aniline moiety played a key role not only in the gelation but also in fluoride ion responses. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Kim Y.-R.,Kyung Hee University | Aragao F.T.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Finite Elements in Analysis and Design | Year: 2013

This paper presents a computational microstructure model to predict the fracture-related behavior of heterogeneous and viscoelastic bituminous paving mixtures. In addition to the consideration of the complex geometric characteristics and viscoelastic behavior of the mixture, this study implements a rate-dependent cohesive zone model into the mainframe of ABAQUS in the form of a customized user element (UEL) subroutine. This enables model fracture as a gradual and rate-dependent phenomenon in which the initiation and propagation of discrete cracks take place in the mixture microstructure. In order to validate the model, experimental programs are developed for model inputs and outputs, and microstructural simulations of a two-phase mixture specimen are conducted. Model simulation results agree well with test results. The results presented in this paper imply that a computational microstructure model such as the one herein can be an efficient tool to estimate the effects of small-scale design variables on overall mixture performance with significant savings in experimental costs and time. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sheikh-Jabbaria M.M.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | Yavartanoob H.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Within class of generic black holes there are extremal black holes (with vanishing Hawking temperature T) and vanishing horizon area Ah, but with finite Ah/T ratio, the Extremal Vanishing Horizon (EVH) black holes. We study the near horizon limit of a four dimensional EVH black hole solution to a generic (gauged) Einstein-Maxwell dilaton theory and show that in the near horizon limit they develop a throat which is a pinching orbifold limit of AdS3. This is an extension of the well known result for extremal black holes the near horizon limit of which contains an AdS2 throat. We show that in the near EVH near horizon limit the pinching AdS3 factor turns to a pinching BTZ black hole and that this near horizon limit is indeed a decoupling limit. We argue that the pinching AdS3 or BTZ orbifold is resolved if the near horizon limit is accompanied by taking the 4d Newton constant G4 to zero such that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S = Ah/(4G4) remains finite. We propose that in this limit the near horizon EVH black hole is dual to a 2d CFT. We provide pieces of evidence in support of the EVH/CFT correspondence and comment on its connection to the Kerr/CFT proposal and speculations how the EVH/CFT may be used to study generic e.g. Schwarzchild-type black holes. © 2011 SISS.


Ashoorioon A.,Lancaster University | Sheikh-Jabbari M.M.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | Sheikh-Jabbari M.M.,Kyung Hee University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

In view of the recent BICEP2 results [arXiv:1403.3985] which may be attributed to the observation of B-modes polarization of the CMB with tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.2-0.05 +0.07, we revisit M-flation model. Gauged M-flation is a string theory motivated inflation model with Matrix valued scalar inflaton fields in the adjoint representation of a U(N) Yang-Mills theory. In continuation of our previous works, we show that for a class of M-flation models the action for these inflaton fields can be such that the "effective inflaton field" ϕ has a double-well Higgs-like potential, with minima at ϕ=0, μ. We focus on the ϕ>μ, symmetry-breaking region. We thoroughly examine predictions of the model for r in the 2σ region allowed for nS by the Planck experiment. As computed in [arXiv:0903.1481], for Ne=60 and nS=0.96 we find r≃0.2, which sits in the sweet spot of BICEP2 region for r. We find that with increasing μ arbitrarily, nS cannot go beyond ≃0.9670, the scalar spectral index for the quadratic chaotic potential. As nS varies in the 2σ range which is allowed by Planck and could be reached by the model, r varies in the range [0.13, 0.26]. Future cosmological experiments, like the CMBPOL, that confines nS with σ(nS)=0.0029 can constrain the model further. Also, in this region of potential, for nS=0.9603, we find that the largest isocurvature mode, which is uncorrelated with curvature perturbations, has a power spectrum with the amplitude of order 10-11 at the end of inflation. We also discuss the range of predictions of r in the hilltop region, ϕ<μ. © 2014 The Authors.


Alishahiha M.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | Colgain E.O.,University of Oviedo | Yavartanoo H.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We present an analytic solution of a charged black hole with hyperscaling violating factor in an Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton model where the scalar potential is key to the existence of a solution. This solution provides a candidate gravitational description of theories with hyperscaling violation at both finite temperature and finite charge density. Using this background we explore certain features of these theories via AdS/CFT correspondence. Finally, we discuss embeddings based on the well-known sphere reductions of ten and eleven-dimensional supergravity. © 2012 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.


Alishahiha M.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | Yavartanoo H.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We study certain features of strongly coupled theories with hyperscaling violation by making use of their gravitational duals. We will consider models with an anisotropic scaling in time or in one of spatial directions. In particular for the case where the anisotropic scaling is along a spatial direction we will compute the holographic entanglement entropy and show that for specific values of the parameters it exhibits a logarithmic violation of the area law. We will also probe the backgrounds by different closed and open strings which in turn can be used to read, for example, effective potential of an external object, drag force and etc. © SISSA 2012.


Chang S.-W.,Kyung Hee University | Lee S.-Y.,Kyung Hee University | Kum K.-Y.,Seoul National University | Kim E.-C.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Endodontics | Year: 2014

Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the biocompatibility and odontogenic potential of newly developed Bioaggregate (BA) and Micromega MTA (MMTA) with ProRoot MTA (PMTA) and intermediate restorative material (IRM) by using human dental pulp cells. Methods Biocompatibility was assessed by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and scanning electron microscopy. Differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the maker genes. The levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results PMTA, BA, and MMTA exhibited equally good biocompatibility, whereas IRM showed cytotoxicity compared with these materials. PMTA, BA, and MMTA increased the ALP activity, promoted mineralization nodule formation, and enhanced the mRNA expression level of the osteogenic/odontogenic markers (ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein-1) compared with IRM. The levels of proinflammatory mediators and proinflammatory cytokines were lower in PMTA, BA, and MMTA compared with the IRM group. Conclusions Collectively, the biocompatibility, odontogenic potentials, and inflammatory response of BA and MMTA are equal to those of PMTA and superior to those of IRM. © 2014 American Association of Endodontists.


Russell R.C.,University of California at San Diego | Tian Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Yuan H.,University of California at San Diego | Park H.W.,University of California at San Diego | And 7 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Autophagy is the primary cellular catabolic program activated in response to nutrient starvation. Initiation of autophagy, particularly by amino-acid withdrawal, requires the ULK kinases. Despite its pivotal role in autophagy initiation, little is known about the mechanisms by which ULK promotes autophagy. Here we describe a molecular mechanism linking ULK to the pro-autophagic lipid kinase VPS34. Following amino-acid starvation or mTOR inhibition, the activated ULK1 phosphorylates Beclin-1 on Ser 14, thereby enhancing the activity of the ATG14L-containing VPS34 complexes. The Beclin-1 Ser 14 phosphorylation by ULK is required for full autophagic induction in mammals and this requirement is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our study reveals a molecular link from ULK1 to activation of the autophagy-specific VPS34 complex and autophagy induction. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Hwang J.-I.,Kyung Hee University | Park H.-A.,Seoul National University
CIN - Computers Informatics Nursing | Year: 2011

Informatics competency has become an essential requirement for nurses to fulfill their professional roles. This study examined the factors affecting informatics competency to help develop strategies to improve nurses' informatics practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two tertiary teaching hospitals in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire was designed to collect data on nurses' informatics competency, basic computer skills, attitudes toward computerization, and general characteristics. The response rate was 96.4% (350/363). Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the characteristics affecting informatics competency. More than two-thirds of the nurses (69.2%) considered their overall informatics competency to be below average. They scored the highest on the informatics topics of security and confidentiality, and the lowest on telehealth. More than half (58.9%) rated their computer skills to be below average. Nurses had favorable attitudes toward computerization. Significant factors associated with informatics competency were basic computer skills and formal informatics education. The study findings suggest that the enhancement of basic computer skills and incorporation of informatics into formal nursing curricula are needed to improve the nurses' competency in managing and using healthcare information. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


