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Kyoto, Japan

Kyoto University , or Kyodai is a national university located in Kyoto, Japan. It is the second oldest Japanese university, one of the highest ranked universities in Asia and one of Japan's National Seven Universities. One of Asia’s leading research-oriented institutions, Kyoto University is famed for producing world-class researchers, including ten Nobel Prize laureates, two Fields medalists and one Gauss Prize. Wikipedia.

Furuyashiki T.,Kyoto University
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2012

Prolonged or intensive stress results in emotional and cognitive deficits and is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders such as depression. Since the molecular mechanisms of how biological adaptations to stress go awry remains elusive, pharmaceutical development targeting stress has not been established. In rodents, repeated stress alters functions of multiple brain areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that confers stress resilience, thereby causing depression, anxiety, and working memory deficit. The mesocortical dopaminergic pathway that regulates such stress-coping functions is attenuated with repetition of stress via prostaglandin (PG) E2, a bioactive lipid derived from arachidonic acid, and its receptor EP1. Several findings suggest that microglia activated by repeated stress are involved in emotional and cognitive changes as a source of inflammation-related molecules such as PGE2 and IL-1β. IL-1 signaling is critical not only for emotional changes but also for microglial activation induced by repeated stress. Furthermore, purinergic signaling via the P2X7 receptor that can trigger PGE2 and IL-1β production in microglia has been implicated in the pro-depressive effect of repeated stress as well as depressive disorders. Collectively, inflammation-related molecules that link repeated stress to mPFC dysfunction are potential targets of pharmaceutical development for psychiatric disorders. © 2012 The Japanese Pharmacological Society.

Kano M.,Kyoto University | Ogawa M.,Yokogawa Electric Corporation
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2010

In this age of globalization, the realization of production innovation and highly stable operation is the chief objective of the process industry in Japan. Obviously, modern advanced control plays an important role to achieve this target, but the key to success is the maximum utilization of PID control and conventional advanced control. This paper surveys how the three central pillars of process control - PID control, conventional advanced control, and linear/nonlinear model predictive control - have been used and how they have contributed toward increasing productivity. In addition to introducing eminently practical methods, emerging methods, and their applications, the authors point out challenging problems. In Japan, industry and academia are working in close cooperation to share their important problems and develop new technologies for solving them. Several methods introduced in this paper are results of such industry-academia collaboration among engineers and researchers in various companies and universities. Furthermore, soft-sensor or virtual sensor design is treated with emphasis on its maintenance, because soft-sensors must cope with changes in process characteristics for their continuous utilization. Maintenance is a key issue not only for soft-sensors but also for controllers. Finally, we will expand our scope and briefly introduce recent activities in tracking simulation and alarm management. A part of the results of our recent questionnaire survey of process control are also introduced; the results are extremely helpful in clarifying the state of the art in chemical process control in Japan. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Salama R.,University of Cambridge | Sadaie M.,Kyoto University | Hoare M.,University of Cambridge | Narita M.,University of Cambridge
Genes and Development | Year: 2014

Cellular senescence is a stress response that accompanies stable exit from the cell cycle. Classically, senescence, particularly in human cells, involves the p53 and p16/Rb pathways, and often both of these tumor suppressor pathways need to be abrogated to bypass senescence. In parallel, a number of effector mechanisms of senescence have been identified and characterized. These studies suggest that senescence is a collective phenotype of these multiple effectors, and their intensity and combination can be different depending on triggers and cell types, conferring a complex and diverse nature to senescence. Series of studies on senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in particular have revealed various layers of functionality of senescent cells in vivo. Here we discuss some key features of senescence effectors and attempt to functionally link them when it is possible. © 2014 Salama et al.

ConspectusAlzheimers disease (AD), a severe neurodegenerative disorder, causes more than half of dementia cases. According to the popular "Aβ hypothesis" to explain the mechanism of this disease, amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) of 39-43 amino acid residues aggregate and deposit onto neurons, igniting the neurotoxic cascade of the disease. Therefore, researchers studying AD would like to elucidate the mechanisms by which essentially water-soluble but hydrophobic Aβ aggregates under pathological conditions.Most researchers have investigated the aggregation of Aβ in aqueous solution, and they concluded that the final aggregation product, the amyloid fibrils, were less toxic than the component peptide oligomers. They consequently shifted their interests to more toxic "soluble oligomers", structures that form as intermediates or off-pathway products during the aggregation process. Some researchers have also investigated artificial oligomers prepared under nonphysiological conditions.In contrast to these "in solution" studies, we have focused on "membrane- mediated" amyloidogenesis. In an earlier study, other researchers identified a specific form of Aβ that was bound to monosialoganglioside GM1, a sugar lipid, in brains of patients who exhibited the early pathological changes associated with AD. This Account summarizes 15 years of our research on this topic. We have found that Aβ specifically binds to GM1 that occurs in clusters, but not when it is uniformly distributed. Clustering is facilitated by cholesterol. Upon binding, Aβ changes its conformation from a random coil to an α-helix-rich structure. A CH-π interaction between the aromatic side chains of Aβ and carbohydrate moieties appended to GM1 appears to be important for binding. In addition, as Aβ accumulates and reaches its first threshold concentration (Aβ/GM1 = ∼0.013), aggregated β-sheets of ∼15 molecules appear and coexist with the helical form.However, this β-structure is stable and does not form larger aggregates. When the disease progresses further and the Aβ/GM1 ratio exceeds ∼0.044, the β-structure converts to a second β-structure that can seed aggregates. The seed recruits monomers from the aqueous phase to form toxic amyloid fibrils that have larger surface hydrophobicity and can contain antiparallel β-sheets. In contrast, amyloid fibrils formed in aqueous solution are less toxic and have parallel β-sheets. The less polar environments of GM1 clusters play an important role in the formation of these toxic fibrils.Membranes that contain GM1 clusters not only accelerate the aggregation of Aβ by locally concentrating Aβ molecules but also generate amyloid fibrils with unique structures and significant cytotoxicity. The inhibition of this aggregation cascade could be a promising strategy for the development of AD-modulating therapies. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Hatta Y.,Kyoto University | Ueda T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2013

In the context of inter-jet energy flow, we present the first quantitative result of the resummation of non-global logarithms at finite Nc. This is achieved by refining Weigert's approach in which the problem is reduced to the simulation of associated Langevin dynamics in the space of Wilson lines. We find that, in e+e- annihilation, the exact result is rather close to the result previously obtained in the large-Nc mean field approximation. However, we observe enormous event-by-event fluctuations in the Langevin process which may have significant consequences in hadron collisions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis reports of a poisoning case by arsenic, 25 July 1998, Japan, for forensic investigation purposes are reviewed. In these forensic analyses, SPring-8 and KEK-PF beamlines were used for minor element (Sn, Sb, Mo, Bi, Ba) analysis in the arsenic pesticide specimens, sampled at the crime scene as well as the neighborhood of the suspect. For this case, two kinds of documents were submitted to court: one was a qualitative analysis and said to be a 'pattern recognition' by Prof. Nakai, and the other was, by Profs Taniguchi and Hayakawa, a quantitative analysis after background subtraction, normalized by the sample thickness, where calibration curves were made with reference to the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis for reference samples. The final decision of the court was a death sentence based on the qualitative 'pattern recognition'. The present review concludes that the quantitative analysis by Profs Taniguchi and Hayakawa was scientifically more important than the 'pattern recognition' qualitative analysis, because the Taniguchi-Hayakawa report used novel but reliable data processing methods. The Sn, Sb, and Mo Kα intensities were normalized with respect to the As (major element) Kα (10.5keV) intensity as a thick target, whereas the Bi and Ba Kα intensities were normalized by the Rayleigh scattering (for 116keV incident beam) as a thin target. The Taniguchi-Hayakawa report was the first quantitative report in high-energy SR-XRF analysis. The most important conclusion in the present review is that the ICP-AES was more reliable over these SR-XRF analyses, because even the beamline selection was not possible without the knowledge of the impurity elements obtained by the ICP-AES. Five elements (Se, Sn, Sb, Pb, and Bi) were used in ICP-AES for identification compared with only three elements (Sn, Sb, and Bi) in SR-XRF. High blank intensity resulted from using Pb for X-ray collimator in the beamline. Overlapping of the analytical lines of minor Se and major As prevented the use of Se for identification. Recent analysis of Fe, Zn, Mo, and Ba in Nakai's raw spectra measured in 1998 reveals the arsenic stored in the kitchen of the condemned criminal in the death row was significantly different from that of the paper cup used for poisoning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Irie M.,Rikkyo University | Fukaminato T.,Hokkaido University | Matsuda K.,Kyoto University | Kobatake S.,Osaka City University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Chemical bond rearrangement during the phototransformation induces electronic as well as geometrical structure changes of the molecules. The molecular structure changes can be applied to various photonic devices. The electronic structure changes can be applied to optical memory media and various photoswitching devices. On the other hand, the geometrical structure changes can be applied to light-driven actuators and others. The photochromic diarylethene was serendipitously discovered during the course of study on photoresponsive polymers a quarter of a century ago. Various types of polymers having photoisomerizable chromophores, such as spiropyran, azobenzene, or stilbene, in the side or main chains, have been prepared in an attempt to change their conformation by photoirradiation.

Sato Y.,Kyoto University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We consider the entanglement entropy in the dS/CFT correspondence. In Einstein gravity on de Sitter spacetime we propose the holographic entanglement entropy as the analytic continuation of the extremal surface in Euclidean anti-de Sitter spacetime. Even though dual conformal field theories for Einstein gravity on de Sitter spacetime are not known yet, we analyze the free Sp(N) model dual to Vasiliev's higher spin gauge theory as a toy model. In this model we confirm the behavior similar to our holographic result from Einstein gravity. © 2015 American Physical Society.

