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Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

The Kyrgyz State Medical Institute was opened on 1 September 1939 in the city of Bishkek , Kyrgyzstan, with the recruitment of 200 students. The establishment of the institute was contributed to by the First Moscow Medical Institute, high medical schools of Saint-Petersburg, Almaty, Tashkent and other medical institutions. They provided expertise and organizational assistance, medical guidelines and training books as well as faculty staff. Wikipedia.

Vinnikov D.,University of California at Berkeley | Brimkulov N.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy | Blanc P.D.,University of California at San Francisco
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine

Objective We aimed to ascertain risk factors for acute mountain sickness (AMS) in miners exposed to chronic intermittent high altitude conditions. Methods All new hires (2009-2012) for mine employment (4000 m above sea level) were followed up for 12 months after first ascent. Demographics, physiologic data, and cigarette smoking were assessed at preemployment screening. Mine site clinic care for AMS defined incident events. Cox regression analysis estimated risk of AMS associated with smoking and selected covariates. Results There were 46 AMS cases among 569 individuals during the first 12 months of employment. Adjusted for age, sex, and altitude of permanent residence, cigarettes smoked per day before hiring were prospectively associated with AMS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.2 per 10 cigarettes smoked). This risk was higher in the subset of workers with less demanding physical work (n = 336; HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.3), whereas among those with more physically demanding jobs (n = 233), smoking was not associated with increased risk (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1 to 2.3). Conclusions In workers newly hired to work at high altitude, smoking increases the likelihood of AMS, but this effect appears to be operative only among those with less physically demanding work duties. © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Source

Nurbekova U.A.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova

A short review of literature data on the pathogenesis and clinical presentations of spinal muscular atrophies is provided. We report two cases of Werdnig-Hoffmann's disease in one family and present a diagnostic search strategy which allows the ordinary neurologist to distinguish this pathology. © 2014, Media Sphera. All rights reserved. Source

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder acting as a risk factor for the development and progression of cardiometabolic derangements including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recent research data suggest that non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease may be a more sensitive marker than non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for early subclinical metabolic risk and may contribute to the progression of subclinical disease to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus.Presentation of the hypothesis: We postulate that obstructive sleep apnea may be a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease. It is well known that intermittent hypoxia related to obstructive sleep apnea leads to hormonal derangements. Excessive lipolysis, enhanced lipid synthesis and systemic and local inflammation may favor ectopic fat deposition similarly to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Furthermore, it is possible that obstructive sleep apnea can lead to pancreatic beta cell damage via intermittent hypoxia.Testing of the hypothesis: Future research should focus on the following: first, whether non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease is an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic disease including diabetes mellitus or is a simple consequence of obesity; second, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease among people with obstructive sleep apnea and vice versa, which should be compared to the prevalence of these diseases in general population; third, whether coexistence of these conditions is related to greater cardiometabolic risk than either disease alone; and fourth, whether the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea will translate into the resolution of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease.Implications of the hypothesis: If proven, this hypothesis will provide new knowledge on the complex interplay between various metabolic insults. Second, screening for NAFPD may identify individuals at risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus for targeted prevention. Third, screening for the presence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea may help to decrease the incidence of diabetes mellitus through a targeted prevention. © 2014 Mirrakhimov; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Vinnikov D.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology

Background: Occupational studies of associations of exposures with impaired lung function in mining settings are built on exposure assessment and far less often on workplace approach, so the aim of this study was to identify vulnerable occupational groups for early lung function reduction in a cohort of healthy young miners. Methods: Data from annual screening lung function tests in gold mining company in Kyrgyzstan were linked to occupations. We compared per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC between occupational groups and tested selected occupations in multivariate regression adjusted for smoking and work duration for the following outcomes: FEV1 < 80 %, FEV1/FVC < 70 % and both. Results: 1550 tests of permanent workers of 41 occupations (mean age 40.5 ± 9.2 years, 29.8 % never smokers) were included in the analysis. The mean overall VC was 103.0 ± 12.9 %; FVC 109.1 ± 13.0 % and FEV1 100.2 ± 25.9 %. Drillers and smoking food handlers had the lowest FEV1%. In non-smokers, the lowest FEV1 was in drillers (94.9 ± 11.3 % compared to 115.2 ± 17.7 % in engineers). Drillers (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.09)) and mill operators (OR 2.01 (1.13-3.57)) were at greater risk of obstructive ventilation pattern (FEV1/FVC < 70 %). Conclusions: Drilling and mill operations are the highest risk jobs in an open-pit mine for reduced lung function. Occupational medical clinic at site should follow-up workers in these occupations with depth and strongly recommend smoking cessation. © 2016 Vinnikov. Source

Mirrakhimov A.E.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy | Polotsky V.Y.,Johns Hopkins University
Frontiers in Neurology

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis.The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation.The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1) IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA) flux into the liver; (2) IH upregulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3) IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4) IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done. © 2012 Mirrakhimov and Polotsky. Source

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