Choi Y.-Y.,Kyung Hee University | Kang S.J.,Kyung Hee University | Kim H.-K.,Kyung Hee University | Choi W.M.,Samsung | Na S.-I.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2012

We have fabricated ITO-free organic solar cells (OSCs) based on multilayer graphene (MLG) electrodes. MLG electrodes with high transparency (∼84.2%) and low sheet resistance (∼374±3 Ω/square) were obtained on glass substrates using chemical vapor deposition and a multi-transfer process. The OSCs fabricated on MLG electrodes had an open circuit voltage of 0.52 V, a short circuit current of 6.90 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 32.6%, and a power conversion efficiency of 1.17%. The performance of the OSCs fabricated on transparent MLG electrode was not comparable to that of OSCs fabricated on ITO electrodes; cost-effective MLG electrodes are a viable alternative to sputter-grown ITO electrodes for cost-efficient and flexible OSCs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lim H.,Johns Hopkins University | Lim H.,Kyung Hee University | Wang Y.,Johns Hopkins University
Obesity | Year: 2013

Objective Examined body weight misperception and its association with health-related factors among South Korean adolescents. Design and Methods The 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 72,399 adolescents aged 12-18 years were used. Based on agreements between weight status assessed according to self-reported BMI and self-perceived weight status, adolescents were classified as weight underestimate, accurate, and overestimate. Logistic regression models examined the associations controlling for covariates. Results Over 50% adolescents misclassified their own weight status: underestimation (23.4%) and overestimation (26.8%). Boys had a higher underestimation rate than girls (30.3% vs. 15.6%) and a lower overestimation rate (21.3% vs. 33.0%). In girls, overestimation was higher in high-income families and well-educated parents (41.0%). Compared to those with accurate weight perception, participants who underestimated their weight were more likely to have an unhealthy diet as indicated by higher daily consumption (≥once/day) of fast food [OR = 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)] and unhealthy snacks [OR = 1.11 (1.03, 1.19)]. Girls who overestimated their weight had more screen time [≥2 h/day, OR = 1.12 (1.03, 1.22)]. Participants who overestimated their weight were more likely to be stressed [OR = 1.24 (1.18, 1.31)] and depressed [OR = 1.18 (1.21, 1.25)]. Conclusions Over half of Korean adolescents had misperception on own weight status, the rates varied by gender and socioeconomic status. Weight misperception is associated with health-related outcomes compared to peers with accurate perceptions about own weight status. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-08-27

An apparatus for separating micro-particles includes a channel through which a fluid flows, and a separating part protruding into the channel and including a slanted element inclined toward a length direction of the channel and a vertical element perpendicular to the length direction of the channel.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2011-10-13

In accordance with an illustrative configuration, a device and a method are configured to receive video stream including a stream receiving unit, a demultiplexing unit, and a decoding unit. The stream receiving unit is configured to receive multiplexed stream of video stream and signaling information describing the video stream. The demultiplexing unit is configured to demultiplex the received stream to video stream and signaling information. The decoding unit is configured to decode the demultiplexed video stream by using the signaling information. The signaling information includes stream type information on the video stream providing stereoscopic service and service type information, which indicates whether the service type according to the video stream is 2D monoscopic service or 3D stereoscopic service.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University, Kyung Hee University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-08-10

Provided is a video encoding apparatus, including a signal separator to separate a differential image block into a first domain and a second domain, based on a boundary line included in the differential image block, the differential image block indicating a difference between an original image and a prediction image with respect to the original image, a transform encoder to perform a transform encoding with respect to the first domain using a discrete cosine transform (DCT), a quantization unit to quantize an output of the transform encoding unit in a frequency domain, a space domain quantization unit to quantize the second domain in a space domain, and an entropy encoder to perform an entropy encoding using outputs of the quantization unit and the space domain quantization unit.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2012-12-06

The present invention relates to a method and a system for providing a sponsored service on an IMS-based mobile communication network, and comprises the steps of: a sponsored service client transmitting to a sponsored service server a sponsored service start request message; the sponsored service server determining the validity of the sponsored service after receiving the start request message; transmitting to the sponsored service client a sponsored service start acceptance message when the sponsored service server determines the sponsored service as valid; generating a sponsored service between the sponsored service client and an Internet service provider server; the sponsored service server generating charged fee information and transmitting the charged fee information to an authentication/authorization/accounting (AAA) server, when the sponsored service client requests termination of the sponsored service; and terminating the sponsored service session. According to the present invention, the sponsored service, in which a third parry Internet service provider can pay the cost using the mobile communication network instead of a wireless user equipment subscriber, can be provided, and the quality of the service can be dynamically controlled from the point the Internet service is provided.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2011-10-28

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for encoding and decoding video information. The video information encoding method according to the present invention comprises: a step of performing a prediction on a current block; and a step of entropy-encoding the predicted information and transmitting the encoded information. The step of performing a prediction comprises: a step of acquiring motion information on a neighboring block from the neighboring block of the current block; and a step of determining motion information on the current block on the basis of the acquired motion information. The transmitting step also involves transmitting information required for the prediction of the current block. According to the present invention, the complexity of video compression and the quantity of transmitted information may be reduced.


An apparatus and method for human activity and facial expression modeling and recognition are based on feature extraction techniques from time sequential images. The human activity modeling includes determining principal components of depth and/or binary shape images of human activities extracted from video clips. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) representations are determined based on the principal components. Features are determined through Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based on the ICA representations. A codebook is determined using vector quantization, Observation symbol sequences in the video clips am determined. And human activities are learned using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based on status transition and an observation matrix.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2014-03-19

In an apparatus for providing a multimedia streaming service, a server transmits a Media Presentation Description (MPD) including information about media data to a client, receives a partial request message requesting a part of media data having a range according to a defined range in the MPD, and transmits to the client a segment having the range in response to the partial request message. The segment includes at least one fragment, segment index information indicating the position of the at least one fragment in the segment, and fragment index information including information indicating the position of each of a plurality of samples included in the at least one fragment and information about a total size of the samples.


A method and apparatus for managing and controlling wireless connection of a HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) proxy device in a wireless communication network are provided. The method includes receiving one of information indicating a wireless connection deactivation of an HTTP client performing HTTP communication and information indicating a change in an Internet Protocol (IP) address of the HTTP client from a predetermined node of the wireless communication network; and deactivating a connection with an HTTP server if the received information indicates the wireless connection deactivation of an HTTP client performing the HTTP communication; and maintaining a connection with an HTTP server if the received information indicates the change in the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the HTTP client.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology, Kyung Hee University and Kwangwoon University | Date: 2013-09-27

Provided is a video encoding apparatus, including a signal separator to separate a differential image block into a first domain and a second domain, based on a boundary line included in the differential image block, the differential image block indicating a difference between an original image and a prediction image with respect to the original image, a transform encoder to perform a transform encoding with respect to the first domain using a discrete cosine transform (DCT), a quantization unit to quantize an output of the transform encoding unit in a frequency domain, a space domain quantization unit to quantize the second domain in a space domain, and an entropy encoder to perform an entropy encoding using outputs of the quantization unit and the space domain quantization unit.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2013-10-02

A method for coding image information includes generating prediction information by predicting information on a current coding unit, and determining whether the information on the current coding unit is the same as the prediction information. When the information on the current coding unit is the same as the prediction information, a flag indicating that the information on the current coding unit is the same as the prediction information is coded and transmitted. When the information on the current coding unit is not the same as the prediction information, a flag indicating that the information on the current coding unit is not the same as the prediction information and the information on the current coding unit are coded and transmitted. At the generating of the prediction information, the prediction information is generated by using the information on the coding unit neighboring to the current coding unit.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-06-25

A method and a device for encoding/decoding images are disclosed. The method for encoding images comprises the steps of: deriving a scan type of a residual signal for a current block according to whether or not the current block is a transform skip block; and applying the scan type to the residual signal for the current block, wherein the transform skip block is a block to which transform for the current block is not applied and is specified on the basis of information indicating whether or not transform for the current block is to be applied.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-08-26