De Felice A.,Kyoto University | Tsujikawa S.,Tokyo University of Science
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

In the approach of the effective field theory of modified gravity, we derive the second-order action and the equation of motion for tensor perturbations on the flat isotropic cosmological background. This analysis accommodates a wide range of gravitational theories including Horndeski theories, its generalization, and the theories with spatial derivatives higher than second order (e.g., Hořava-Lifshitz gravity). We obtain the inflationary power spectrum of tensor modes by taking into account corrections induced by higher-order spatial derivatives and slow-roll corrections to the de Sitter background. We also show that the leading-order spectrum in concrete modified gravitational theories can be mapped on to that in General Relativity under a disformal transformation. Our general formula will be useful to constrain inflationary models from the future precise measurement of the B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Omura Y.,Nagoya University | Tobe K.,Nagoya University | Tsumura K.,Kyoto University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We investigate diboson signals in the standard model (SM) with an extended Higgs sector, motivated by the excesses in the diboson channels at the LHC. We begin with the unitarity sum rules of the weak gauge boson scattering assuming the Higgs sector is extended. According to the sum rules, we discuss the Higgs interpretations of the diboson signals and the consistency with the ATLAS diboson anomaly and other experimental constraints. As a concrete example, we propose a two-Higgs-doublet model where the Yukawa coupling of an extra CP-even scalar with up-type quark is relatively large. The diboson (WW and ZZ) signals can be explained by 2 TeV CP-even Higgs boson, while the partners, the CP-odd and the charged Higgs bosons in the extra doublet, are severely constrained by both the LHC direct search and the indirect search via flavor observables. Especially, in order to avoid the diboson resonance search in the Vh channel, further extensions of the model are required. The diboson excess is correlated with the SM Higgs signals in our framework, so that the precise measurement of the SM Higgs boson is also important to test the Higgs interpretation. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Yuge K.,Kyoto University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2015

Based on classical statistical thermodynamics, we develop a theoretical approach that enables estimation of macroscopic physical properties and their temperature dependence for equilibrium disordered states in crystalline materials, using information about a few specially selected microscopic states. These special states are established from geometrical characteristics of the crystal lattice, which means that they are independent of constituent elements as well as of temperature. The present approach therefore provides efficient and systematic prediction of macroscopic physical properties for disordered states, without any information of interactions for given system. Validity and applicability of the present approach is confirmed through prediction of macroscopic physical properties in practical alloys, compared with prediction by full thermodynamic simulation. ©2015 The Physical Society of Japan.

Ishiki G.,University of Tsukuba | Ishiki G.,Kyoto University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We propose a novel method of finding the classical limit of the matrix geometry. We define coherent states for a general matrix geometry described by a large-N sequence of D Hermitian matrices Xμ(μ=1,2,...,D) and construct a corresponding classical space as a set of all coherent states. When the classical space forms a smooth manifold, we also express various geometric objects on the classical space such as the metric, Levi-Civita connection, curvature and Poisson tensor, in terms of the matrix elements. This method provides a new class of observables in matrix models, which characterize geometric properties of matrix configurations. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Kondo N.,Kyoto University
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In recent ten years, operations in grading systems for fruits and vegetables became highly automated with mechatronics, and robotics technologies. Especially, machine vision systems and near infrared inspection systems have been introduced to many grading facilities with mechanisms for inspecting all sides of fruits and vegetables. In this paper, automation technologies of several types of fruit and vegetable grading systems are described, while their potentials to give producers and consumers product information are discussed from a view point of food traceability. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tenne Y.,Kyoto University
Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2012

The modern engineering design optimization process often replaces laboratory experiments with computer simulations, which leads to expensive black-box optimization problems. Such problems often contain candidate solutions which cause the simulation to fail, and therefore they will have no objective value assigned to them, a scenario which degrades the search effectiveness. To address this, this paper proposes a new computational intelligence optimization algorithm which incorporates a classifier into the optimization search. The classifier predicts which solutions are expected to cause a simulation failure, and its prediction is used to bias the search towards solutions for which the simulation is expected to succeed. To further enhance the search effectiveness, the proposed algorithm continuously adapts during the search the type of model and classifier being used. A rigorous performance analysis using a representative application of airfoil shape optimization shows that the proposed algorithm outperformed existing approaches in terms of the final result obtained, and performed a search with a competitively low number of failed evaluations. Analysis also highlights the contribution of incorporating the classifier into the search, and of the model and classifier selection steps. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sasakura N.,Kyoto University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2012

Canonical formalism of the rank-three tensor model has recently been proposed, in which "local" time is consistently incorporated by a set of first class constraints. By brute-force analysis, this paper shows that there exist only two forms of a Hamiltonian constraint which satisfies the following assumptions: (i) A Hamiltonian constraint has one index. (ii) The kinematical symmetry is given by an orthogonal group. (iii) A consistent first class constraint algebra is formed by a Hamiltonian constraint and the generators of the kinematical symmetry. (iv) A Hamiltonian constraint is invariant under time reversal transformation. (v) A Hamiltonian constraint is an at most cubic polynomial function of canonical variables. (vi) There are no disconnected terms in a constraint algebra. The two forms are the same except for a slight difference in index contractions. The Hamiltonian constraint which was obtained in the previous paper and behaved oddly under time reversal symmetry can actually be transformed to one of them by a canonical change of variables. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Nishida N.,Kyoto University
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2010

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually develops on the basis of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, where inactivation of several tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) takes place via methylation of the promoter. Interestingly, these methylation events are more prevalent in a background liver at high risk of HCC than one at low risk. Abnormal methylation is also observed in precancerous nodules such as dysplastic nodules and adenomas, suggesting that epigenetic alteration is an early event for HCC carcinogenesis. It is possible that infection with the hepatitis virus induces alteration of methylation at promoters of TSGs. Some studies suggested that viral proteins interfere with DNA methyltranferase in chronic hepatitis B. Induction of epigenetic alteration in chronic hepatitis C might, however, might be a consequence of oxidative stress. In addition, we proposed age should be taken into consideration for HCC development via epigenetic pathways. Further investigations are required to understand the mechanism of inducing epigenetic instability during hepatocarcinogenesis.

Sasakura N.,Kyoto University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2012

It is an intriguing question how local time can be introduced in the emergent picture of spacetime. In this paper, this problem is discussed in the context of tensor models. To consistently incorporate local time into tensor models, a rank-three tensor model with first class constraints in Hamilton formalism is presented. In the limit of usual continuous spaces, the algebra of constraints reproduces that of general relativity in Hamilton formalism. While the momentum constraints can be realized rather easily by the symmetry of the tensor models, the form of the Hamiltonian constraints is strongly limited by the condition of the closure of the whole constraint algebra. Thus the Hamiltonian constraints have been determined on the assumption that they are local and at most cubic in canonical variables. The form of the Hamiltonian constraints has similarity with the Hamiltonian in the c < 1 string field theory, but it seems impossible to realize such a constraint algebras in the framework of vector or matrix models. Instead these models are rather useful as matter theories coupled with the tensor model. In this sense, a three-index tensor is the minimum-rank dynamical variable necessary to describe gravity in terms of tensor models. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

This paper studies the system transformation using generalized orthonormal basis functions that include the Laguerre basis as a special case. The transformation of the deterministic systems is studied in the literature, which is called the Hambo transform. The aim of the paper is to develop a transformation theory for stochastic systems. The paper establishes the equivalence of continuous and transformed-discrete-time stochastic systems in terms of solutions. The method is applied to the continuous-time system identification problem. It is shown that using the transformed signals the PO-MOESP subspace identification algorithm yields consistent estimates for system matrices. An example is included to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed identification method, and to make a comparison with the method using the Laguerre filter. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Takewaki I.,Kyoto University
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A | Year: 2011

On March 11, 2011, eastern Japan was shaken by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (the Great East Japan Earthquake). Almost 30 000 people have been killed or are missing as a result of that earthquake and the subsequent monster tsunami, as of April 11, 2011. This paper reports several aspects of this devastating earthquake. It has been reported that long-period ground motions, which had been predicted by many researchers, occurred in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka. The response characteristics of high-rise buildings to the recorded long-period ground motions are discussed from the viewpoint of resonance and critical excitation. It is shown that high-hardness rubber dampers are very effective in the reduction of vibration duration in addition to the reduction in vibration amplitude. © 2011 Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ichikawa A.K.,Kyoto University
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2012

The design concept of the magnetic horn system for the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment is described. We proposed a three-horn system with optics similar to a conventional two-horn system, aiming to focus relatively low-momentum pions under a high beam intensity environment. Good focusing efficiency was obtained with compact horns and a rather large inner conductor radius for the first horn. The geometry of the decay volume was also optimized. The intensity and quality of the obtained neutrino flux is satisfactory to achieve the T2K physics goals. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yagi K.,Kyoto University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2012

DECIGO path finder is a space-borne gravitational wave (GW) detector with sensitivity in the frequency band 0.1100 Hz. As a first step mission to DECIGO, it is aiming for launching in 2016-2017. Although its main objective is to demonstrate technology for GW observation in space, DPF still has a chance of detecting GW signals and performing astrophysical observations. With an observable range up to 50 kpc, its main targets are GW signals from galactic intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) binaries. By using inspiralmergerringdown phenomenological waveforms, we perform both pattern-averaged analysis and Monte Carlo simulations including the effect of detector motion to find that the masses and (effective) spins of the IMBHs could be determined with errors of a few percent, should the signals be detected. Since GW signals from IMBH binaries with masses above 10 4M ⊙ cannot be detected by ground-based detectors, these objects can be unique sources for DPF. If the inspiral signal of a 10 3M ⊙ IMBH binary is detected with DPF, it can give alert to the ringdown signal for the ground-based detectors 10 2-10 3 s before coalescence. We also estimate the possible bound on the graviton Compton wavelength from a possible IMBH binary in Centauri. We obtain a slightly weaker constraint than that from the solar system experiment and an about two orders of magnitude stronger constraint than that from binary pulsar tests. Unfortunately, the detection rate of IMBH binaries is rather small. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Namikawa T.,Kyoto University | Takahashi R.,Hirosaki University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Polarization data will soon provide the best method for measuring the CMB lensing potential, although these data are potentially sensitive to several instrumental effects, including beam asymmetry, polarization angle uncertainties and sky coverage, as well as analysis choices, such as masking. We derive bias-hardened lensing estimators to mitigate these effects, at the expense of larger reconstruction noise, and we test them numerically on simulated data. We find that the mean-field bias from masking is significant for the EE quadratic lensing estimator. On the one hand, the bias-hardened estimator combined with filtering techniques can mitigate the mean field. On the other hand, the EB estimator does not significantly suffer from the mean field due to the point source masks and survey window function. However, the contamination from beam asymmetry and polarization angle uncertainties can generate mean-field biases for the EB estimator. These can also be mitigated using bias-hardened estimators, with at most a factor of ~3 degradation of noise level compared to the conventional approach. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Ohkura N.,Osaka University | Kitagawa Y.,Osaka University | Sakaguchi S.,Osaka University | Sakaguchi S.,Kyoto University
Immunity | Year: 2013

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a developmentally and functionally distinct T cell subpopulation that is engaged in sustaining immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. The transcription factor Foxp3 plays a key role in Treg cell development and function. However, expression of Foxp3 alone is not sufficient for conferring and maintaining Treg cell function and phenotype. Complementing the insufficiency, Treg-cell-specific epigenetic changes are also critical in the process of Treg cell specification, in regulating its potential plasticity, and hence in establishing a stable lineage. Understanding how epigenetic alterations and Foxp3 expression coordinately control Treg-cell-specific gene regulation will enable better control of immune responses by targeting the generation and maintenance of Treg cells. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

From a fundamental perspective, it is explained why the heavier main group elements provide bonds, structures, and reactions that differ from those provided by the second row elements represented by carbon, together with recent topics including transition metals. For endohedral metallofullerenes, it is explained how the cage structures, metal positions and motion, and unique properties, which are necessary for functionalization and applied investigations, are predicted and determined. The importance of close interplay between theoretical calculations and experiment is emphasized to develop new molecules and reactions using the characteristics of elements. © 2013 The Chemical Society of Japan.

