Kyowakiden Industry Co. | Date: 2011-06-24
It is an object of the present invention to provide a hollow fiber forward osmosis membrane, which can enhance forward osmotic pressure energy acquired by permeation, and thus improve power generation efficiency in the forward osmotic pressure power generation, when dilution water such as freshwater permeates into seawater through the osmosis membrane. The relationship between optimal conditions for an inner diameter d and a length L of the hollow fiber osmosis membrane to be used for forward osmotic pressure power generation whereby dilution water such as fresh water is caused to permeate into non-concentrate seawater through the hollow fiber osmosis membrane to increase a flow rate on the side of the seawater using forward osmotic pressure energy thus generated, and power is generated using the increased flow rate, is expressed as equation (1) in the range of d=50 to 200 m, L=0.5 to 2 m and J=1.710 [Equation 11] wherein
Kyowakiden Industry Co. | Date: 2014-01-29
A salt water desalination equipment that can reduce a load on a salt water supply pump and a power consumption thereof is provided. A salt water desalination equipment includes a salt water supply unit that supplies salt water to a reverse osmosis membrane component, a forward osmosis membrane component to which concentrated salt water discharged from the reverse osmosis membrane component is supplied; and an assisting device to which a mixed water discharged from the forward osmosis membrane component is supplied and which is also connected to the salt water supply unit. The assisting device increases at least one of an electric power supplied to the salt water supply unit, a pressure given to the salt water supply unit, and rotation capacity to the salt water supply unit.
Kurihara M.,Toray Industries Inc |
Sakai H.,Kyowakiden Industry Co. |
Tanioka A.,Tokyo Institute of Technology |
Tomioka H.,Toray Industries Inc
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016
Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been widely applied to seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation, and many large RO plants (>100,000 m3/d) have been constructed since 2000. Energy efficiency is indispensable for large plants, especially for future mega-ton scale seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant (1,000,000 m3/d). In order to reduce energy demand in RO operation, high-efficient low-pressure RO membrane, energy recovery device (ERD), and pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) which would recover power from salinity gradient between freshwater and concentrated brine were studied in the “Mega-ton Water System” project. A PRO hollow fiber membrane module was newly developed, and a practical continuous operation has been examined at a prototype plant for one year. The maximum 13.5 W/m2 of membrane power density using 10-inch module was established at our prototype PRO plant. As the results of the plant cost estimation and the financial impacts on the energy saving operation at the mega-ton scale SWRO plants, not only 20% energy reduction by the high-efficient low-pressure RO membrane and the ERD but also further 10% energy saving was possible by using the PRO system. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.
Nakano Y.,Nagasaki University |
Akamatsu N.,Nagasaki University |
Mori T.,Nagasaki University |
Mori T.,University of Miyazaki |
And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9) with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7) without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungus (Candida albicans) were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound. © 2016 Nakano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Sakai H.,Kyowakiden Industry Co. |
Ueyama T.,Kyowakiden Industry Co. |
Irie M.,Kyowakiden Industry Co. |
Matsuyama K.,Kyowakiden Industry Co. |
And 3 more authors.
Desalination | Year: 2016
Sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) would face some problems like energy saving and management of concentrated brine. To solve these problems at the same time, the energy recovery by Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) was proposed in the Mega-ton Water System project. Prototype plant test was conducted using concentrated brine from SWRO plant and fresh water from regional waste water treatment facility. Hollow-fiber membrane module were examined in the prototype plant and the test operation was carried out for more than one year. We have reached the maximum membrane power density, 13.5W/m2, using 10-in. module. Followings were still existing obstacles for further effective PRO. It was also challenging how to get clean fresh water from waste or river water without additional cost. Innovative new technologies were also required to address these concerns. We have also estimated plant cost and surveyed financial impacts on the energy saving of SWRO operation, based on the situation of currently operated SWRO plants worldwide, especially about the Mega-ton scale ones. Those studies indicated that potential market of PRO was 1-2GW, and 10% energy saving was possible on the Megaton scale SWRO plants. Those results indicate that the commercialization plant would be available very near future. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.