The present invention relates to an image encoding and decoding technique, and more particularly, to an image encoder and decoder using unidirectional prediction. The image encoder includes a dividing unit to divide a macro block into a plurality of sub-blocks, a unidirectional application determining unit to determine whether an identical prediction mode is applied to each of the plurality of sub-blocks, and a prediction mode determining unit to determine a prediction mode with respect to each of the plurality of sub-blocks based on a determined result of the unidirectional application determining unit.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-08-26

The present invention relates to an image encoding and decoding technique, and more particularly, to an image encoder and decoder using unidirectional prediction. The image encoder includes a dividing unit to divide a macro block into a plurality of sub-blocks, a unidirectional application determining unit to determine whether an identical prediction mode is applied to each of the plurality of sub-blocks, and a prediction mode determining unit to determine a prediction mode with respect to each of the plurality of sub-blocks based on a determined result of the unidirectional application determining unit.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-08-26

The present invention relates to an image encoding and decoding technique, and more particularly, to an image encoder and decoder using unidirectional prediction. The image encoder includes a dividing unit to divide a macro block into a plurality of sub-blocks, a unidirectional application determining unit to determine whether an identical prediction mode is applied to each of the plurality of sub-blocks, and a prediction mode determining unit to determine a prediction mode with respect to each of the plurality of sub-blocks based on a determined result of the unidirectional application determining unit.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-08-26

The present invention relates to an image encoding and decoding technique, and more particularly, to an image encoder and decoder using unidirectional prediction. The image encoder includes a dividing unit to divide a macro block into a plurality of sub-blocks, a unidirectional application determining unit to determine whether an identical prediction mode is applied to each of the plurality of sub-blocks, and a prediction mode determining unit to determine a prediction mode with respect to each of the plurality of sub-blocks based on a determined result of the unidirectional application determining unit.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-03-19

A motion compensation apparatus for a camera module with a half-shutter function is provided. The apparatus includes an initialization unit for selecting a subject, a motion of which is to be detected, from images secured in a half-shutter state, and calculates motion information of the subject; a tracking unit for tracking the selected subject and the motion information provided from the initialization unit, and calculates prediction information of the subject; and a controller for generating a control signal for controlling a speed of a shutter and a sensibility of an image sensor based on the prediction information provided from the tracking unit.


A method and apparatus for transferring user information between different terminals are disclosed. The method includes saving by a first terminal, when a change is made to user information during playback of content, the changed user information in a scene history, performing a terminal change from the first terminal to a second terminal, and resuming, by the second terminal, playback of the content from a continued scene after the last scene played back by the first terminal. Consequently, in a terminal change, the user may use the second terminal to play back the same content from the continued scene using the same content usage environment as the first terminal.


A method of improving Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) performance on communication networks and an apparatus adapted to the method are provided. In a communication system including a first server, a second server and at least one connection server for connecting the first and second servers, the communication method using the first server includes: receiving a request for content from at least one client; establishing a bypass connection to directly receive data from the second server; directly receiving data about the content from the second server by using the bypass connection; and transmitting the data to the client.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2012-01-19

A method and an apparatus for transmitting a multimedia data packet are provided. The method includes generating Media Abstraction Layer (MAL) information for abstracting information on the multimedia data to be transmitted, generating a multimedia data packet including said MAL information, and transmitting the generated multimedia data packet to a network entity.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University, Kyung Hee University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2016-07-26

Provided is a video encoding apparatus, including a signal separator to separate a differential image block into a first domain and a second domain, based on a boundary line included in the differential image block, the differential image block indicating a difference between an original image and a prediction image with respect to the original image, a transform encoder to perform a transform encoding with respect to the first domain using a discrete cosine transform (DCT), a quantization unit to quantize an output of the transform encoding unit in a frequency domain, a space domain quantization unit to quantize the second domain in a space domain, and an entropy encoder to perform an entropy encoding using outputs of the quantization unit and the space domain quantization unit.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2012-12-27

There are provided a concept of mixing and synchronizing a plurality of pieces of content and of providing mixed content to an N-screen terminal, a method for overcoming limitations of a mobile terminal using a thin-client technique based on cloud computing and an apparatus for providing mixed content based on cloud computing. The apparatus for providing mixed content based on cloud computing includes a content server configured to, in response to a content request, execute a piece of content and provide content execution results, a content access middleware configured to allocate one or more virtual terminals to the content server, receive the content execution results from the content server and synchronize the content execution results, and a virtual convergence gateway server configured to receive the synchronized content execution results, generate mixed content and provide the mixed content to the user terminal using a split-screen method and a multi-screen method.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2012-12-18

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for setting a reference picture index of a temporal merging candidate. An inter-picture prediction method using a temporal merging candidate can include the steps of: determining a reference picture index for a current block; and inducing a temporal merging candidate block of the current block and calculating a temporal merging candidate from the temporal merging candidate block, wherein the reference picture index of the temporal merging candidate can be calculated regardless of whether a block other than the current block is decoded. Accordingly, a video processing speed can be increased and video processing complexity can be reduced.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-09-02

A method and a device for encoding/decoding images are disclosed. The method for encoding images comprises the steps of: deriving a scan type of a residual signal for a current block according to whether or not the current block is a transform skip block; and applying the scan type to the residual signal for the current block, wherein the transform skip block is a block to which transform for the current block is not applied and is specified on the basis of information indicating whether or not transform for the current block is to be applied.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-09-02

A method and a device for encoding/decoding images are disclosed. The method for encoding images comprises the steps of: deriving a scan type of a residual signal for a current block according to whether or not the current block is a transform skip block; and applying the scan type to the residual signal for the current block, wherein the transform skip block is a block to which transform for the current block is not applied and is specified on the basis of information indicating whether or not transform for the current block is to be applied.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-09-01

A method and a device for encoding/decoding images are disclosed. The method for encoding images comprises the steps of: deriving a scan type of a residual signal for a current block according to whether or not the current block is a transform skip block; and applying the scan type to the residual signal for the current block, wherein the transform skip block is a block to which transform for the current block is not applied and is specified on the basis of information indicating whether or not transform for the current block is to be applied.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-09-01

A method and a device for encoding/decoding images are disclosed. The method for encoding images comprises the steps of: deriving a scan type of a residual signal for a current block according to whether or not the current block is a transform skip block; and applying the scan type to the residual signal for the current block, wherein the transform skip block is a block to which transform for the current block is not applied and is specified on the basis of information indicating whether or not transform for the current block is to be applied.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-07-02

A method for decoding a video including a plurality of views, according to one embodiment of the present invention, comprises the steps of: configuring a base merge motion candidate list by using motion information of neighboring blocks and a time correspondence block of a current block; configuring an extended merge motion information list by using motion information of a depth information map and a video view different from the current block; and determining whether neighboring block motion information contained in the base merge motion candidate list is derived through view synthesis prediction.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-06-07

An organic light emitting diode display device, including a substrate, and at least one organic light emitting diode on the substrate, wherein the organic light emitting diode includes a first electrode on the substrate, an organic light emitting layer on the first electrode, and a second electrode on the organic light emitting layer, and the organic light emitting layer has at least one opening.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-08-17

An apparatus for distributing mobile resources in a cloud computing environment includes: a resource register configured to analyze, when a request for mobile resource registration is inputted by a user, the requested resource and confirm if the resource is registerable; a provisioning manager configured to create a MVO, when the mobile resource is a registerable resource, and register the mobile resource; a metadata repository configured to store metadata information regarding the registered mobile resource; and a resource manager configured to control the provisioning manager, when the resource register receives a request for the resource registration, so as to create a MVO, register the resource, and store metadata regarding the registered mobile resource information.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-05-11

A method for decoding a video including a plurality of views, according to one embodiment of the present invention, comprises the steps of: configuring a base merge motion candidate list by using motion information of neighboring blocks and a time correspondence block of a current block; configuring an extended merge motion information list by using motion information of a depth information map and a video view different from the current block; and determining whether neighboring block motion information contained in the base merge motion candidate list is derived through view synthesis prediction.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-07-01