A new transient network theory is developed to study the rheological properties of entangled wormlike micelles. The dynamic mechanical moduli are calculated on the basis of the model network in which local structure of the wormlike micelles is represented by the entangled loops. These loops interact with each other by statistical force due to the topological constraints. They are assumed to pass through each other within a finite time to release the internal stress (phantom chain-crossing model). The high frequency plateau modulus G? and the relaxation time ? as functions of the micellar concentration are calculated and compared with the experimental data on the aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) mixed with ionic aromatic compound sodium salicylate (NaSal). It turns out that creation and annihilation of the entanglements are strongly coupled to the topological force. The rheological relaxation time decreases with the concentration of the micelles because the average radius (correlation length ζ) of the entangled loops, and their contour length L decrease with the CTAB concentration. Hence, the topological force is amplified by the increase in the concentration and, as a result, accelerates the stress relaxation by chain-crossing. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

In almost all of the recent vision experiments, stimuli are controlled via computers and presented on display devices such as cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Display characterization is a necessary procedure for such computer-aided vision experiments. The standard display characterization called "gamma correction" and the following linear color transformation procedure are established for CRT displays and widely used in the current vision science field. However, the standard two-step procedure is based on the internal model of CRT display devices, and there is no guarantee as to whether the method is applicable to the other types of display devices such as liquid crystal display and digital light processing. We therefore tested the applicability of the standard method to these kinds of new devices and found that the standard method was not valid for these new devices. To overcome this problem, we provide several novel approaches for vision experiments to characterize display devices, based on linear, nonlinear, and hybrid search algorithms. These approaches never assume any internal models of display devices and will therefore be applicable to any display type. The evaluations and comparisons of chromaticity estimation accuracies based on these new methods with those of the standard procedure proved that our proposed methods largely improved the calibration efficiencies for non-CRT devices. Our proposed methods, together with the standard one, have been implemented in a MATLAB-based integrated graphical user interface software named Mcalibrator2. This software can enhance the accuracy of vision experiments and enable more efficient display characterization procedures. The software is now available publicly for free.

Watanabe A.,Kyoto University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

The differentiation and reprogramming of cells are accompanied by drastic changes in the epigenetic profiles of cells. Waddington's classical model clearly describes how differentiating cells acquire their cell identity as the developmental potential of an individual cell population declines towards the terminally differentiated state. The recent discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells as well as of somatic cell nuclear transfer provided evidence that the process of differentiation can be reversed. The identity of somatic cells is strictly protected by an epigenetic barrier, and these cells acquire pluripotency by breaking the epigenetic barrier by reprogramming factors such as Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, Myc and LIN28. This review covers the current understanding of the spatio-temporal regulation of epigenetics in pluripotent and differentiated cells, and discusses how cells determine their identity and overcome the epigenetic barrier during the reprogramming process.

Nespolo M.,Kyoto University
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials | Year: 2016

A new route to apply the charge distribution (CHARDI) method to structures based on heteroligand coordination polyhedra is presented. The previous algorithm used scale factors computed in an iterative way based on the assumption (which turned out to be not always correct) that a real over-under bonding effect affects mainly the anionic charges of each single anion, without grossly modifying the total charge of each type of anion. The new, more general approach is not based on any a priori assumption but treats separately the homoligand sub-polyhedra and attributes to each type of atom a fraction of the charge of the atom coordinated to it, computed in a self-consistent iterative way. The distinction between the bonding and non-bonding contact is also redefined in terms of the mean fictive ionic radii (MEFIR), without the need of an empirical parameter, used in the previous algorithm. CHARDI equations are generalized in terms of the new approach and a series of examples is presented.A new, more general approach to treat heteroligand polyhedra in the charge distribution algorithm is presented. © International Union of Crystallography, 2016.

Nakao Y.,Kyoto University
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2014

Synthetic organic reactions through C–CN activation by transition metal catalysis are reviewed. C–CN bond activation by metal complexes proceeds mainly via two pathways; oxidative addition and C–CN cleavage accompanied by silylisonitrile formation. Both the elemental reactions have been successfully applied to the catalytic reactions, including hydrodecyanation of nitriles, crosscoupling using nitriles as electrophiles, cyanation of aryl halides and arenes using organic nitriles as cyanating agents, and carbocyanation of unsaturated compounds. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Structural and energetic reorganizations in redox reaction of type 1 copper proteins are studied by density functional and ab initio molecular orbital calculations. Model complexes of the active site with varying number of ligands, from Cu (SCH)0/+ to Cu (SCH)(Im)2 (S CH) 2)0/+, where Im denotes imidazole, are investigated. Following the findings of structural instability in Cu (I) (SCH) (Im) 2 and its stabilization by the addition of the axial methionine (Met) ligand model, the structure and energetics are examined as functions of the Cu- SMet distance in the range of 2.1-3.3 Å. The reorganization energies in both redox states exhibit a minimum at the Cu- SMet distance of ∼2.4 Å, whereas the ionization potential increases monotonically. The changes of reorganization energies correlate well with one of the Cu- NHis distances rather than the Cu- SCys distance. The estimated Arrhenius factor for oxidation of plastocyanin by P 700+ (in photosystem I) changes by an order of magnitude when the Cu- SMet distance fluctuates between 2.4 and 3.0 Å, whereas the factor for reduction of plastocyanin by cytochrome f is nearly constant. Together with the data from our previous classical molecular dynamics simulation of solvated protein, we argue that the electron transfer rate is affected, and thus may be controlled, by the fluctuation of a weakly bound axial Met ligand. We also present the assessment of various exchange-correlation functionals, including those with the long-range correction, against the CCSD(T) reference and on the basis of a perturbative adiabatic connection model. For Cu (SCH) and Cu (SCH) (Im), simple correlations have been found between the reorganization energies and the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Balatsky A.V.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Nishijima M.,Kyoto University | Manassen Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Advances in Physics | Year: 2012

Electron spin resonance-scanning tunneling microscopy (ESR-STM) is a rapidly developing surface-science technique that is sensitive to a single spin existing on or nearby a solid surface. The single spin is detected through elevated noise at the Larmor frequency that appears when the single spin participates in the tunneling process between the tip and the surface. In this review, experimental and theoretical works which have been performed up to date on ESR-STM are reviewed. The remaining experimental problems which have to be solved, possible approaches to differentiate between different mechanisms and the future of ESR-STM are discussed.\ PACS: 72.25.Dc Spin polarized transport in semiconductors, 72.70.×m Noise processes and phenomena, 73.20.Hb Impurity and defect levels; energy states of adsorbed species, 73.40.Gk Tunneling, 75.70.Rf Surface magnetism, 75.76.×j Spin transport effects, 76.30.-v Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation, 78.47.-p Spectroscopy of solid state dynamics © 2012 Taylor and Francis.

Poudyal H.,Kyoto University | Brown L.,University of Southern Queensland
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2015

Westernised dietary patterns are characterised by an increased intake of saturated (SFA) and trans fat (TFA) and a high n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. These changes together with increased sugar intake have been implicated in the progression and development of metabolic syndrome. It is now recognised that the type of dietary fat plays a far more significant role in well-being than the absolute amount. This has led to the generalisations that TFA and SFA are detrimental, MUFA is neutral and PUFA is cardioprotective. However, different dietary fatty acids even within the same chemical class elicit different physiological responses. Thus, generalising fatty acids by the degree of unsaturation or the configuration of double bonds alone is unlikely to predict biological responses. In this review, we have examined the effects of different dietary fatty acids on the cardiometabolic risk factors and propose a revised classification based on current evidence of biological activity, rather than chemical structure. Specifically, we propose that dietary fatty acids be classified into five classes as neutral, reduce one or more cardiometabolic risk factors, increase one or more cardiometabolic risk factor, controversial evidence to allow classification and inadequate research to allow classification as a basis for further discussions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin condition that is characterized by a complex, heterogeneous pathogenesis. The possible candidates for its pathogenesis include skin barrier abnormality and allergy/immunology aspects. It has long been asked, "Which comes first, the barrier dysfunction or the allergy/immunology abnormality?" Recently, direct evidence of a link between the incidence of AD and loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding Filaggrin has been discovered. This finding suggests that barrier dysfunction is a primary cause of AD. It has also been widely recognized that T cells play an important role in the development of AD in the perspective of the Th1/Th2 paradigm. Recently, however, new T cell subsets, Th17, T22, and regulatory T cells have been identified. In this review, we will update the roles of T cell subsets in AD and ascertain how skin barrier abnormality and allergy/immunology interact in a highly interdisciplinary manner. © 2012, Taiwanese Dermatological Association. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

Watanabe K.,Kyoto University
International Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has markedly improved the survival of patients with standard-risk hepatoblastoma (HB). However, treatment results for patients with metastatic disease remain unsatisfactory. As a result, the current therapeutic strategy for HB is to decrease dose intensity for standard-risk tumors in order to reduce chemotherapy-related toxicity and to intensify chemotherapy in combination with new drugs to develop new therapies and improve the outcome of patients with metastatic disease. Results from various trials of The North American Cooperative Study demonstrated that patients with localized disease achieved long-term survival following treatment with a combination of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine (C5V). In the ongoing Children's Oncology Group (COG) trial, AHEP0731, patients with stage I pure fetal histology are classified as very low risk and treated with resection only, and patients with any stage IV disease or any stage plus an alpha-fetoprotein level at diagnosis of <100 ng/ml are classified as high risk and receive up-front window therapy followed by C5V + doxorubicin in an attempt to discover novel efficacious agents. The early International Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (SIOPEL) trial, SIOPEL-1, demonstrated that a combination of cisplatin + doxorubicin (PLADO) is effective. In the SIOPEL-3SR trial, cisplatin alone was proved to be non-inferior to PLADO for standard-risk HB. In the SIOPEL-4 trial, intensified preoperative cisplatin was administered on a weekly basis, and this approach achieved the highest survival rate ever reported for patients, even those with metastatic disease. SIOPEL, COG, and the Japanese Study Group for Pediatric Liver Tumor (JPLT) have established the Children's Hepatoma International Collaboration (CHIC) to create a common risk classification and initiate international clinical trials in order to further improve the outcome of children with HB. © 2013 Japan Society of Clinical Oncology.

