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PubMed | Institute for Plant Production science IPS, Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy Ltd., East Malling Research, Walloon Agricultural Research Center and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

The amount and structure of genetic diversity in dessert apple germplasm conserved at a European level is mostly unknown, since all diversity studies conducted in Europe until now have been performed on regional or national collections. Here, we applied a common set of 16 SSR markers to genotype more than 2,400 accessions across 14 collections representing three broad European geographic regions (North+East, West and South) with the aim to analyze the extent, distribution and structure of variation in the apple genetic resources in Europe.A Bayesian model-based clustering approach showed that diversity was organized in three groups, although these were only moderately differentiated (FST=0.031). A nested Bayesian clustering approach allowed identification of subgroups which revealed internal patterns of substructure within the groups, allowing a finer delineation of the variation into eight subgroups (FST=0.044). The first level of stratification revealed an asymmetric division of the germplasm among the three groups, and a clear association was found with the geographical regions of origin of the cultivars. The substructure revealed clear partitioning of genetic groups among countries, but also interesting associations between subgroups and breeding purposes of recent cultivars or particular usage such as cider production. Additional parentage analyses allowed us to identify both putative parents of more than 40 old and/or local cultivars giving interesting insights in the pedigree of some emblematic cultivars.The variation found at group and subgroup levels may reflect a combination of historical processes of migration/selection and adaptive factors to diverse agricultural environments that, together with genetic drift, have resulted in extensive genetic variation but limited population structure. The European dessert apple germplasm represents an important source of genetic diversity with a strong historical and patrimonial value. The present work thus constitutes a decisive step in the field of conservation genetics. Moreover, the obtained data can be used for defining a European apple core collection useful for further identification of genomic regions associated with commercially important horticultural traits in apple through genome-wide association studies.


Pawera L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Verner V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Termote C.,c o ICRAF United Nations Avenue | Sodombekov I.,Gareev Botanical Garden of the National Academy of science of the Kyrgyz Republic | And 4 more authors.
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae | Year: 2016

This study recorded and analyzed traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Turkestan Range in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, where ethnobotanical knowledge has been largely under-documented to date. Data was collected through participant observation and both semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 10 herbal specialists. A total of 50 medicinal plant taxa were documented, distributed among 46 genera and 27 botanical families. In folk medicine they are applied in 75 different formulations, which cure 63 human and three animal ailments. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices were calculated to analyze traditional knowledge of the informants and to determine the cultural importance of particular medicinal plants. Ziziphora pamiroalaica, Peganum harmala, and Inula orientalis obtained the highest use value (UV). The best-represented and culturally important families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Apiaceae. Gastro-intestinal system disorders was the most prevalent ailment category. Most medicinal plants were gathered from nearby environments, however, species with a higher cultural value occurred at distant rather than nearby collection sites. The findings of this study proved the gap in documentation of traditional knowledge in Kyrgyzstan, indicating that further studies on the traditional use of wild plant resources could bring important insights into ecosystems' diversity with implications to human ecology and biocultural diversity conservation in Central Asia. © The Author(s) 2016.


Sakbaeva Z.,Jalal Abad State University | Acosta-Martinez V.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Moore-Kucera J.,Texas Tech University | Hudnall W.,Texas Tech University | Nuridin K.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University
Applied and Environmental Soil Science | Year: 2012

Surveys of soil properties related to soil functioning for many regions of Kyrgyzstan are limited. This study established ranges of chemical (soil organic matter (SOM), pH and total N (TN)), physical (soil texture), and biochemical (six enzyme activities of C, N, P, and S cycling) characteristics for nine profiles from the Kukart watershed of Jalal-Abad region in Kyrgyzstan. These profiles represent different soil orders (Inceptisols, Alfisols, and Mollisols) and land uses (cultivated, nut-fruit forests, and pasture). The Sierozem (Inceptisols) soils had the highest pH and contained the lowest SOM and TN contents compared to the Brown, Black-brown, and Meadow-steppe soils (Alfisols and Mollisols). Enzymatic activities within surface horizons (0-18 cm) typically decreased in the following order: forest > pasture > cultivated. Enzyme activity trends due to land use were present regardless of elevation, climate, and soil types although subtle differences among soil types within land use were observed. The significant reductions in measured soil enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S nutrient transformations under cultivation compared to pasture and forest ecosystems and lower values under Inceptisols can serve as soil quality indicators for land use decisions in the watershed. © 2012 Zulfiia Sakbaeva et al.


PubMed | University of Cologne, Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia Cifor, Kyrgyz National Agrarian University, Helmholtz Center Potsdam and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia.