A web contents transmission method and apparatus is provided for improving users perceived speed of web content transmission using Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The web contents transmission method includes receiving an HTTP Request (REQ) message from an HTTP client, transmitting the HTTP REQ message including an updated time information provision request for resource included in a template file of a domain, receiving an HTTP Response (RES) message corresponding to the HTTP REQ message from the HTTP server, the HTTP RES message including updated time information on at least one of the resources included in the template file of the domain, and processing a new HTTP REQ message from the HTTP client based on the update time information.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-07-01

A method for controlling a connection of a mobile device to a web server by an in-device web proxy includes transmitting a connection request to the web server when a web browser running on a first Operating System (OS) makes the connection request for connecting to the web server. The method also includes caching information included in a connection response when the connection response is received from the web server in response to the connection request. The method further includes transmitting the cached information matched to a new connection request to the web browser or the web server, when the web browser running on the first OS or a web browser running on a second OS different from the first OS makes the new connection request for connecting to the web server.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-06-15

Disclosed are a method and an apparatus that reflect the quantity of wireless resources allocatable to a user terminal in a scheduling target cell to calculate the quantity of available wireless resources for quality of service (QoS) requirements for each kind of varied traffic of user terminals and a metric having a flexible weight for the QoS requirements and support efficient wireless resource scheduling among the user terminals.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-04-16

The present invention relates to an encoding method and decoding method, and a device using the same. The encoding method according to the present invention comprises the steps of: specifying an intra prediction mode for a current block; and scanning a residual signal by intra prediction of the current block, wherein the step of scanning the residual signal can determine a scanning type for a luminance signal and a chroma signal of the current block according to an intra prediction mode for a luminance sample of the current block.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2011-03-14

A method for reporting Quality of Service (QoS) control-related information in a network is provided, in which an intermediate network entity located within an end-to-end path generates the QoS control-related information by measuring a channel state, and reports the QoS control-related information to another network entity controlling the QoS.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-08-19

Disclosed is a method and apparatus for decoding video data. The method for decoding video data includes receiving coded video data including multi-view video data and depth data corresponding to the video data, acquiring motion data for inter-view prediction of a coding unit of the coded video data from the depth data, and performing inter-view prediction based on the motion data, and restoring video data according to the multi-view video data including the coding unit and the depth data based on the motion prediction.


The present invention provides a method and a device for transferring transmission characteristic information of multimedia data. According to the present invention, characteristic information on media data which can be partitioned into media processing units (MPUs) is generated in a predetermined number of MPUs, and the generated characteristic information and a flag indicative of the existence of the generated characteristic information are inserted into the media data such that the characteristic information is transferred. Thus, since the characteristic information for transmission can be used according to each media data unit of a small time unit, more effective QoS control is possible in a situation when a transmission environment dynamically changes, such as a mobile network.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-07-07

Provided is a method for transmitting a stereoscopic video in a digital broadcasting system, the stereoscopic video being composed of a left view and a right view. The method includes: generating information indicating that the video is stereoscopic, information about a composition type of the stereoscopic video, and additional information based on the composition type; and transmitting the stereoscopic video and the generated information. The composition type is to compose the stereoscopic video of a single or two encoding streams by using the left view and the right view. In the case of a single stream mode in which the stereoscopic video is composed of the single encoding stream, the additional information includes information about positions of the left and right views. In the case of a dual stream mode in which the stereoscopic video is composed of the two encoding streams, the additional information includes information indicating whether the respective encoding streams are the left view or the right view and information indicating correlation between the respective encoding streams.


Patent
Postech Academy Industry Foundation and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-10-29

Provided is a personal computer-based visual field self-testing system of increasing an opportunity of a glaucoma early diagnosis through a self-testing together with improvement of a size reduction, installation, and easiness in movement of a visual field testing system by using a personal computer. The personal computer-based visual field self-testing system includes a computer monitor presenting a visual field measurement region and a visual field measurement result, an attachable and detachable light blocking unit equipped on a front side of the computer monitor to provide a visual field testing environment, an eye selection unit equipped on a rear side of the attachable and detachable light blocking unit to block external light and select an examination eye, a face support unit including the eye selection unit and supporting a face of an examinee, and a visual stimulus confirmation unit operated by the examinee according to a visual stimulus of the visual field measurement region.


Provided are method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving a multimedia streaming service via a network. The method of providing a multimedia streaming service includes: dividing encoded data of a video including at least one of a 2D video and a 3D video into fragments; determining at least one of 3D signaling information for each fragment and relationship information to be used when the video refers to other videos; and continuously transmitting the fragments including the property information regarding the fragments and encoded video data.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-02-25

The present invention relates to an encoding method decoding method, and a device using the same. The encoding method according to the present invention comprises the steps of: specifying an intra prediction mode for a current block; and scanning a residual signal by intra prediction of the current block, wherein the step of scanning the residual signal can determine a scanning type for a luminance signal and a chroma signal of the current block according to an intra prediction mode for a luminance sample of the current block.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2012-02-21

A virtual network constructing apparatus and a virtual network constructing method are provided. The virtual network constructing method includes constructing a virtual network on the basis of a Multi-Depot Ring-Star with 2-Depots per Ring (MDRS-2DR) topology, applying the virtual network to an actual network environment, and reflecting a result of the application to reconstruct the virtual network.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2013-12-04

A system acquires RF magnetic field information (B1 magnetic field information) in response to generated radio frequency (RF) pulses applied to a target object via at least one of a plurality of RF coil elements in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. The system acquires first information comprising B1 magnetic field phase information of a B1 magnetic field formed by the respective RF coil elements and acquires second information comprising B1 magnetic field phase information of a B1 magnetic field formed by a combination of two or more of a plurality of RF coil elements. The system acquires third information comprising B1 magnetic field phase information by combining the first information and the second information and processes the first, second and third information in providing a B1 map indicating spatial distribution of a B1 magnetic field.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2013-12-04

A method acquires RF magnetic field information (B1 magnetic field information) in response to generated radio frequency (RF) pulses in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. An RF excitation pulse sequence is generated, and the generated RF excitation pulse sequence includes a plurality of RF excitation pulses individually having different flip angles. The generated RF excitation pulse sequence is transmitted to a target object. RF echo response signals are received from the target object corresponding to the plurality of RF excitation pulses and B1 information is acquired by processing the received RF echo response signals.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2012-06-20

An inter-prediction method according to the present invention comprises the steps of: deriving motion information of a current block; and generating a prediction block for the current block on the basis of the derived motion information. According to the present invention, computational complexity can be reduced and encoding efficiency can be improved.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2011-12-30

Disclosed herein is a method for coding image information, including: generating prediction information by predicting information on a current coding unit; and determining whether the information on the current coding unit is the same as the prediction information, wherein when the information on the current coding unit is the same as the prediction information, a flag indicating that the information on the current coding unit is the same as the prediction information is coded and transmitted, and when the information on the current coding unit is not the same as the prediction information, the flag indicating that the information on the current coding unit is not the same as the prediction information and the information on the current coding unit are coded and transmitted.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University, Kyung Hee University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2016-02-22

Provided is a video encoding apparatus, including a signal separator to separate a differential image block into a first domain and a second domain, based on a boundary line included in the differential image block, the differential image block indicating a difference between an original image and a prediction image with respect to the original image, a transform encoder to perform a transform encoding with respect to the first domain using a discrete cosine transform (DCT), a quantization unit to quantize an output of the transform encoding unit in a frequency domain, a space domain quantization unit to quantize the second domain in a space domain, and an entropy encoder to perform an entropy encoding using outputs of the quantization unit and the space domain quantization unit.


Provided are a thin-film transistor (TFT), a method of manufacturing the same, and a method of manufacturing a backplane for a flat panel display (FPD). The method of manufacturing the TFT according to an embodiment of the present invention includes forming a gate electrode on a substrate; forming an insulating layer on the substrate to cover the gate electrode; performing a plasma treatment on an upper surface of the insulating layer using a halogen gas; forming an oxide semiconductor layer on the insulating layer and positioned to correspond to the gate electrode; and forming source and drain electrodes on the insulating layer to contact and over portions of the oxide semiconductor layer.