Developmental prolongation is thought to contribute to the remarkable brain enlargement observed in modern humans (Homo sapiens). However, the developmental trajectories of cerebral tissues have not been explored in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), even though they are our closest living relatives. To address this lack of information, the development of cerebral tissues was tracked in growing chimpanzees during infancy and the juvenile stage, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and compared with that of humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Overall, cerebral development in chimpanzees demonstrated less maturity and a more protracted course during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rapid increase in cerebral total volume and proportional dynamic change in the cerebral tissue in humans during early infancy, when white matter volume increases dramatically, did not occur in chimpanzees. A dynamic reorganization of cerebral tissues of the brain during early infancy, driven mainly by enhancement of neuronal connectivity, is likely to have emerged in the human lineage after the split between humans and chimpanzees and to have promoted the increase in brain volume in humans. Our findings may lead to powerful insights into the ontogenetic mechanism underlying human brain enlargement.

Miyara M.,Pitie Salpetriere Hospital | Ito Y.,Kyoto University | Sakaguchi S.,Osaka University
Nature reviews. Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Naturally occurring Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (TREG) cells maintain immunological self-tolerance and prevent a variety of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In animal models of rheumatic disease, autoimmune responses can be controlled by re-establishing the T-cell balance in favour of TREG cells. Here we discuss three potential strategies for the clinical use of TREG cells to treat autoimmune rheumatic disease: expansion of self-antigen-specific natural TREG cells in vivo; propagation of antigen-specific natural TREG cells ex vivo, by in vitro antigenic stimulation, and subsequent transfer back into the host; or conversion of antigen-specific conventional T cells into TREG cells in vivo or ex vivo. These strategies require depletion of the effector T cells that mediate autoimmunity before initiating TREG-cell-based therapies. Immunotherapies that target TREG cells, and the balance of TREG cells and autoreactive T cells, are therefore an important modality for the treatment of autoimmune rheumatic disease.

Mikami Y.,Kyoto University | McCluggage W.G.,Belfast Health and Social Care Trust
Advances in Anatomic Pathology | Year: 2013

A variety of benign and malignant endocervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation has been described in the past decade that has resulted in the concept of an important category of cervical adenocarcinoma which is unrelated to human papillomavirus (HPV). Both minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA), also known as adenoma malignum, and the benign lesion lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH), have been known for some time to exhibit a gastric phenotype and immunophenotype (HIK1083 and/or MUC6 positive). Accumulated evidence suggests that a subset of LEGH (atypical LEGH) exhibits a degree of cytologic and/or architectural atypia which, in some cases, may be associated with and be a precursor of adenocarcinomas exhibiting gastric differentiation, including MDA. Gastrictype adenocarcinoma (GAS), a recently described subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma, is an emerging clinicopathologic entity. These neoplasms exhibit a spectrum of differentiation, including MDA as its very well-differentiated form, are unrelated to HPV, and exhibit aggressive clinical behavior. It is proposed that a LEGHGAS sequence exists and, from a practical point of view, the development of optimal biomarkers is awaited to assist in early detection of GAS and atypical LEGH, as current HPV-targeted screening generally does not detect these lesions and strategies employing HPV vaccination will not prevent their occurrence. Pathologists should be familiar with the morphologic spectrum of these benign, premalignant, and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation. They are occasionally associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or are a component of "synchronous mucinous metaplasia and neoplasia of the female genital tract." Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

We have developed a method of rapidly labeling membrane proteins in living cells using a high-affinity heterodimeric coiled-coil construct containing an E3 tag (EIAALEK)(3) genetically fused to the target protein and a K4 probe (KIAALKE)(4) labeled with a fluorophore such as tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) at its N-terminus (TMR-K4). However, coiled-coil labeling cannot be applied to highly negatively charged cell lines such as HEK293, because of the nonspecific adsorption of the positively charged K4 probes to cell membranes. To reduce the net positive charge, we synthesized new probes that include phosphoserine residues (pSer) between the K4 sequence and TMR fluorophore (TMR-(pSer)(n)-K4, [n = 1-3]). The affinity of the pSer-introduced probes was comparable to that of the TMR-K4 probe. However, the TMR-(pSer)(2)-K4 and TMR-(pSer)(3)-K4 probes tended to aggregate during labeling. In contrast, TMR-pSer-K4, which was as soluble as TMR-K4, achieved higher signal/background ratios (30-100) for four host cell lines (HEK293, HeLa, SH-SY5Y, and PC12) than did TMR-K4 (~10 for HEK293 cells), demonstrating that the improved probe can be used for various types of cells. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Fujimura T.,Kyoto University
Modern rheumatology / the Japan Rheumatism Association | Year: 2010

We report two cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with trisomy 8 who had periodic fever and erythema nodosum (EN). A 74-year-old man showed periodic fever and EN. A diagnosis of MDS with trisomy 8 was made, and he was successfully treated with prednisolone (PSL). A 71-year-old man presented with intermittent fever, EN, and recurrent elevation of myogenic enzymes. Despite sustained inflammation, laboratory tests showed macrocytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Marrow aspiration showed MDS with the chromosomal abnormality trisomy 8. He was successfully treated with PSL without repeated transient fever and elevation of creatine kinase. The results of a literature review of 35 cases of MDS with trisomy 8 and Behçet's disease-like symptoms, such as EN, oral ulcer and intestinal ulcer, suggest that the disease entity of "trisomy 8 syndrome" may be considered, and that it is an important differential diagnosis of periodic fever and EN.

Decreased activity has been reported in both nocturnal and diurnal primates during the prolonged dry season in western Madagascar, and this has been interpreted as a reaction to the severe environment, with its food scarcity and/or thermal stress. Several day-active lemurs rest more as trees defoliate, although the reason for this is unclear. To understand the mechanism underpinning the diurnal resting of lemurs in seasonal deciduous forests, I observed common brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus fulvus) for one year in Ankarafantsika National Park, northwestern Madagascar. In Ankarafantsika, despite high fruit availability during the dry season, brown lemurs are known to engage in diurnal resting. To examine the effects of thermal factors and defoliation on lemur inactivity, I recorded the activity of a troop at 1 min intervals, hourly ambient temperature, daily rainfall, and weather during observations (06:00-18:00). I quantified the amount of leaves biweekly for 680 trees. I tested correlations between percentages of resting time and each factor across hours during the day and across seasons. During the rainy season, resting time did not differ between sunny and cloudy days, and lemurs were active throughout the daytime. At the hourly level during the dry season, lemurs rested exclusively at midday, apparently at peak sunlight intensity rather than at peak ambient temperature. At seasonal level, percentages of total resting time from 08:00 to 16:00 were greater during dry season (81. 9%) than during rainy season (62. 6%), and percentages increased as ambient temperatures increased. Defoliation was related to seasonal decrease in weekly rainfall, which served as an index of water retained in the forest. Defoliation probably reflected aridification as well as the penetration of sunlight into the forest. Diurnal resting increased as both the amount of leaves and weekly rainfall decreased seasonally. These results suggest that heat stress under dry conditions may promote resting. Diurnal resting may function as behavioral thermoregulation to avoid overheating and to minimize water loss via excessive evaporative respiration. © 2012 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer.

Kondo Y.,Kyoto University
Cell structure and function | Year: 2012

Small GTPases ARF1 and ARF3 localize mainly to the Golgi apparatus, where they trigger formation of coated carrier vesicles. We previously showed that BIG2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for ARF1 and ARF3, localizes not only to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but also to recycling endosomes, where it is involved in regulating the integrity of recycling endosomes. However, it is not yet clear whether ARF1 and ARF3 act downstream of BIG2 to ensure endosome integrity. In this study, we show that EGFP-tagged ARF1 and ARF3 localize to endosomal compartments containing endocytosed transferrin. We further demonstrate that simultaneous depletion of ARF1 and ARF3 induces tubulation of recycling endosomal compartments positive for transferrin receptor, Rab4, and Rab11, but does not significantly affect the integrity of the Golgi apparatus or early or late endosomes. Moreover, the simultaneous depletion of ARF1 and ARF3 suppresses recycling of transferrin but does not affect either its endocytosis or the retrograde transport of TGN38 from early/recycling endosomes to the TGN. In addition, depletion of ARF1 and ARF3 does not affect retrograde transport of CD4-furin from late endosomes to the TGN, or of endocytosed EGF from late endosomes to lysosomes. These results indicate that ARF1 and ARF3 are redundantly required for the integrity of recycling endosomes, and that they regulate transferrin recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane, but not retrograde transport from endosomal compartments to the TGN.

Yoshida N.,Kyoto University
Journal of Statistical Physics | Year: 2010

We consider a discrete-time stochastic growth model on the d-dimensional lattice with non-negative real numbers as possible values per site. The growth model describes various interesting examples such as oriented site/bond percolation, directed polymers in random environment, time discretizations of the binary contact path process. We show the equivalence between the slow population growth and a localization property in terms of "replica overlap". The main novelty of this paper is that we obtain this equivalence even for models with positive probability of extinction at finite time. In the course of the proof, we characterize, in a general setting, the event on which an exponential martingale vanishes in the limit. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

Wunsch M.,Kyoto University
Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics | Year: 2010

We show that the geodesic flow on the infinite-dimensional group of diffeomorphisms of the circle, endowed with a fractional Sobolev metric at the identity, is described by the generalized ConstantinLaxMajda equation with parameter a =-1/2. © 2010 The Author(s).