Seim A.,Gothenburg University | Tulyaganov T.,Republican Scientific Production Center for Decorative Gardening and Forestry | Omurova G.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Nikolyai L.,Republican Scientific Production Center for Decorative Gardening and Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2015

Key message: Intensity and magnitude of the growth-climate relationship depends on juniper species and sites.Juniperus seravschanicaat low elevations shows highest potential for April–September drought reconstruction in the Turkestan range (Pamir-Alay), Uzbekistan.Abstract: We present a detailed dendroclimatological study of three juniper species, Juniperus seravschanica Kom., Juniperus semiglobosa Regel and Juniperus turkistanica Kom., sampled at six sites of different elevation (2100–2700 m a.s.l.), exposition (west and south) and steepness (10°–30°) in the Zaamin National Park, Turkestan range, Pamir-Alay mountain system in eastern Uzbekistan. Simple correlation statistics and redundancy analyses were applied to detect species- and site-specific climate responses during the twentieth century, which were additionally investigated in the high-frequency domain by identifying extreme growth years. Our results show that tree-ring formation of J. seravschanica at our low-elevation site is strongly limited by April to September drought conditions, while J. semiglobosa inherits a weak and variable climate response with respect to elevation. J. turkistanica growth at high altitudes is positively associated with warm spring and summer temperatures. Species-specific growth extremes are triggered by incoming air masses from the Atlantic and Arctic, highlighting the connection of synoptic climate regimes across Eurasia. From a dendroclimatic perspective, J. seravschanica exhibits a high potential for reconstructing past drought and pluvials, but under sustained temperature rise also J. semiglobosa will likely increase its sensitivity to drought. Moreover, J. turkistanica at its distribution limit at the tree line is a suitable proxy of summer temperature. Our findings clearly demonstrate that a careful selection of the site, overall topography and elevation as well as the different juniper species are important for successfully reconstructing past climate in Uzbekistan. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Torutaeva E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Torutaeva E.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Asanaliev A.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Prieto-Linde M.L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Hereditas | Year: 2014

The genetic diversity of 23 chickpea accessions representing Kyrgyz landraces and cultivars, ICARDA breeding lines, Spanish and Turkish cultivars was characterized using nine microsatellite (SSR) markers which generated a total of 122 alleles. The number of alleles (Na) per locus varied from 9 to 20. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged between 0.05 and 0.43 (average 0.13) whereas both the expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.90 (average 0.83). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 62% of the total genetic variation was found within accessions while the remaining 38% was found among accessions. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated the presence of two groups. The two Kyrgyz cultivars were found apart from these groups. Cluster analysis generally confirmed the results of PCoA and also separated the Kyrgyz cultivars from the subcluster formed by Kyrgyz landraces and the subclusters formed by breeding lines from ICARDA along with landraces from Turkey and Spain. In addition, protein content and mineral concentration were determined. Protein content and mineral concentrations for Ca, S, Mg, P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn varied significantly among accessions. The results show that Kyrgyz germplasm provides a source of diversity for improvement of chickpea. © 2014 The Authors.


Hegay S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Hegay S.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Ortiz R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Garkava-Gustavsson L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export crop in Kyrgyzstan. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is a seed-born disease that affects this crop and reduces its yield significantly in the country. The aim of this study was to identify virus strain(s) occurring in Kyrgyzstan and breed host plant resistance to BCMV using DNA markers. Susceptible Kyrgyz cultivars (Ryabaya, Kytayanka and Lopatka) were included in a backcrossing breeding scheme for introducing host plant resistance from resistant cultivars (Vaillant and Flagrano). The virus strains were evaluated according to the symptoms of differential cultivars. The virus strain NL6 was found in northern Kyrgyzstan, where farmers grow most of the common bean produced in this country. Two SCAR markers (SW13 and SBD5) were used successfully in marker-aided backcrossing for pyramiding the I and bc-1 2 genes, which provide host plant resistance to BCMV. Resistant BC4F2 offspring carrying the I gene showed hypersensitivity reactions to necrosis inducing NL3 strain after detached leaf-assays. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Orozumbekov A.,Kyrgyz National Agrarian University | Cantarello E.,Bournemouth University | Newton A.C.,Bournemouth University
Forests Trees and Livelihoods | Year: 2015

Information is lacking on the status of threatened tree species in Central Asia. This paper aims to provide preliminary information for 10 fruit and nut tree species of Kyrgyzstan. A field survey was conducted throughout the range of walnut-fruit forests in this country, supported by a socio-economic survey. Results indicated that species differed markedly in abundance. Whereas Malus sieversii was found in all locations, four species (Crataegus pontica,Pistacia vera,Pyrus korshinskyi and Sorbus persica) were only found in a minority (≤ 30%) of sites. Four species showed evidence of a bimodal distribution of stem diameters, which could be attributed to fuelwood harvesting, as indicated by the socio-economic survey. A majority of respondents reported a decline in the available grazing resource, a decline in the availability of harvested fruits and an increase in time required to collect fuelwood over the past decade. These results suggest that unsustainable land-use practices may be impacting negatively on populations of threatened fruit tree species. These results highlight the need to regulate local forest use to ensure that threatened fruit and nut tree species are effectively conserved, and the need for targeted actions to conserve the most threatened species, such as P. korshinskyi. © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

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