The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for transmitting information to a terminal of a specific group using multicast transmission equipment in a mobile communication system. The method of the present invention comprises: an information receiving step of receiving, from an information provider, information to be transmitted to the terminal; a selection step of selecting either a cell broadcasting service multicast transmission scheme or a multimedia broadcast multicast service multicast transmission scheme in accordance with the size of the received information; and a multicast transmission step of multicast transmitting the information to the terminal of the specific group in accordance with the selected transmission scheme.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2013-07-17

There are provided a method and apparatus for delivering transport characteristics of multimedia data. According to an aspect of the present invention, transport characteristics of media data that can be divided in a unit of a Media Processing Unit (MPU) are created in a unit of a predetermined number of MPUs, the created transport characteristics and a flag indicating presence or absence of the created transport characteristics are inserted into the media data, and the resultant media data is delivered. Accordingly, by using transport characteristics in units of media data unit groups, each media data unit corresponding to a short time length, it is possible to effectively control Quality of Service (QoS) in a dynamically changing transport environment, like a mobile network.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-08-19

The image decoding method according to the present invention comprises the steps of: determining the availability of a block adjacent to a current block; configuring a merge candidate list for the current block on the basis of the result of the determined availability; and performing motion compensation for the current block on the basis of the merge candidate list, wherein the step of determining availability comprises the steps of inducing block availability information on the adjacent block and inducing the availability of motion information on the adjacent block, and the step of determining the availability of the adjacent block is such that when there is more than one adjacent block, the availability of adjacent blocks can be determined in accordance with a predetermined order restriction.


Provided are a thin-film transistor (TFT), a method of manufacturing the same, and a method of manufacturing a backplane for a flat panel display (FPD). The method of manufacturing the TFT according to an embodiment of the present invention includes forming a gate electrode on a substrate; forming an insulating layer on the substrate to cover the gate electrode; performing a plasma treatment on an upper surface of the insulating layer using a halogen gas; forming an oxide semiconductor layer on the insulating layer and positioned to correspond to the gate electrode; and forming source and drain electrodes on the insulating layer to contact and over portions of the oxide semiconductor layer.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-04-30

A method for transmitting stereoscopic images using a variety of transport protocols is provided. To this end, a stereoscopic image packet is defined that comprises a stereoscopic packet header and a stereoscopic video packet header. The defined stereoscopic packet header and stereoscopic video packet header are used to transmit metadata needed for transmission of stereoscopic images. By doing so, it is possible to ensure compatibility with a variety of transport protocols.


A method and apparatus for managing and controlling wireless connection of a HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) proxy device in a wireless communication network are provided. The method includesreceiving one of information indicating a wireless connection deactivation of an HTTP client performing HTTP communication and information indicating a change in an Internet Protocol (IP) address of the HTTP client from a predetermined node of the wireless communication network; and deactivating a connection with an HTTP server if the received information indicates the wireless connection deactivation of an HTTP client performing the HTTP communication; and maintaining a connection with an HTTP server if the received information indicates the change in the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the HTTP client.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-10-29

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for setting a reference picture index of a temporal merging candidate. An inter-picture prediction method using a temporal merging candidate can include the steps of: determining a reference picture index for a current block; and inducing a temporal merging candidate block of the current block and calculating a temporal merging candidate from the temporal merging candidate bock, wherein the reference picture index of the temporal merging candidate can be calculated regardless of whether a block other than the current block is decoded. Accordingly, a video processing speed can be increased and video processing complexity can be reduced.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2011-10-12

An apparatus for distributing mobile resources in a cloud computing environment includes: a resource register configured to analyze, when a request for mobile resource registration is inputted by a user, the requested resource and confirm if the resource is registerable; a provisioning manager configured to create a MVO, when the mobile resource is a registerable resource, and register the mobile resource; a metadata repository configured to store metadata information regarding the registered mobile resource; and a resource manager configured to control the provisioning manager, when the resource register receives a request for the resource registration, so as to create a MVO, register the resource, and store metadata regarding the registered mobile resource information.


A method of displaying contents is provided. The method includes: receiving initial scene configuration information of a content written in a markup language from an external device; parsing and structuralizing the initial scene configuration information; rendering the content according to the structuralized initial scene configuration information; receiving additional scene configuration information of the content from the external device; updating the structuralized initial scene configuration information based on the received additional scene configuration information; and rendering the content according to the updated initial scene configuration information.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-09-17

The present invention relates to a method and device for sharing a candidate list. A method of generating a merging candidate list for a predictive block may include: producing, on the basis of a coding block including a predictive block on which a parallel merging process is performed, at least one of a spatial merging candidate and a temporal merging candidate of the predictive block; and generating a single merging candidate list for the coding block on the basis of the produced merging candidate. Thus, it is possible to increase processing speeds for coding and decoding by performing inter-picture prediction in parallel on a plurality of predictive blocks.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-10-07

The present invention relates to an image encoding and decoding technique, and more particularly, to an image encoder and decoder using unidirectional prediction. The image encoder includes a dividing unit to divide a macro block into a plurality of sub-blocks, a unidirectional application determining unit to determine whether an identical prediction mode is applied to each of the plurality of sub-blocks, and a prediction mode determining unit to determine a prediction mode with respect to each of the plurality of sub-blocks based on a determined result of the unidirectional application determining unit.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-10-07

The present invention relates to an image encoding and decoding technique, and more particularly, to an image encoder and decoder using unidirectional prediction. The image encoder includes a dividing unit to divide a macro block into a plurality of sub-blocks, a unidirectional application determining unit to determine whether an identical prediction mode is applied to each of the plurality of sub-blocks, and a prediction mode determining unit to determine a prediction mode with respect to each of the plurality of sub-blocks based on a determined result of the unidirectional application determining unit.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-04-22

Disclosed are a video encoding/decoding method and apparatus including a plurality of views. The video decoding method including the plurality of views comprises the steps of: inducing basic combination motion candidates for a current Prediction Unit (PU) to configure a combination motion candidate list; inducing expanded combination motion candidates for the current PU when the current PU corresponds to a depth information map or a dependent view; and adding the expanded combination motion candidates to the combination motion candidate list.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-03-04

The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for reproducing video data. The method of the present invention comprises the steps of: storing the received video file in a storage format upon receipt of the video file; a step of extracting an encoded video data stream and video data attribute information from the stored video file; a step of extracting samples relevant to an expanded time layer from the extracted video data stream on the basis of the location information of the sample which allows for temporal layer access contailed in the video data attribute information; and a step of restoring and reproducing the extracted samples.


Provided are a system and method for managing unregistered devices with authentication information sharing. The method includes receiving an authentication information duplication request from the unregistered device by the registered device, obtaining authentication information from a Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) by the registered device when the registered device receives the authentication information duplication request, and transmitting the obtained authentication information to the unregistered device by the registered device.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-04-13

A method and apparatus transmitting stereoscopic image data according to a variable channel environment are provided. The method includes granting a priority to each of a plurality of frames constituting one image group; determining a number of transmittable frames based on a variable channel environment; and selecting transmittable frames from among the plurality of frames based on the determined number of transmittable frames and the granted priories


According to the present invention, a method for transmitting a multimedia data packet comprises the following processes: receiving bottom-up network abstraction layer (B-NAL) information from a network entity; determining the quality of media data based on the received B-NAL information, and generating media data having the determined quality; and generating a packet for the generated media data, and transmitting the packet.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2011-07-20

In an apparatus for providing a multimedia streaming service, a server transmits a Media Presentation Description (MPD) including information about media data to a client, receives a partial request message requesting a part of media data having a range according to a defined range in the MPD, and transmits to the client a segment having the range in response to the partial request message. The segment includes at least one fragment, segment index information indicating the position of the at least one fragment in the segment, and fragment index information indicating the position of each of a plurality of samples included in the at least one fragment.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-09-04

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for encoding and decoding video information. The video information encoding method according to the present invention comprises: a step of performing a prediction on a current block; and a step of entropy-encoding the predicted information and transmitting the encoded information. The step of performing a prediction comprises: a step of acquiring motion information on a neighboring block from the neighboring block of the current block; and a step of determining motion information on the current block on the basis of the acquired motion information. The transmitting step also involves transmitting information required for the prediction of the current block. According to the present invention, the complexity of video compression and the quantity of transmitted information may be reduced.