Maeda M.,Kyoto University
Advanced Nonlinear Studies | Year: 2010

We investigate the minimizers of the energy functional ε(u) = 1/2 /ℝN|δu|2dx+ 1/2/ℝN V|u|2dx-1/P+1/ℝN b|u|p+1dx under the constraint of the L2-norm. We show that for the case L2-norm is small, the minimizer is unique and for the case L2-norm is large, the minimizer concentrate at the maximum point of 6 and decays exponentially. By this result, we can show that if V and 6 are radially symmetric but 6 does not attain its maximum at the origin, then the symmetry breaking occurs as the L2-norm increases. Further, we show that for the case 6 has several maximum points, the minimizer concentrates at a point which minimizes a function which is defined by b, V and the unique positive radial solution of -δPdbl; + Pdbl; -ℙp =0. For the case when V and b are radially symmetric, we show that if the minimizer concentrates at the origin, then the minimizer is radially symmetric. Further, we construct an energy functional such that the minimizer breaks its symmetry once but after that it recovers to be symmetric as the L2-norm increases.

Takahashi K.,Kyoto University
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2012

During development, cell fate is specified precisely through programming by multiple complex elements and processes, including chromatin modifications that result in epigenetic marks. Once determined, cell fate is specified further only through maturation processes, which include differentiation and senescence. However, recent studies have shown that it is possible to influence cell fate through artificial manipulation. For example, the exogenous expression of a set of transcription factors can result in the reprogramming of differentiated skin fibroblasts to a pluripotent state. In addition, recent reports have demonstrated the directed reprogramming of one type of differentiated somatic cell to another type of differentiated somatic cell, without rejuvenation to a pluripotent state. Reprogramming factors blur the boundaries between different cell fates, which can never meet, as if the hierarchy were flattened by 'lowering gravity'. Although attempts to use direct reprogramming to generate certain cell types, such as those found in the kidneys and the lungs, have remained unsuccessful, recent advances suggest that we are nearing the identification of determinants that allow cells to be directly reprogrammed into cell types from all organs in the not too distant future. This Commentary summarises our current knowledge on cellular reprogramming, and more specifically, recent advances in direct reprogramming to generate a variety of cell types. © 2012.

Ono K.,Kyoto University
Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2016

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. It is characterized by subendothelial accumulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and its subsequent modification at athero-prone areas leads to further activation of the vascular wall and maintains vascular inflammation. An entirely new level of post-transcriptional gene regulation through microRNA (miR) expression has emerged recently as an important mechanism in the development and progression of numerous diseases, including atherosclerosis. Recently, miR-33a/b have been shown to act as post-transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, and their pharmacological inhibition diminished atherosclerosis by raising plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of the functions of miR-33a/b and the progress in miRNA therapeutics for treatment of various diseases, including atherosclerosis. © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging findings of decidualized endometriotic cysts in comparison with endometriotic cysts associated with ovarian cancers.METHODS: Eighteen decidualized endometriotic cysts and 24 ovarian cancers were retrospectively assessed on height, signal intensity of the solid component on T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient value of the solid component, size of the lesion, and signal intensity of the intracystic fluid on T1-weighted imaging.RESULTS: The heights of the solid components in the decidualized endometriotic cysts were inferior to 11.1 mm, significantly lower compared with the ovarian cancers. Similarly, decidualized tissues showed significantly higher signals on T2-weighted imaging and higher apparent diffusion coefficient values compared with ovarian cancers but not on diffusion-weighted imaging. The decidualized endometriotic cysts were also significantly smaller. Intracystic fluids showed higher signal in the decidualized endometriotic cysts compared with ovarian cancers on T1-weighted imaging.CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant subjects, the presence of endometriotic cysts with low-height solid component showing high signal intensities on T2-weighted imaging is highly indicative of decidualization. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Matsuo T.,Kyoto University
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics | Year: 2010

A simple anisotropic vector hysteresis model is developed to represent 2D weakly anisotropic vector hysteretic property. An isotropic vector play model is identified from azimuthally averaged vector property of anisotropic material. An anisotropy matrix is multiplied to the isotropic vector play model to represent anisotropy. Simulations for alternating and rotational flux conditions show that the anisotropy matrix improves the representation of vector hysteretic properties for a non-oriented silicon steel sheet. © 2006 IEEE.

Nakajima T.,Kyoto University
Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We study the spin polarization of Doppler-broadened atoms by broadband nanosecond (ns) pulses, and compare the polarization efficiency with that by the transform-limited picosecond (ps) pulses that have the same spectral bandwidth. Specific calculations are performed for the case of muoniumwith a set of density matrix equations and with rate equations using the uncoupled basis states. We find that the polarization efficiency with the broadband ns laser pulses is rather good, although it is not as good as that with the transform-limited ps pulses. Our results imply that, depending on the available laser system, we can use either broadband ns or transform-limited ps laser pulses to polarize almost any Doppler-broadened atoms. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Miura Y.,Kyoto University
International Journal of Hematology | Year: 2016

Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have capabilities for multi-differentiation, immunomodulation, and hematopoietic support. Based on these unique biological characteristics, human MSCs have been extensively used as a transplantable resource for cell therapy in regenerative medicine, immune diseases, and hematological diseases. One of the most promising therapeutic effects of human MSCs is in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Off-the-shelf MSC products are approved by regulatory agencies in some countries. In Japan, hematologists may soon have the option to use these products for the treatment of intractable acute GVHD. This review provides a brief overview of human MSCs including their fundamental characteristics, their clinical applications, and perspectives. © 2015, The Japanese Society of Hematology.

In plant organelles, RNA editing alters specific cytidine residues to uridine in transcripts. All of the site-specificity factors of RNA editing identified so far are pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. A defect in a specific PPR protein often impairs RNA editing at multiple sites, at which the cis-acting elements are not highly conserved. The molecular mechanism for sharing a single PPR protein over multiple sites is still unclear. We focused here on the PPR proteins OTP82 and CRR22, the putative target elements of which are, respectively, partially and barely conserved. Recombinant OTP82 specifically bound to the-15 to 0 regions of its target sites. Recombinant CRR22 specifically bound to the-20 to 0 regions of the ndhB-7 and ndhD-5 sites and to the-17 to 0 region of the rpoB-3 site. Taking this information together with the genetic data, we conclude that OTP82 and CRR22 act as site-specificity factors at multiple sites in plastids. In addition, the high-affinity binding of CRR22 to unrelated cis-acting elements suggests that only certain specific nucleotides in a cis-acting element are sufficient for high-affinity binding of a PPR protein. The cis-acting elements can therefore be rather divergent and still be recognized by a single PPR protein. © 2012 The Author(s).

Urayama K.,Kyoto University
Reactive and Functional Polymers | Year: 2013

We review our recent studies for various types of thermally driven deformations of nematic elastomers (NEs) such as elongation, contraction, bending, spiral and helical deformations. The shape of NEs is very sensitive to a change in local nematic order as a result of pronounced coupling of rubber elasticity and molecular orientational order. A variety of the types of director configurations such as planar, vertical, hybrid and twist alignments lead to various types of thermal deformation. The inhomogeneous thermal deformations such as bending, spiral and helical deformations are quantitatively predictable from the data of the thermal uniaxial deformation of the corresponding NE with planar alignment on the basis of the continuum elastic theories. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Suwa Y.,Kyoto University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

The neutrino annihilation is one of the most promising candidates for the jet-production process of gamma-ray bursts. Although neutrino interaction rates depend strongly on the neutrino spectrum, the estimations of annihilation rate have been done with an assumption of the neutrino thermal spectrum based on the presence of the neutrinospheres, in which neutrinos and matter couple strongly. We consider the spectral change of neutrinos caused by the scattering by infalling materials and amplification of the annihilation rate. We solve the kinetic equation of neutrinos in spherically symmetric background flow and find that neutrinos are successfully accelerated and partly form non-thermal spectrum. We find that the accelerated neutrinos can significantly enhance the annihilation rate by a factor of ~10, depending on the injection optical depth. © 2012 The Author.

Sadahiro T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Sadahiro T.,Kyoto University | Yamanaka S.,Gladstone | Ieda M.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells changed the field of regenerative medicine and inspired the technological development of direct reprogramming or the process by which one cell type is directly converted into another without reverting a stem cell state by overexpressing lineage-specific factors. Indeed, direct reprogramming has proven sufficient in yielding a diverse range of cell types from fibroblasts, including neurons, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and hepatocytes. These studies revealed that somatic cells are more plastic than anticipated, and that transcription factors, microRNAs, epigenetic factors, secreted molecules, as well as the cellular microenvironment are all important for cell fate specification. With respect to the field of cardiology, the cardiac reprogramming presents as a novel method to regenerate damaged myocardium by directly converting endogenous cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells in situ. The first in vivo cardiac reprogramming reports were promising to repair infarcted hearts; however, the low induction efficiency of fully reprogrammed, functional induced cardiomyocyte-like cells has become a major challenge and hampered our understanding of the reprogramming process. Nevertheless, recent studies have identified several critical factors that may affect the efficiency and quality of cardiac induction and have provided new insights into the mechanisms of cardiac reprogramming. Here, we review the progress in direct reprogramming research and discuss the perspectives and challenges of this nascent technology in basic biology and clinical applications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Ohno H.,Kyoto University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

A number of new and useful methodologies for the synthesis of vinylaziridines and ethynylaziridines have been developed. Vinylaziridines can be generally synthesized in two steps, with the vinyl group being constructed following formation of the aziridine ring. The addition of a nitrene equivalent to a conjugated diene is a traditional method for direct synthesis of aziridines. Reagent-controlled asymmetric induction for the synthesis of vinylaziridines was reported in 2000, where the reaction of oximes with a chloroallyl phosphonic diamide anion derived led to formation of cis-N-alkoxy-2-alkenylaziridines in a enantiomerically pure form. The strained aziridine ring at the reactive allylic/propargylic position provides efficient levels of reactivity toward a range of transformations, including stereoselective nucleophilic ring opening reactions, as well as rearrangement and cycloaddition reactions to yield a variety of nitrogen-containing molecules.

Murakami K.,Kyoto University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers, intermediates of Aβ aggregation, cause cognitive impairment and synaptotoxicity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunotherapy using anti-Aβ antibody is one of the most promising approaches for AD treatment. However, most clinical trials using conventional sequence-specific antibodies have proceeded with difficulty. This is probably due to the unintended removal of the non-pathological monomer and fibrils of Aβ as well as the pathological oligomers by these antibodies that recognize Aβ sequence, which is not involved in synaptotoxicity. Several efforts have been made recently to develop conformation-specific antibodies that target the tertiary structure of Aβ oligomers. Here, we review the recent findings of Aβ oligomers and anti-Aβ antibodies including our own, and discuss their potential as therapeutic and diagnostic tools. © 2014 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.

