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Pawera L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Verner V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Termote C.,c o ICRAF United Nations Avenue | Sodombekov I.,Gareev Botanical Garden of the National Academy of science of the Kyrgyz Republic | And 4 more authors.
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae

This study recorded and analyzed traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Turkestan Range in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, where ethnobotanical knowledge has been largely under-documented to date. Data was collected through participant observation and both semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 10 herbal specialists. A total of 50 medicinal plant taxa were documented, distributed among 46 genera and 27 botanical families. In folk medicine they are applied in 75 different formulations, which cure 63 human and three animal ailments. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices were calculated to analyze traditional knowledge of the informants and to determine the cultural importance of particular medicinal plants. Ziziphora pamiroalaica, Peganum harmala, and Inula orientalis obtained the highest use value (UV). The best-represented and culturally important families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Apiaceae. Gastro-intestinal system disorders was the most prevalent ailment category. Most medicinal plants were gathered from nearby environments, however, species with a higher cultural value occurred at distant rather than nearby collection sites. The findings of this study proved the gap in documentation of traditional knowledge in Kyrgyzstan, indicating that further studies on the traditional use of wild plant resources could bring important insights into ecosystems' diversity with implications to human ecology and biocultural diversity conservation in Central Asia. © The Author(s) 2016. Source

Orozumbekov A.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Cantarello E.,Bournemouth University | Newton A.C.,Bournemouth University
Forests Trees and Livelihoods

Information is lacking on the status of threatened tree species in Central Asia. This paper aims to provide preliminary information for 10 fruit and nut tree species of Kyrgyzstan. A field survey was conducted throughout the range of walnut-fruit forests in this country, supported by a socio-economic survey. Results indicated that species differed markedly in abundance. Whereas Malus sieversii was found in all locations, four species (Crataegus pontica,Pistacia vera,Pyrus korshinskyi and Sorbus persica) were only found in a minority (≤ 30%) of sites. Four species showed evidence of a bimodal distribution of stem diameters, which could be attributed to fuelwood harvesting, as indicated by the socio-economic survey. A majority of respondents reported a decline in the available grazing resource, a decline in the availability of harvested fruits and an increase in time required to collect fuelwood over the past decade. These results suggest that unsustainable land-use practices may be impacting negatively on populations of threatened fruit tree species. These results highlight the need to regulate local forest use to ensure that threatened fruit and nut tree species are effectively conserved, and the need for targeted actions to conserve the most threatened species, such as P. korshinskyi. © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source

Hegay S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Hegay S.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Ortiz R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Garkava-Gustavsson L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export crop in Kyrgyzstan. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is a seed-born disease that affects this crop and reduces its yield significantly in the country. The aim of this study was to identify virus strain(s) occurring in Kyrgyzstan and breed host plant resistance to BCMV using DNA markers. Susceptible Kyrgyz cultivars (Ryabaya, Kytayanka and Lopatka) were included in a backcrossing breeding scheme for introducing host plant resistance from resistant cultivars (Vaillant and Flagrano). The virus strains were evaluated according to the symptoms of differential cultivars. The virus strain NL6 was found in northern Kyrgyzstan, where farmers grow most of the common bean produced in this country. Two SCAR markers (SW13 and SBD5) were used successfully in marker-aided backcrossing for pyramiding the I and bc-1 2 genes, which provide host plant resistance to BCMV. Resistant BC4F2 offspring carrying the I gene showed hypersensitivity reactions to necrosis inducing NL3 strain after detached leaf-assays. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Cantarello E.,Bournemouth University | Lovegrove A.,Bournemouth University | Orozumbekov A.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Birch J.,BirdLife International | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Sustainable Forestry

We used a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics, supported by empirical field data and socioeconomic data, to examine the impacts of human disturbances on a protected forest landscape in Kyrgyzstan. Local use of 27 fruit and nut species was recorded and modeled. Results indicated that in the presence of fuelwood cutting with or without grazing, species of high socioeconomic importance such as Juglans regia, Malus spp., and Armeniaca vulgaris were largely eliminated from the landscape after 50-150 yr. In the absence of disturbance or in the presence of grazing only, decline of these species occurred at a much lower rate, owing to competitive interactions between tree species. This suggests that the current intensity of fuelwood harvesting is not sustainable. Conversely, current grazing intensities were found to have relatively little impact on forest structure and composition, and could potentially play a positive role in supporting regeneration of tree species. These results indicate that both positive and negative impacts on biodiversity can arise from human populations living within a protected area. Potentially, these could be reconciled through the development of participatory approaches to conservation management within this reserve, to ensure the maintenance of its high conservation value while meeting human needs. Published with license by Taylor & Francis. Source

Seim A.,Gothenburg University | Tulyaganov T.,Republican Scientific Production Center for Decorative Gardening and Forestry | Omurova G.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Nikolyai L.,Republican Scientific Production Center for Decorative Gardening and Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function

Key message: Intensity and magnitude of the growth-climate relationship depends on juniper species and sites.Juniperus seravschanicaat low elevations shows highest potential for April–September drought reconstruction in the Turkestan range (Pamir-Alay), Uzbekistan.Abstract: We present a detailed dendroclimatological study of three juniper species, Juniperus seravschanica Kom., Juniperus semiglobosa Regel and Juniperus turkistanica Kom., sampled at six sites of different elevation (2100–2700 m a.s.l.), exposition (west and south) and steepness (10°–30°) in the Zaamin National Park, Turkestan range, Pamir-Alay mountain system in eastern Uzbekistan. Simple correlation statistics and redundancy analyses were applied to detect species- and site-specific climate responses during the twentieth century, which were additionally investigated in the high-frequency domain by identifying extreme growth years. Our results show that tree-ring formation of J. seravschanica at our low-elevation site is strongly limited by April to September drought conditions, while J. semiglobosa inherits a weak and variable climate response with respect to elevation. J. turkistanica growth at high altitudes is positively associated with warm spring and summer temperatures. Species-specific growth extremes are triggered by incoming air masses from the Atlantic and Arctic, highlighting the connection of synoptic climate regimes across Eurasia. From a dendroclimatic perspective, J. seravschanica exhibits a high potential for reconstructing past drought and pluvials, but under sustained temperature rise also J. semiglobosa will likely increase its sensitivity to drought. Moreover, J. turkistanica at its distribution limit at the tree line is a suitable proxy of summer temperature. Our findings clearly demonstrate that a careful selection of the site, overall topography and elevation as well as the different juniper species are important for successfully reconstructing past climate in Uzbekistan. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

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