According to the present invention, a transmission apparatus and method and a reception method and apparatus for providing a 3D service are disclosed. The transmission method for providing the 3D service while making a reference image transmitted in real-time interwork with an additional image transmitted separately from the reference image includes a real-time reference image stream generating step of generating a real-time reference image stream based on the reference image and transmitting the generated real-time reference image stream to a receiving side in real-time and an additional image transmitting step of transmitting the additional image providing the 3D service in interworking with the reference image to the receiving side separately from the reference image stream, wherein the real-time reference image stream includes a linkage information, which is information relating to the additional image to be interworking with the reference image and synchronization information for synchronization with the reference image and the additional image and content.


Methods and devices for displaying content are provided. A method for displaying content includes: receiving the content from a server and displaying the received content; and, in response to a request by an external device distinct from the server, transmitting display time information of the displayed content to the external device.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-10-08

Disclosed is a method and apparatus for decoding video data. The method for decoding video data includes receiving coded video data including multi-view video data and depth data corresponding to the video data, acquiring motion data for inter-view prediction of a coding unit of the coded video data from the depth data, and performing inter-view prediction based on the motion data, and restoring video data according to the multi-view video data including the coding unit and the depth data based on the motion prediction.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2013-10-30

A phased array RF coil module and an imaging apparatus using the same can receive a magnetic resonance signal generated from a target object at high receive sensitivity and improve a signal to noise ratio. The phased array RF coil module includes at least one first phased array RF coil unit generating a magnetic field having a component horizontal with the surface of a target object and a second phased array RF coil unit formed horizontally with the surface of the target object and generating a magnetic field having a component vertical to the surface of the target object. The imaging apparatus using the phased array RF coil module is a magnetic resonance imaging apparatus.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-11-06

According to one embodiment of the present invention, a video information encoding method comprises: a step of predicting information of the current coding unit to generate prediction information; and a step of determining whether the information of the current coding unit coincides with the prediction information. If the information of the current coding unit coincides with the prediction information, a flag indicating that the information of the current coding unit coincides with the prediction information is encoded and transmitted. If the information of the current coding unit does not coincide with the prediction information, a flag indicating that the information of the current coding unit does not coincide with the prediction information is encoded and transmitted and the information of the current coding unit is encoded and transmitted. In the step of generating prediction information, the prediction information may be generated using the information on the coding unit adjacent to the current coding unit.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-03-30

Provided is a method of selecting a white Gaussian noise sub-band using singular value decomposition (SVD). The method includes selecting a first frequency band, verifying whether a signal is included in the selected first frequency band, determining the first frequency band as a target measurement frequency when the signal is not included in the selected first frequency band, and measuring a background radio noise in the determined target measurement frequency.


Patent
Kyung Hee University, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2013-08-22

An apparatus for providing an augmented broadcasting service and an apparatus for receiving the augmented broadcasting service in a hybrid broadcasting environment. The apparatus for providing the augmented broadcasting service includes: a real-time data provider configured to provide real-time data through a first transmission network; an augmented content provider configured to provide augmented content through a second transmission network, wherein the augmented content is to be synchronized with the real-time data; and a multiplexer configured to multiplex the real-time data, the augmented content metadata and timing information for synchronization between the real-time data and the augmented content metadata, and output resulting data.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-06-19

The present relates to a method for providing a terminal with a service in a mobile communication system which includes transmitting to mobility management entity an attach request message for initiating registration of the terminal having a virtual IP address with the mobile communication system; registering, at the mobility management entity, location of the terminal with a home subscriber server; and completing the registration by transmitting an attach accept message from the mobility management entity to the terminal. The present invention is capable of registering a terminal with a mobile communication system initially without bearer path and IP address allocation and, when a packet address to the terminal occurs, allocating the radio resource, bearer resource, and IP address through paging procedure, thereby proving the UE with the service.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kyung Hee University and Kwangwoon University | Date: 2013-01-10

The present invention relates to an image encoding and decoding technique, and more particularly, to an image encoder and decoder using unidirectional prediction. The image encoder includes a dividing unit to divide a macro block into a plurality of sub-blocks, a unidirectional application determining unit to determine whether an identical prediction mode is applied to each of the plurality of sub-blocks, and a prediction mode determining unit to determine a prediction mode with respect to each of the plurality of sub-blocks based on a determined result of the unidirectional application determining unit.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-09-22

A motion compensation apparatus for a camera module with a half-shutter function is provided. The apparatus includes an initialization unit for selecting a subject, a motion of which is to be detected, from images secured in a half-shutter state, and calculates motion information of the subject; a tracking unit for tracking the selected subject and the motion information provided from the initialization unit, and calculates prediction information of the subject; and a controller for generating a control signal for controlling a speed of a shutter and a sensibility of an image sensor based on the prediction information provided from the tracking unit.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-05-06

A method and a device for encoding/decoding images are disclosed. The method for encoding images comprises the steps of: deriving a scan type of a residual signal for a current block according to whether or not the current block is a transform skip block; and applying the scan type to the residual signal for the current block, wherein the transform skip block is a block to which transform for the current block is not applied and is specified on the basis of information indicating whether or not transform for the current block is to be applied.


Methods and devices for displaying content are provided. A method for displaying content includes: receiving the content from a server and displaying the received content; and, in response to a request by an external device distinct from the server, transmitting display time information of the displayed content to the external device.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-08-31

Disclosed are a video encoding/decoding method and apparatus including a plurality of views. The video decoding method including the plurality of views comprises the steps of: inducing basic combination motion candidates for a current Prediction Unit (PU) to configure a combination motion candidate list; inducing expanded combination motion candidates for the current PU when the current PU corresponds to a depth information map or a dependent view; and adding the expanded combination motion candidates to the combination motion candidate list.


A method and an apparatus for reducing a deterioration of a Quality of Experience (QoE) in a multimedia service. The method includes reproducing a first multimedia stream by the multimedia device, receiving a command for reproducing a second multimedia stream during the reproducing of the first multimedia stream, and reproducing the second multimedia stream with reference to information regarding a unit image that is independently decoded from the second multimedia stream. The information regarding the unit image includes information regarding a number of unit images per unit time included in the second multimedia stream.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2011-10-27

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for transmitting SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) message, and the method for transmitting/receiving a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) message includes sharing, at an operator server, a method index table including information for use in compressing a SOAP message to be transmitted to a wireless device or recovering the SOAP message from the compressed-SOAP message with a conversion gateway and the wireless device; converting, at the conversion gateway when the operator server requests for transmission of the SOAP message to the wireless device, the SOAP message to the compressed-SOAP message using the method index table and transmitting the compressed-SOAP message to the wireless device; and converting, at the conversion gateway when the wireless device requests for transmission of the compressed-SOAP message to the operator server, the compressed-SOAP message to the SOAP message using the method index table and transmitting the SOAP message to the operator server. The present invention is capable of SOAP-based message transmission/reception in an environment where the IP service is not supported.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-03-10

The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for encoding and decoding an image by skip encoding. The image-encoding method by skip encoding, which performs intra-prediction, comprises: performing a filtering operation on the signal which is reconstructed prior to an encoding object signal in an encoding object image; using the filtered reconstructed signal to generate a prediction signal for the encoding object signal; setting the generated prediction signal as a reconstruction signal for the encoding object signal; and not encoding the residual signal which can be generated on the basis of the difference between the encoding object signal and the prediction signal, thereby performing skip encoding on the encoding object signal.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-07-02

Disclosed are a method and an apparatus for coding/decoding an image. The method for decoding the image comprises the steps of: deriving a scale factor of a current block, depending on whether the current block is a conversion skip block; and scaling the current block on the basis of the scale factor, wherein the scale factor of the current block is derived on the basis of the position of a conversion coefficient inside the current block, and wherein the conversion skip block is the current block to which conversion is not applied and is specified on the basis of information indicating whether to apply reconversion to the current block.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-04-27

An exercise managing method and an exercise managing apparatus are provided. The exercise managing method involves determining, with a processor, a cumulative heart rate (HR) indicating a cumulative sum of HRs of a user, analyzing an exercise performed by the user based on the cumulative HR, and providing a result of the analyzing to the user.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2013-10-15

A method for sending media information by a first terminal in a multimedia communication system is provided. The method includes generating scene configuration information that includes information regarding at least one medium of multiple media, and sending the scene configuration information to a second terminal, wherein the information regarding the at least one medium includes at least one of information indicating whether to allow reproduction of the at least one medium in the second terminal, resource information used to reproduce the at least one medium, position information used to reproduce the at least one medium on a screen, and reproduction time information for the at least one medium.