Noda Y.,Kyoto University
Neuroscience letters | Year: 2013

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, senile plaque. The Aβ peptide is cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. Until now, many literatures have documented that the high concentration of copper is present in Aβ plaques and enhances aggregation of. The APP copper binding domain (CuBD) is located in the N-terminal next to the growth factor-like domain that gets involved in APP homodimerization. Importantly, dimerization of APP has profound effect on Aβ production. We investigated whether copper alters the state of APP dimerization and how it affects APP metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that copper enhanced APP dimerization and increased extracellular release of Aβ. Moreover, copper chelator, D-penicillamine, suppressed APP dimerization and decreased extracellular release of Aβ. These results suggest that the action of copper may be profoundly associated with the pathway of Aβ production in AD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Horikoshi R.,Kyoto University
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2013

The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structures of discrete metal complexes with N-heterocyclic ferrocenes, based on their crystal structures. These N-heterocyclic ferrocenes act as versatile ligands for the construction of metal complexes with unique structures, owing to the π̇π interaction between the N-heterocycles and conformational flexibility of the ferrocenyl moiety. N-Heterocyclic ferrocenes coordinate to metal ions in monodentate, C,N-bidentate, multidentate, and bridging fashions, which results in metal complexes with various M:L stoichiometry. The ligands and their metal complexes have been recently employed for applications including chemical sensors, homogeneous catalysts, and redox-driven conformational switching. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Ohno H.,Kyoto University
Israel Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

The development of cascade reactions is an area of considerable interest in modern organic chemistry. Efficient cascade reactions realize the economical synthesis of complex target molecules through multiple bond formations in a single operation. Elementary reactions that form fewer waste products are desirable in terms of atom economy and in order to suppress side product formation in sequential processes. Recent advances in homogeneous gold catalysis have opened up further possibilities for cascade reactions. In this review, recent advances in gold-catalyzed cascade cyclizations of alkynes are summarized. In particular, cascade reactions based on nucleophilic/electrophilic addition, carbene cyclopropanation/insertion, ring expansion, and cycloaddition are highlighted. Notably, many of the cascade reactions shown in this mini-review feature no theoretical waste products. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Tobisu M.,Osaka University | Tobisu M.,Kyoto University | Nakamura K.,Osaka University | Chatani N.,Osaka University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The nickel-catalyzed reaction of N-aryl amides with hydroborane or diboron reagents resulted in the formation of the corresponding reduction or borylation products, respectively. Mechanistic studies revealed that these reactions proceeded via the activation of the C(aryl)-N bonds of simple, electronically neutral substrates and did not require the presence of an ortho directing group. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Taki M.,Kyoto University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Surface operators in N = 2 four-dimensional gauge theories are interesting half-BPS objects. These operators inherit the connection of gauge theory with the Liouville conformal field theory, which was discovered by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. Moreover it has been proposed that toric branes in the A-model topological strings lead to surface operators via the geometric engineering. We analyze the surface operators by making good use of topological string theory. Starting from this point of view, we propose that the wave-function behavior of the topological open string amplitudes geometrically engineers the surface operator partition functions and the Gaiotto curves of corresponding gauge theories. We then study a peculiar feature that the surface operator corresponds to the insertion of the degenerate fields in the conformal field theory side. We show that this aspect can be realized as the geometric transition in topological string theory, and the insertion of a surface operator leads to the bubbling of the toric Calabi-Yau geometry. © SISSA 2011.

Susaki J.,Kyoto University
Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

Segmentation of buildings in urban areas, especially dense urban areas, by using remotely sensed images is highly desirable. However, segmentation results obtained by using existing algorithms are unsatisfactory because of the unclear boundaries between buildings and the shadows cast by neighboring buildings. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed that successfully segments buildings from aerial photographs, including shadowed buildings in dense urban areas. To handle roofs having rough textures, digital numbers (DNs) are quantized into several quantum values. Quantization using several interval widths is applied during segmentation, and for each quantization, areas with homogeneous values are labeled in an image. Edges determined from the homogeneous areas obtained at each quantization are then merged, and frequently observed edges are extracted. By using a "rectangular index", regions whose shapes are close to being rectangular are thus selected as buildings. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm generates more practical segmentation results than an existing algorithm does. Therefore, the main factors in successful segmentation of shadowed roofs are (1) combination of different quantization results, (2) selection of buildings according to the rectangular index, and (3) edge completion by the inclusion of non-edge pixels that have a high probability of being edges. By utilizing these factors, the proposed algorithm optimizes the spatial filtering scale with respect to the size of building roofs in a locality. The proposed algorithm is considered to be useful for conducting building segmentation for various purposes. © 2012 by the authors.

Eguchi T.,Kyoto University | Hikami K.,Naruto University of Education
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M24. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

In the Ankarafantsika tropical dry forest (northwestern Madagascar), the common brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus fulvus) is the largest frugivore and probably the sole disperser of large-seeded plants (seed diameter > 10 mm). To investigate seed dispersal by this primate, I recorded the feeding activities of a troop; also conducted fecal analyses, germination trials on defecated seeds, and a vegetation survey over 1 yr (beginning Dec 2006). Brown lemurs mostly consumed fruit (68%). The fruit of Vitex beraviensis was the most exploited resource (21% of total feeding time). Among dung samples, 1126 contained intact seeds of 70 plant species, with a median of six seeds and two species per sample. These data indicate that the brown lemur population dispersed approximately 9854 seeds/km 2/d. Although the number of annually defecated seeds was overwhelmingly the largest in Grewia triflora, many of the small seeds were often clumped in dung piles. In contrast, large seeds of V. beraviensis occurred in the largest number of dung samples. The rate and time of seed germination in V. beraviensis were improved by passage through brown lemur guts. Therefore, V. beraviensis may readily establish seedlings in sites of brown lemur fecal deposition. Vitex beraviensis and brown lemurs are probably involved in a strong mutualism. Twenty-three large-seeded plants were probably dependent on brown lemurs for seed dispersal and some of these species were common trees in the forest. Maintenance of these key plant-animal interactions will probably contribute to the conservation of species diversity and intact regeneration of the Ankarafantsika forest. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2011 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Tanaka S.,Kyoto University
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

In this paper efficient exact algorithms are proposed for the planted (l, d)-motif search problem. This problem is to find all motifs of length l that are planted in each input string with at most d mismatches. The 'quorum' version of this problem is also treated in this paper to find motifs planted not in all input strings but in at least q input strings. The proposed algorithms are based on the previous algorithms called qPMSPruneI and qPMS7 that traverse a search tree starting from a l-length substring of an input string. To improve these previous algorithms, several techniques are introduced, which contribute to reducing the computation time for the traversal. In computational experiments, it will be shown that the proposed algorithms outperform the previous algorithms. © 2014 IEEE.

We have found various bioactive peptides derived from animal and plant proteins, which interact with receptors for endogenous bioactive peptides such as opioids, neurotensin, complements C3a and C5a, oxytocin, and formyl peptides etc. Among them, rubiscolin, a δ opioid peptide derived from plant RuBisCO, showed memory-consolidating, anxiolytic-like, and food intake-modulating effects. Soymorphin, a μ opioid peptide derived from β-conglycinin showed anxiolytic-like, anorexigenic, hypoglycemic, and hypotriglyceridemic effects. β-Lactotensin derived from β-lactoglobulin, the first natural ligand for the NTS2 receptor, showed memory-consolidating, anxiolytic-like, and hypocholesterolemic effects. Weak agonist peptides for the complements C3a and C5a receptors were released from many proteins and exerted various central effects. Peptides showing anxiolytic-like antihypertensive and anti-alopecia effects via different types of receptors such as OT, FPR and AT2 were also obtained. Based on these study, new functions and post-receptor mechanisms of receptor commom to endogenous and exogenous bioactive peptides have been clarified. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Horie T.,Kyoto University
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2012

Cholesterol efflux from cells to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) acceptors via the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 is thought to be central in the antiatherogenic mechanism. MicroRNA (miR)-33 is known to target ABCA1 and ABCG1 in vivo. We assessed the impact of the genetic loss of miR-33 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. MiR-33 and apoE double-knockout mice (miR-33(-/-)Apoe(-/-)) showed an increase in circulating HDL-C levels with enhanced cholesterol efflux capacity compared with miR-33(+/+)Apoe(-/-) mice. Peritoneal macrophages from miR-33(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice showed enhanced cholesterol efflux to apoA-I and HDL-C compared with miR-33(+/+)Apoe(-/-) macrophages. Consistent with these results, miR-33(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice showed reductions in plaque size and lipid content. To elucidate the roles of miR-33 in blood cells, bone marrow transplantation was performed in these mice. Mice transplanted with miR-33(-/-)Apoe(-/-) bone marrow showed a significant reduction in lipid content in atherosclerotic plaque compared with mice transplanted with miR-33(+/+)Apoe(-/-) bone marrow, without an elevation of HDL-C. Some of the validated targets of miR-33 such as RIP140 (NRIP1) and CROT were upregulated in miR-33(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice compared with miR-33(+/+)Apoe(-/-) mice, whereas CPT1a and AMPKα were not. These data demonstrate that miR-33 deficiency serves to raise HDL-C, increase cholesterol efflux from macrophages via ABCA1 and ABCG1, and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. Many genes are altered in miR-33-deficient mice, and detailed experiments are required to establish miR-33 targeting therapy in humans.

