Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyz State Medical Academy

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Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

The Kyrgyz State Medical Institute was opened on 1 September 1939 in the city of Bishkek , Kyrgyzstan, with the recruitment of 200 students. The establishment of the institute was contributed to by the First Moscow Medical Institute, high medical schools of Saint-Petersburg, Almaty, Tashkent and other medical institutions. They provided expertise and organizational assistance, medical guidelines and training books as well as faculty staff. Wikipedia.

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Mirrakhimov A.E.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy | Mirrakhimov E.M.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease, affecting approximately 2% of women and 4% of men residing in Western communities. No systematically reviewed data are available about the prevalence of this disease in Asia, the most heavily populated continent.Methods: PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from 1993 to May 2012 that reported the prevalence of OSA diagnosed via sleep monitoring and the prevalence of patients at risk for OSA as assessed by symptomatology and/or sleep questionnaires. We have also searched abstract database of major pulmonary and sleep scientific societies for relevant abstracts presented from 2010 to 2012. The following inclusion criteria were used: articles published in English, age ≥ 18 years, ≥ 100 participants in studies using sleep monitoring for the diagnosis of OSA, ≥ 300 participants in studies using questionnaires to detect patients at high risk for OSA. Exclusion criteria: duplicate publications, studies reporting the prevalence of central sleep apnea only, hospital based studies as well as studies assessing OSA prevalence among patients with resistant arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure and in patients with concomitant neurological disease.Results: Twenty four articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria, covering 47,957 subjects (26,042 men and 21,915 women) and four relevant abstracts were noted. OSA prevalence ranged from 3.7% to 97.3%. Male gender, older age, a higher BMI and waist to hip ratio, greater neck circumference, arterial hypertension, smoking, snoring and daytime sleepiness were associated with OSA. Sample size, difference between the populations studied and the fact that some works included patients with a high pre-test probability of OSA explain the difference in prevalence rates.Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the lack of data regarding the prevalence of OSA in Asians. Only a few studies provide an approximate estimate of the OSA burden in some Asian communities. © 2013 Mirrakhimov et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mirrakhimov A.E.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2013

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and underdiagnosed medical disorder. OSA is associated with the symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). These patients typically follow a sedentary lifestyle, and sedentary behavior is related to impaired fluid dynamics in the lower body, particularly the legs. In a supine position this fluid can move towards the neck, with a subsequent increase in upper airway (UA) resistance and UA collapse. Several studies have shown that rostral fluid shift worsens OSA; however, whether physical activity can influence this has not been tested. Physical activity related improvement in OSA severity cannot be fully explained by a weight loss in the performed studies, which is of particular importance. One of the potential additional pathways is via an improvement in leg fluid dynamics, with a subsequent decrease in the supine fluid shift toward the neck, since physical activity improves leg fluid dynamics. It is likely that patients with fluid overload states such as heart failure, chronic kidney disease and resistant arterial hypertension, as well as patients with EDS are likely to benefit the most from physical exercise in terms of better leg fluid clearance, and potentially in terms of OSA severity. However, none of the studies have directly assessed the potential effect of physical activity on the leg fluid volume, and more importantly on the supine fluid shift and OSA severity. These questions should be addressed in future studies of the effects of physical exercise on OSA severity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Mirrakhimov A.E.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Sleep and Breathing | Year: 2013

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common medical disorder affecting at least 2 % of women and 4 % of men living in Western societies. Obesity, older age, male gender, alcohol and sedative use, smoking, craniofacial parameters, and volume overload are some of the risk factors for this disorder. Discussion: OSA is a known risk factor complicating the course of arterial hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. It is important to note that all of the aforementioned comorbid disorders are associated with volume overload. This explains why patients with OSA and comorbid disorders associated with fluid overload can benefit from treatment with diuretics and drugs modulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Additionally, patients with heart failure and high sodium intake are at increased risk for OSA, further supporting the complex interrelationship. Conclusions: Hemodialysis and renal transplantation can markedly improve the severity of OSA in patients with concomitant kidney disease. Finally, there is a potential of a vicious cycle between OSA and fluid overload disorders, whereby OSA can contribute to the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, which in turn will significantly contribute to the course OSA. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Mirrakhimov A.E.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Sleep and Breathing | Year: 2012

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and underrecognized disorder affecting at least 2% and 4% of women and men, respectively. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), on the other hand, affects around 13% of US adults. Both of these conditions share some risk factors such as age, obesity, and smoking and are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. By itself OSA may play a role in the development of arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia with potential impact on CKD development and/or progression. But the data regarding OSA and CKD are relatively scant. Discussion: Moreover, several studies had shown possible harmful effects on kidney function independent from conventional risk factors. CKD is associated with excessive fluid volume, with potential shift during recumbency towards the neck area with increased upper airway resistance. Thus, OSA and CKD may be the results of each other and when present together may impose much greater cardiovascular risk than either disease alone. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Vinnikov D.,University of California at Berkeley | Brimkulov N.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy | Blanc P.D.,University of California at San Francisco
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective We aimed to ascertain risk factors for acute mountain sickness (AMS) in miners exposed to chronic intermittent high altitude conditions. Methods All new hires (2009-2012) for mine employment (4000 m above sea level) were followed up for 12 months after first ascent. Demographics, physiologic data, and cigarette smoking were assessed at preemployment screening. Mine site clinic care for AMS defined incident events. Cox regression analysis estimated risk of AMS associated with smoking and selected covariates. Results There were 46 AMS cases among 569 individuals during the first 12 months of employment. Adjusted for age, sex, and altitude of permanent residence, cigarettes smoked per day before hiring were prospectively associated with AMS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.2 per 10 cigarettes smoked). This risk was higher in the subset of workers with less demanding physical work (n = 336; HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.3), whereas among those with more physically demanding jobs (n = 233), smoking was not associated with increased risk (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1 to 2.3). Conclusions In workers newly hired to work at high altitude, smoking increases the likelihood of AMS, but this effect appears to be operative only among those with less physically demanding work duties. © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society.