A method for transmitting multimedia data delivery characteristics information by a multimedia data transmission apparatus in a multimedia communication system is provided. The method includes transmitting, to a multimedia data reception apparatus, an element indicating whether multimedia data delivery characteristics information denoting information related to a Quality of Service (QoS) for multimedia data is included, and the multimedia data delivery characteristics information if the element indicates that the multimedia data delivery characteristics information is included.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-11-09

A method and an apparatus for transmitting a multimedia data packet are provided. The method includes generating Media Abstraction Layer (MAL) information for abstracting information on the multimedia data to be transmitted, generating a multimedia data packet including said MAL information, and transmitting the generated multimedia data packet to a network entity.


Patent
Postech Academy Industry Foundation and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2012-12-20

Provided is a personal computer-based visual field self-testing system of increasing an opportunity of a glaucoma early diagnosis through a self-testing together with improvement of a size reduction, installation, and easiness in movement of a visual field testing system by using a personal computer. The personal computer-based visual field self-testing system includes a computer monitor presenting a visual field measurement region and a visual field measurement result, an attachable and detachable light blocking unit equipped on a front side of the computer monitor to provide a visual field testing environment, an eye selection unit equipped on a rear side of the attachable and detachable light blocking unit to block external light and select an examination eye, a face support unit including the eye selection unit and supporting a face of an examinee, and a visual stimulus confirmation unit operated by the examinee according to a visual stimulus of the visual field measurement region.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-11-18

A method for sending media information by a first terminal in a multimedia communication system is provided. The method includes generating scene configuration information that includes information regarding at least one medium of multiple media, and sending the scene configuration information to a second terminal, wherein the information regarding the at least one medium includes at least one of information indicating whether to allow reproduction of the at least one medium in the second terminal, resource information used to reproduce the at least one medium, position information used to reproduce the at least one medium on a screen, and reproduction time information for the at least one medium.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2016-02-23

A thin film transistor substrate and an organic light-emitting diode display including the same are disclosed. In one aspect, the TFT substrate includes substrate and a TFT located on the substrate. The TFT includes a lower gate electrode, a first insulating layer covering the lower gate electrode, an oxide semiconductor layer located on the first insulating layer, a first electrode located on the oxide semiconductor layer and having an island shape, a second electrode located on the oxide semiconductor layer and surrounding the first electrode, a second insulating layer at least partially covering the oxide semiconductor layer; and an upper gate electrode located on the second insulating layer. The oxide semiconductor layer includes a first region, a second region surrounding the first region, and a third region interposed between the first and second regions.


The present invention relates to a method for transmitting a multimedia data packet, comprising the following processes: receiving bottom-up network abstraction layer (B-NAL) information from a network entity; generating top-down network abstraction layer (T-NAL) information on the multimedia data to be transmitted; generating a multimedia data packet containing said T-NAL information; and transmitting the multimedia data packet generated in the previous process, to the network entity, in consideration of said B-NAL information.


A method of performing user authentication of a mobile station by proxy in a communication system is provided. The method includes receiving an authentication request, which requests authentication of a user, from an Internet service provider having received information indicating that the mobile station can perform authentication based on only the mobile stations own information, requesting the user to provide security identification information for authentication, receiving the security identification information input by the user, authenticating the user by determining whether the security identification information is valid information, through security-requiring information managed by the mobile station, and transmitting an authentication result to the Internet service provider and receiving an authorized authentication result from the Internet service provider and providing a service according to the authorized authentication result to the user.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kwangwoon University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-03-13

The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for encoding and decoding an image by skip encoding. The image-encoding method by skip encoding, which performs intra-prediction, comprises: performing a filtering operation on the signal which is reconstructed prior to an encoding object signal in an encoding object image; using the filtered reconstructed signal to generate a prediction signal for the encoding object signal; setting the generated prediction signal as a reconstruction signal for the encoding object signal; and not encoding the residual signal which can be generated on the basis of the difference between the encoding object signal and the prediction signal, thereby performing skip encoding on the encoding object signal.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-02-09

A method is provided for registering a mobile router in an Internet Protocol version 6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) network. The mobile router detects movement into a wireless network through the reception of a beacon message, and sends a Router Solicitation (RS) message requesting registration in the wireless network to a gateway. The gateway acquires an address of the mobile router from the RS message, stores the acquired address, assigns a new address to be used in the wireless network to the mobile router, and sends a Router Advertisement (RA) message with assigned address information and gateway address information, to the mobile router. The mobile router acquires the assigned address information and the gateway address information from the RA message.


A method is provided for supporting mobility of a Mobile Node (MN) in a multi-hop Internet Protocol (IP) network, in which an MN that has moved from a source Personal Area Network (PAN) to a target PAN, sends a Router Solicitation (RS) message with an option for requesting its profile to a gateway of the target PAN, and receives a Router Advertisement (RA) message from the gateway in response to the RS message. The RA message includes a home prefix of the MN as the requested profile. The method supports mobility of MNs, enables unicast communication, and facilitates efficient use of the network.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-07-31

An exercise managing method and an exercise managing apparatus are provided. The exercise managing method involves determining, with a processor, a cumulative heart rate (HR) indicating a cumulative sum of HRs of a user, analyzing an exercise performed by the user based on the cumulative HR, and providing a result of the analyzing to the user.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2015-04-21

An apparatus determining an exercise capability of an individual by obtaining heart rate information of the individual, detecting a characteristic point from the heart rate information, and obtaining information to be used to determine the exercise capability of the individual based on the characteristic point.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-06-11

A system acquires RF magnetic field information, i.e. B1 magnetic field information in response to generated RF pulses applied to a target object via at least one of a plurality of RF coil elements in a MRI system. The system acquires first B1 magnetic field phase information of a B1 magnetic field formed by respective RF coil elements (e.g. by transmitting with one of the RF coil elements only) and acquires second B1 magnetic field phase information of a B1 magnetic field formed by a combination of two or more RF coil elements. The system acquires third information comprising B1 magnetic field phase information by combining the first information and the second information and processes the first, second and third information in providing a B1 map indicating spatial distribution of a B1 magnetic field. By suitably selecting the driven coil elements, the transmission B1 phase information can be separated from the reception B1 phase information.