Takehiro S.-I.,Kyoto University
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors | Year: 2015

We investigate the influence of surface displacement on fluid motions induced by horizontally heterogeneous Joule heating in the inner core. The difference between the governing equations and those of Takehiro (2011) is the boundary conditions at the inner core boundary (ICB). The temperature disturbance at the ICB coincides with the melting temperature, which varies depending on the surface displacement. The normal component of stress equalizes with the buoyancy induced by the surface displacement. The toroidal magnetic field and surface displacement with the horizontal structure of Y20 spherical harmonics is given. The flow fields are calculated numerically for various amplitudes of surface displacement with the expected values of the parameters of the core. Further, by considering the heat balance at the ICB, the surface displacement amplitude is related to the turbulent velocity amplitude in the outer core, near the ICB. The results show that when the turbulent velocity is on the order of 10-1-10-2m/s, the flow and stress fields are similar to those of Takehiro (2011), where the surface displacement vanishes. As the amplitude of the turbulent velocity decreases, the amplitude of the surface displacement increases, and counter flows from the polar to equatorial regions emerge around the ICB, while flow in the inner regions is directed from the equatorial to polar regions, and the non-zero radial component of velocity at the ICB remains. When the turbulent velocity is on the order of 10-4-10-5m/s, the radial component of velocity at the ICB vanishes, the surface counter flows become stronger than the flow in the inner region, and the amplitude of the stress field near the ICB dominates the inner region, which might be unsuitable for explaining the elastic anisotropy in the inner core. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Kodama S.,Kyoto University
Journal of Medical Ethics | Year: 2015

Disaster planning challenges our morality. Everyday rules of action may need to be suspended during large-scale disasters in favour of maxims that that may make prudential or practical sense and may even be morally preferable but emotionally hard to accept, such as tsunami-tendenko. This maxim dictates that the individual not stay and help others but run and preserve his or her life instead. Tsunami-tendenko became well known after the great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011, when almost all the elementary and junior high school students in one city survived the tsunami because they acted on this maxim that had been taught for several years. While tsunami-tendenko has been praised, two criticisms of it merit careful consideration: one, that the maxim is selfish and immoral; and two, that it goes against the natural tendency to try to save others in dire need. In this paper, I will explain the concept of tsunami-tendenko and then respond to these criticisms. Such ethical analysis is essential for dispelling confusion and doubts about evacuation policies in a disaster.

Shinohara K.,Kyoto University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Behavioural therapies represent one of several categories of psychological therapies that are currently used in the treatment of depression. However, the effectiveness and acceptability of behavioural therapies for depression compared with other psychological therapies remain unclear. 1. To examine the effects of all BT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.2. To examine the effects of different BT approaches (behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, social skills training and relaxation training) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.3. To examine the effects of all BT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (CBT, third wave CBT, psychodynamic, humanistic and integrative psychological therapies) for acute depression. We searched the Cochrane Depression Anxiety and Neurosis Group Trials Specialised Register (CCDANCTR, 31/07/2013), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE, (1974-), MEDLINE (1950-) and PsycINFO (1967-). We also searched CINAHL (May 2010) and PSYNDEX (June 2010) and reference lists of the included studies and relevant reviews for additional published and unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials that compared behavioural therapies with other psychological therapies for acute depression in adults. Two or more review authors independently identified studies, assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. Twenty-five trials involving 955 participants compared behavioural therapies with one or more of five other major categories of psychological therapies (cognitive-behavioural, third wave cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, humanistic and integrative therapies). Most studies had a small sample size and were assessed as being at unclear or high risk of bias. Compared with all other psychological therapies together, behavioural therapies showed no significant difference in response rate (18 studies, 690 participants, risk ratio (RR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.09) or in acceptability (15 studies, 495 participants, RR of total dropout rate 1.02, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.61). Similarly, in comparison with each of the other classes of psychological therapies, low-quality evidence showed better response to cognitive-behavioural therapies than to behavioural therapies (15 studies, 544 participants, RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.05) and low-quality evidence of better response to behavioural therapies over psychodynamic therapies (2 studies, 110 participants, RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.82).When compared with integrative therapies and humanistic therapies, only one study was included in each comparison, and the analysis showed no significant difference between behavioural therapies and integrative or humanistic therapies. We found low- to moderate-quality evidence that behavioural therapies and other psychological therapies are equally effective. The current evidence base that evaluates the relative benefits and harms of behavioural therapies is very weak. This limits our confidence in both the size of the effect and its precision for our key outcomes related to response and withdrawal. Studies recruiting larger samples with improved reporting of design and fidelity to treatment would improve the quality of evidence in this review.

Date H.,Kyoto University
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation | Year: 2011

Purpose of review: Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) has been performed as a life-saving procedure for critically ill patients who are unlikely to survive the long wait for cadaveric lungs. This article will review the current status of LDLLT. Recent Findings: As of 2011, LDLLT has been performed in approximately 400 patients worldwide. The use of LDLLT has decreased in the USA because of the recent change by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network to an urgency/benefit allocation system for cadaveric donor lungs. During the past several years, reports on LDLLT have been most exclusively from Japan where the average waiting time for a cadaveric lung is more than 2 years. LDLLT has been performed various lung diseases including bronchiolitis obliterans following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Successful LDLLTs have been reported for patients receiving oversized as well as undersized grafts. The 5-year survival after LDLLT was 74.6% in the 2008 official report of the Japanese Society of Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation, and it was 88.8% in the author's personal experience. Summary: LDLLT can be performed for various lung diseases and appears to provide similar or better survival than cadaveric lung transplantation. Size mismatching can be overcome to a certain extent using various surgical techniques. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lutz M.B.,University of Wurzburg | Inaba K.,Kyoto University | Schuler G.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Romani N.,Innsbruck Medical University
Immunity | Year: 2016

In a recent article (Helft et al., 2015), murine bone marrow (BM) cultures with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were analyzed for macrophage ("GM-Mac") and dendritic cell ("GM-DC") subsets, and the GM-DC subset was compared with conventional or classical DC (cDC) subsets isolated from peripheral and lymphoid organs of mice. The article was accompanied by a preview about the usefulness of murine BM-DC cultures in the study of DC biology (Guilliams and Malissen, 2015), insinuating that BM-DCs are not real DCs. But what is a real DC? To reanimate the "DC-ness" of murine BM-DCs, we collected some additional points that have not been addressed by recent papers or comments. We suggest their consideration for further discussion. In a recent article (Helft et al., 2015), murine bone marrow (BM) cultures with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were analyzed for macrophage ("GM-Mac") and dendritic cell ("GM-DC") subsets, and the GM-DC subset was compared with conventional or classical DC (cDC) subsets isolated from peripheral and lymphoid organs of mice. The article was accompanied by a preview about the usefulness of murine BM-DC cultures in the study of DC biology (Guilliams and Malissen, 2015), insinuating that BM-DCs are not real DCs. But what is a real DC? To reanimate the "DC-ness" of murine BM-DCs, we collected some additional points that have not been addressed by recent papers or comments. We suggest their consideration for further discussion. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Kobayashi Y.,Kyoto University
Discovery medicine | Year: 2011

The generation of functional artificial lymphoid tissue will be a major focus of future research. In humans, this will be an alternative tool which induces specific immune responses at ectopic sites and offers a novel way to restore the immune status and to treat uncontrollable obstinate diseases such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, severe infection, and immunodeficiency caused by primary defect or aging. Artificially synthesized lymphoid tissue may also provide us with a highly informative method to further study development and physiological functions of lymphoid tissues and organs. We recently reported successful generation of artificial lymph node-like tissues at ectopic sites in mouse. They showed a remarkable ability to induce secondary immune responses upon antigen stimulation, especially when transplanted into naïve or immunodeficient hosts. In this review, before discussing generation of synthetic immune systems, we first summarize previous knowledge on lymphoid development, which provides information valuable for making artificial lymphoid tissues such as spleen and lymph nodes. Then, we discuss problems that need to be solved in order to synthesize artificial lymphoid tissues, including several issues such as combinations of stromal cells, their cell types, soluble factors, and scaffold properties that enable proper accumulation and organization of immune cells in grafts.

Muto M.,Kyoto University
Digestive Endoscopy | Year: 2013

The prognosis of the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is still poor. Early detection is ideal to improve patient survival. In particular, superficial cancer limited within the mucosal layer is a good candidate for minimally invasive treatment by endoscopic resection with curative intent. However, an effective endoscopic diagnostic strategy is not established worldwide. Herein, we review the published papers on this subject. © 2013 The Author. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

Kaneko T.,Kyoto University
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2016

Breeding by natural mating is ideal for maintaining animal populations. However, the lack of breeding space resulting from an increased number of strains and the decline in fertility caused by inbreeding inhibits the reproduction of subsequent generations. Reproductive technologies, such as gamete preservation and artificial fertilisation, have been developed to overcome these problems. These approaches efficiently produce offspring of laboratory, domestic and wild animals, and can also be used to treat human infertility. Gamete preservation using sperm contributes to improvements in reproductive systems and enables the use of smaller breeding spaces. Although cryopreservation with liquid nitrogen has been used to preserve spermatozoa, freeze-drying without liquid nitrogen, a novel method, facilitates long-term storage of spermatozoa. This method has recently been applied to maintain animal strains. Micro-insemination techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), are exceptional for improving assisted reproduction. ICSI can be used to fertilise oocytes, even with immotile and immature spermatozoa that are unsuitable for AI and IVF. Reproductive technologies provide a substantial advantage for biobanking and maintaining the genetic diversity of laboratory, domestic and wild animals. This review covers the latest method of sperm freeze-drying and micro-insemination, and future possibilities for maintaining animal strains and populations. © CSIRO 2016.