Mirrakhimov A.E.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy | Polotsky V.Y.,Johns Hopkins University
Frontiers in Neurology | Year: 2012

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis.The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation.The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1) IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA) flux into the liver; (2) IH upregulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3) IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4) IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done. © 2012 Mirrakhimov and Polotsky.


Vinnikov D.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2016

Background: Occupational studies of associations of exposures with impaired lung function in mining settings are built on exposure assessment and far less often on workplace approach, so the aim of this study was to identify vulnerable occupational groups for early lung function reduction in a cohort of healthy young miners. Methods: Data from annual screening lung function tests in gold mining company in Kyrgyzstan were linked to occupations. We compared per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC between occupational groups and tested selected occupations in multivariate regression adjusted for smoking and work duration for the following outcomes: FEV1 < 80 %, FEV1/FVC < 70 % and both. Results: 1550 tests of permanent workers of 41 occupations (mean age 40.5 ± 9.2 years, 29.8 % never smokers) were included in the analysis. The mean overall VC was 103.0 ± 12.9 %; FVC 109.1 ± 13.0 % and FEV1 100.2 ± 25.9 %. Drillers and smoking food handlers had the lowest FEV1%. In non-smokers, the lowest FEV1 was in drillers (94.9 ± 11.3 % compared to 115.2 ± 17.7 % in engineers). Drillers (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.09)) and mill operators (OR 2.01 (1.13-3.57)) were at greater risk of obstructive ventilation pattern (FEV1/FVC < 70 %). Conclusions: Drilling and mill operations are the highest risk jobs in an open-pit mine for reduced lung function. Occupational medical clinic at site should follow-up workers in these occupations with depth and strongly recommend smoking cessation. © 2016 Vinnikov.


Nurbekova U.A.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2014

A short review of literature data on the pathogenesis and clinical presentations of spinal muscular atrophies is provided. We report two cases of Werdnig-Hoffmann's disease in one family and present a diagnostic search strategy which allows the ordinary neurologist to distinguish this pathology. © 2014, Media Sphera. All rights reserved.


Mirrakhimov A.E.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2014

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder acting as a risk factor for the development and progression of cardiometabolic derangements including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recent research data suggest that non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease may be a more sensitive marker than non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for early subclinical metabolic risk and may contribute to the progression of subclinical disease to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus.Presentation of the hypothesis: We postulate that obstructive sleep apnea may be a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease. It is well known that intermittent hypoxia related to obstructive sleep apnea leads to hormonal derangements. Excessive lipolysis, enhanced lipid synthesis and systemic and local inflammation may favor ectopic fat deposition similarly to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Furthermore, it is possible that obstructive sleep apnea can lead to pancreatic beta cell damage via intermittent hypoxia.Testing of the hypothesis: Future research should focus on the following: first, whether non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease is an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic disease including diabetes mellitus or is a simple consequence of obesity; second, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease among people with obstructive sleep apnea and vice versa, which should be compared to the prevalence of these diseases in general population; third, whether coexistence of these conditions is related to greater cardiometabolic risk than either disease alone; and fourth, whether the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea will translate into the resolution of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease.Implications of the hypothesis: If proven, this hypothesis will provide new knowledge on the complex interplay between various metabolic insults. Second, screening for NAFPD may identify individuals at risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus for targeted prevention. Third, screening for the presence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea may help to decrease the incidence of diabetes mellitus through a targeted prevention. © 2014 Mirrakhimov; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mirrakhimov A.E.,Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2012

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are common and underdiagnosed medical conditions. It was predicted that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020. The healthcare burden of this disease is even greater if we consider the significant impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be considered as a novel risk factor for new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus via multiple pathophysiological alterations such as: inflammation and oxidative stress, insulin resistance, weight gain and alterations in metabolism of adipokines.On the other hand, diabetes may act as an independent factor, negatively affecting pulmonary structure and function. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of pulmonary infections, disease exacerbations and worsened COPD outcomes. On the top of that, coexistent OSA may increase the risk for type 2 DM in some individuals.The current scientific data necessitate a greater outlook on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be viewed as a risk factor for the new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conversely, both types of diabetes mellitus should be viewed as strong contributing factors for the development of obstructive lung disease. Such approach can potentially improve the outcomes and medical control for both conditions, and, thus, decrease the healthcare burden of these major medical problems. © 2012 Mirrakhimov; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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