Patent
Kyung Hee University and Samsung | Date: 2012-06-13

An apparatus and a method for providing an adaptive multimedia service in a mobile communication system are provided. The method of providing a multimedia service includes collecting user-preference-aware information, device-capability-aware information, and network-aware information, generating a packet according to a correlation among the user-preference-aware information, the device-capability-aware information, and the network-aware information, and providing a multimedia service according to the generated packet.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-05-14

A phased array radio-frequency (RF) coil and a magnetic resonance imaging apparatus employing the same. The phased array RF coil includes a cylindrical frame including a coaxial inner frame and a coaxial outer frame having different diameters; and a plurality of vertical loop coils arranged in a circumferential direction of the cylindrical frame. Each vertical loop coil of the plurality of vertical loop coils includes an inner conductor extending in a lengthwise direction on the coaxial inner frame; an outer conductor extending in a lengthwise direction from the coaxial outer frame and facing the inner conductor; and a first resonant frequency adjustment capacitor for connecting one end of the inner conductor in the lengthwise direction and one end of the outer conductor in the lengthwise direction so that the phased array RF coil resonates at a magnetic resonance imaging operating frequency.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-08-21

Provided are a method and apparatus for transmitting stereoscopic video information based on digital broadcasting. The method for transmitting stereoscopic video information according to the present invention comprises: constructing a signaling table including stream-type information; and transmitting the video information including the signaling table information and video data information. According to the present invention, various types of stereoscopic video services may be provided.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2010-11-10

Provided is a transmitter for transmitting an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal using multiple antennas, including: a subgroup generator to divide data symbols of a frequency domain into a plurality of subgroups; an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) unit to perform an IFFT with respect to each of the subgroups so as to generate partial signals of a time domain corresponding to the plurality of subgroups, respectively; a candidate OFDM signal generator to generate at least two candidate OFDM signals using a combination of the partial signals so that each of the partial signals is transmitted to one of transmit antennas; and a selector to select one of the at least two candidate OFDM signals.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-11-27

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for transmitting a multimedia data packet. The method for transmitting a multimedia data packet comprises the following processes: generating media abstraction layer (MAL) information for abstracting information on the multimedia data to be transmitted; generating a multimedia data packet including said MAL information; and transmitting the generated multimedia data packet to a network entity.


A method of displaying contents, a method of synchronizing contents, and a method and device for displaying contents are provided. The method includes: receiving initial scene configuration information of a content written in a markup language from an external device, structuralizing the initial scene configuration information, rendering the content according to the structuralized initial scene configuration information, receiving additional scene configuration information of the content from the external device, updating the structuralized initial scene configuration information based on the received additional scene configuration information, and rendering the content according to the updated initial scene configuration information.


Patent
Samsung and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2014-06-11

A method is disclosed in which B1 magnetic field information is acquired in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. An RF excitation pulse sequence is generated, and the generated RF excitation pulse sequence includes RF excitation pulses having three different flip angles. The generated RF excitation pulse sequence is transmitted to a target object. Gradient echo response signals are received from the target object corresponding to the different RF excitation flip angles and spatially resolved B1 information is acquired by processing the received gradient echo response signals into images. By a combination of the information contained in the three gradient echo images the method allows to reduce T1-induced errors of the B1 map.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2012-01-25

Since joint scalable video coding (JSVC) adopts a scheme in which numbers are assigned to all of the pictures according to the order in which the pictures are displayed, it is difficult to detect a drop (or loss) of a key picture and thus it is difficult to effectively take action against an error caused by the loss of the key picture. The present invention provides a coding method of detecting a loss of a key picture by numbering key pictures in JSVC in which predictive (P) pictures have a closed-loop structure and of effectively taking action against an error in the case of a loss of a key picture, and a codec using the coding method. The SVC method includes performing encoding while assigning a number to a key picture of an upper layer and performing decoding with respect to the number- encoded current key picture of the upper layer using data of a decoded image of a picture of a lower layer that is temporally matched with the current key picture of the upper layer when a loss of a key picture between the number-encoded current key picture of the upper layer and a previous key picture that is number-encoded prior to the current key picture is detected. Therefore, it is possible to effectively take action against to an error caused by a loss of a key picture by detecting the loss of a key picture during decoding by encoding using numbering of key pictures in JSVC in which closed-loop coding is performed by consecutively predicting key pictures. Moreover, it is possible to minimize degradation in image quality by concealing an error caused by an incorrect reference by using data of a decoded image of a corresponding picture of a lower base layer when a key picture of an upper layer is lost in an environment where transmission of the lower base layer is guaranteed with a video stream having a multi-layered structure.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2012-11-08

The present invention relates to a method and device for sharing a candidate list. A method of generating a merging candidate list for a predictive block may include: producing, on the basis of a coding block including a predictive block on which a parallel merging process is performed, at least one of a spatial merging candidate and a temporal merging candidate of the predictive block; and generating a single merging candidate list for the coding block on the basis of the produced merging candidate. Thus, it is possible to increase processing speeds for coding and decoding by performing inter-picture prediction in parallel on a plurality of predictive blocks.


According to the present invention, a transmission apparatus and method and a reception method and apparatus for providing a 3D service are disclosed. The transmission method for providing the 3D service while making a reference image transmitted in real-time interwork with an additional image transmitted separately from the reference image includes a real-time reference image stream generating step of generating a real-time reference image stream based on the reference image and transmitting the generated real-time reference image stream to a receiving side in real-time and an additional image transmitting step of transmitting the additional image providing the 3D service in interworking with the reference image to the receiving side separately from the reference image stream, wherein the real-time reference image stream includes a linkage information, which is information relating to the additional image to be interworking with the reference image and synchronization information for synchronization with the reference image and the additional image and content.


A method of transmitting a data packet of a multimedia service is provided. The method includes generating a media characteristic corresponding to a single media content component or aggregated media characteristics corresponding to a plurality of multimedia content components, obtaining information used for generating the data packet from the generated media characteristics or aggregated media characteristics, and generating the data packet based on the obtained information used for generating the data packet and transmitting the generated data packet.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2013-10-11

The image decoding method according to the present invention comprises the steps of: determining the availability of a block adjacent to a current block; configuring a merge candidate list for the current block on the basis of the result of the determined availability; and performing motion compensation for the current block on the basis of the merge candidate list, wherein the step of determining availability comprises the steps of inducing block availability information on the adjacent block and inducing the availability of motion information on the adjacent block, and the step of determining the availability of the adjacent block is such that when there is more than one adjacent block, the availability of adjacent blocks can be determined in accordance with a predetermined order restriction.


An apparatus and method for human activity and facial expression modeling and recognition are based on feature extraction techniques from time sequential images. The human activity modeling includes determining principal components of depth and/or binary shape images of human activities extracted from video clips. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) representations are determined based on the principal components. Features are determined through Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based on the ICA representations. A codebook is determined using vector quantization. Observation symbol sequences in the video clips are determined. And human activities are learned using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based on status transition and an observation matrix.


The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for transmitting information to a terminal of a specific group using multicast transmission equipment in a mobile communication system. The method of the present invention comprises: an information receiving step of receiving, from an information provider, information to be transmitted to the terminal; a selection step of selecting either a cell broadcasting service multicast transmission scheme or a multimedia broadcast multicast service multicast transmission scheme in accordance with the size of the received information; and a multicast transmission step of multicast transmitting the information to the terminal of the specific group in accordance with the selected transmission scheme.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Sangmyung University and Kyung Hee University | Date: 2012-05-18

Provided is a three-dimensional (3D) image information transmitting system and method based on difference information. A 3D image information transmitting apparatus in the 3D image information transmitting system may include a difference information extractor to extract difference information by comparing a second composite texture image obtained by generating a composite of a first texture image and depth information with a second original texture image, and an image information transmitting unit to transmit 3D image information including the first texture image, the depth information, and the difference information.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Kyung Hee University and Kwangwoon University | Date: 2013-10-03

The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for encoding and decoding an image by skip encoding. The image-encoding method by skip encoding, which performs intra-prediction, comprises: performing a filtering operation on the signal which is reconstructed prior to an encoding object signal in an encoding object image; using the filtered reconstructed signal to generate a prediction signal for the encoding object signal; setting the generated prediction signal as a reconstruction signal for the encoding object signal; and not encoding the residual signal which can be generated on the basis of the difference between the encoding object signal and the prediction signal, thereby performing skip encoding on the encoding object signal.


Disclosed is a thin film transistor that includes a gate electrode, a semiconductor overlapping with the gate electrode, a source electrode that is electrically connected to the semiconductor, a drain electrode that is electrically connected to the semiconductor and faces the source electrode, and a stacked gate insulating layer that is positioned between the gate electrode and semiconductor. The stacked gate insulating layer includes an aluminum oxide layer. A method of manufacturing the same and a display device including the thin film transistor are also disclosed.