Katoh Y.,Tohoku University | Omura Y.,Kyoto University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2013

By a series of self-consistent electron hybrid code simulations, we study the effect of the background magnetic field inhomogeneity on the generation process of whistler-mode chorus emissions. Chorus with rising tones are generated through nonlinear wave-particle interactions occurring around the magnetic equator. The mirror force plays an important role in the nonlinear interactions, and the spatial inhomogeneity of the background magnetic field is a key parameter of the chorus generation process. We have conducted numerical experiments with different spatial inhomogeneities to understand properties of the chorus generation process. We assume the same initial condition of energetic electrons at the magnetic equator in all simulation runs. The simulation results reveal that the spectral characteristics of chorus significantly vary depending on the magnetic field inhomogeneity. Whistler-mode emissions are generated and propagate away from the equator in all simulation runs, but distinct chorus elements with rising tones are only reproduced in the cases of small inhomogeneities. In the simulation that had the smallest inhomogeneity, we find excitation of broadband hiss-like emission (BHE) whose amplitudes are comparable to discrete chorus elements found in other simulation runs. The BHE consists of many wave elements with rising tones nonlinearly triggered in the region close to the magnetic equator. We show that the small spatial inhomogeneity of the background magnetic field results in the small threshold amplitude for the nonlinear wave growth and allows the triggering process of rising tone elements to emerge easily in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Yamazaki K.,Kyoto University
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2013

To assess the feasibility of observing changes in the magnetic field produced by the piezomagnetic effect, an improved model of the piezomagnetic field corresponding to the Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake is presented. In contrast to an earlier study, the proposed model explicitly considers the spatial distribution of slip on the seismic fault, and the results from this new model differ significantly from those of the previous model where slip distributions were ignored. Quantitative aspects of the piezomagnetic effect are discussed through comparisons of data and models. One feature clarified is that, because the fault rupture is so far offshore, the expected amplitudes are quite small at onshore existing observation sites; consequently, there would have been little chance of observing sizable piezomagnetic signals at inland sites during the Tohoku-oki earthquake. Nevertheless, piezomagnetic signals were reportedly detected at a few sites, possibly indicating that the stress sensitivity or the initial magnetization was larger (by several factors) than assumed. On the other hand, relatively large variations in the magnetic field of up to 10. nT may have occurred offshore. This means that if ocean-bottom sensors had been installed, larger piezomagnetic signals would have been detected. Moreover, the piezomagnetic field in offshore areas is sensitive to the detailed slip distribution, suggesting that observations of the magnetic field at ocean-bottom sites might provide important constraints on determination of slip models. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), the L-tryptophan-degrading enzyme, plays a key role in the immunomodulatory effects on several types of immune cells. Originally known for its regulatory function during pregnancy and chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis, the activity of IDO1 seems to modify the inflammatory state of infectious diseases. The pathophysiologic activity of L-tryptophan metabolites, kynurenines, is well recognized. Therefore, an understanding of the regulation of IDO1 and the subsequent biochemical reactions is essential for the design of therapeutic strategies in certain immune diseases. In this paper, current knowledge about the role of IDO1 and its metabolites during various infectious diseases is presented. Particularly, the regulation of type I interferons (IFNs) production via IDO1 in virus infection is discussed. This paper offers insights into new therapeutic strategies in the modulation of viral infection and several immune-related disorders.

Sakaguchi S.,Osaka University | Sakaguchi S.,Kyoto University | Powrie F.,University of Oxford | Ransohoff R.M.,Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute
Nature Medicine | Year: 2012

Recent progress has revealed the molecular basis of how self-reactive T cells are normally generated in the immune system and differentiate into autoimmune effector T cells and how they are controlled by central and peripheral mechanisms of self-tolerance. There is also evidence that target tissues and cells in autoimmune disease have different sensitivities to immune mediators. Here we describe how these basic findings can be clinically translated to re-establish self-tolerance in individuals with autoimmune disease. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Toda S.,Tohoku University | Tsutsumi H.,Kyoto University
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2013

The gigantic Mw 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake suddenly changed the overriding inland area to an extensional stress regime and triggered massive seismic swarms in the coastal region. The largest earthquake of Mw 6.6 struck southern Fukushima on 11 April 2011 and ruptured two previously mapped faults, the northwest (NW)-trending Yunodake fault and the north-northwest (NNW)-trending Itozawa fault. Clear 15-km-long and 14-km-long surface ruptures appeared along both faults, respectively, exhibiting a predominantly normal sense of slip, down to the west. The maximum vertical offset on the Yunodake fault is 0:8 m, whereas that on the Itozawa fault is 2:1 m. The Itozawa fault rupture is in part marked by uphill-facing scarps, which is discordant with the large-scale topography but consistent with saddled ridges and ponded alluvium. The Yunodake fault, which bounds a Neogene half-graben structure juxtaposing Mesozoic metamorphic rocks against Neogene sedimentary rocks, shows left-lateral deflections of streams. Seismological data and interviews of local residents revealed that the two subparallel faults ruptured simultaneously. Based on the location of its hypocenter, we, however, interpret that the Itozawa rupture was primary and then triggered normal faulting on the Yunodake fault under the heightened Coulomb stress caused by the preceding Tohoku-oki earthquake. Our paleoseismic trench across the Itozawa fault exposed evidence for a penultimate earthquake that occurred sometime between 12,620 and 17,410 cal yr B.P. There is no evidence that the Itozawa fault ruptured during or immediately after the A.D. 869 Jogan earthquake, which is believed to be the penultimate giant megathrust earthquake along the Japan trench.

Yamaji A.,Kyoto University
Journal of Structural Geology | Year: 2013

A unified development of the subject of the algebraic strain analysis methods using Rf/. φ data is outlined, embodying the main features the theories of Shimamoto and Ikeda, Mulchrone et al. and Yamaji. It is shown that the theories yields an identical strain ellipse from the same data set. However, error estimation in that of Shimamoto and Ikeda is difficult owing to the distortion of its parameter space: Resolution of their method depends on the choice of a reference orientation in the plane where strain markers are observed. In this respect, the remaining two theories have advantages. The hyperbolic vector mean method was developed in the Minkowski 3-space, thereby linked seamlessly with the visualizing methods of Rf/. φ data, optimal strain and its confidence region. In addition, the residuals of the optimal strain ellipse determined by this method have clear physical meanings concerning logarithmic strains needed to transform a unit circle to given ellipses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Uchide T.,Kyoto University | Uchide T.,Geological Survey of Japan
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake produced tens of meters of fault slip near the Japan Trench, which generated devastating tsunami. The rupture process before the huge slip is still unclear due to a lack of resolution. Here I perform a multiscale slip inversion analysis to examine the first 10 and 20 s of the rupture process and the whole rupture process at different scales. The result shows that 4 s after the initiation, this earthquake started with a relatively high-speed rupture that had a peak slip rate faster than 1 m/s and a rupture velocity comparable to 3 km/s. Fourteen seconds after the initiation, the rupture propagation direction changed from northward to westward, near the edge of the M 7.3 foreshock coseismic slip area. The stress release by the foreshock may contribute to the complex small-scale rupture propagation, which may appear to be slow rupture propagation when only looking at long-period data. Key Points A multiscale slip inversion for the initial process of the Tohoku earthquake The Tohoku earthquake started with a dynamic rupture, not a slow rupture A complex rupture propagation pattern in the first 20 s ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Yamada M.,Tokyo Gakugei University | Akasaka T.,University of Tsukuba | Nagase S.,Kyoto University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Carbenes are unquestionably powerful intermediates to functionalize fullerenes. Various carbene precursors are useful for reactions. The availability of widely diverse carbene precursors enriches the fullerene chemistry. Both electrophilic and nucleophilic carbenes are applicable reagents, giving the corresponding fullerene derivatives. The reaction mechanisms depend on the precursors and reaction conditions applied. A typical carbene reaction involves addition to a π bond of olefins, which is also the case for a π bond of fullerenes. It is also important to note that carbenes exhibit diverse reactivity. Singlet carbenes possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic character, whereas triplet carbenes show diradical reactivity. Dihalocarbene, because it is among the simplest and most representative carbene species, is widely used in synthetic chemistry. Diazo compounds are useful carbene transfer reagents to fullerenes.

Sekharan S.,Emory University | Morokuma K.,Emory University | Morokuma K.,Kyoto University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

By comparing the results from a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method (SORCI+Q//B3LYP/6-31G*:Amber) between vertebrate (bovine) and invertebrate (squid) visual pigments, the mechanism of molecular rearrangements, energy storage, and origin of the bathochromic shift accompanying the transformation of rhodopsin to bathorhodopsin have been evaluated. The analysis reveals that, in the presence of an unrelaxed binding site, bathorhodopsin was found to carry almost 27 kcal/mol energy in both visual pigments and absorb (λmax) at 528 nm in bovine and 554 nm in squid. However, when the residues within 4.0 Å radius of the retinal are relaxed during the isomerization event, almost ∼16 kcal/mol energy is lost in squid compared to only ∼8 kcal/mol in bovine. Loss of a larger amount of energy in squid is attributed to the presence of a flexible binding site compared to a rigid binding site in bovine. Structure of the squid bathorhodopsin is characterized by formation of a direct H-bond between the Schiff base and Asn87. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Takeda M.,Kyoto University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2013

Long-term variation in the geomagnetic Sq field and the cause of the variation were examined. The amplitude of the geomagnetic Y component (Sq(Y)) in equinox was averaged for each year and adopted as a proxy of the Sq field. Sq(Y) was combined with the ionospheric conductivity estimated by the International Reference Ionosphere model to determine the dynamo electric field and neutral wind velocity by using the geomagnetic main field strength. It was found that the solar activity dependence of the Sq field could be almost completely attributed to the conductivity variation, and neutral winds tend to decrease when the solar activity increases. Although the long-term variation in the dynamo field differed among observatories, these differences were mostly attributed to the locality of the geomagnetic secular variation, whereas the variations in neutral wind amplitude were nearly the same in all regions. On the other hand, no clear long-term variation in neutral wind was detected other than that by solar activity. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Seto N.,Kyoto University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We study dynamical evolution of a resonant triple system formed by an inner extreme-mass-ratio inspiral (EMRI) and an additional outer massive black hole (MBH). The relevant resonant state (λ2 - ω1 ∼ const) is supported by the relativistic apsidal precession of the inner EMRI, and, unlike standard mean motion resonances, the triple system can have a hierarchical orbital configuration (but different from the Kozai process). In order to analyse this unusual resonant system, we extend the so-called Hamiltonian approach and derive a mapping from the EMRI-MBH triple system to a simple one-dimensional Hamiltonian. With the derived mapping, we make analytical predictions for characteristic quantities of the resonance, such as the capture probability, and find that they reasonably agree with numerical simulations up to moderate eccentricities. © 2013 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Takeda M.,Kyoto University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2013

The amplitudes of geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) fields in the Y (Sq(Y)) and Z (Sq(Z)) components were examined by the data obtained from several observatories for a period of more than 50 years. It was found that both Sq(Y) and Sq(Z) are strongly influenced by the solar activity and correlate fairly well with each other during all seasons. However, their seasonal variations are different. This is probably because Sq(Y) and Sq(Z) reflect the current intensity at different UTs, and different seasonal variations at different UTs lead to the difference in the seasonal variation of Sq(Y) and Sq(Z). The ratio of Sq(Z) to Sq(Y) is larger in winter than in summer at all observatories except for those in high geomagnetic latitudes. This difference is superficially attributed to the variation of the equivalent Sq current system, and probably significant part of the variation is due to interhemispheric field-aligned currents driven by the Sq dynamo. On the other hand, long-term variation in Sq(Z) at Honolulu was affected by the movement of the observatory in 1960, which illustrates the importance of induced currents in the ocean for the Sq field in the Z component. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Matsuo J.-I.,Kanazawa University | Murakami M.,Kyoto University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

A directed cross-aldol reaction of silyl enol ethers with carbonyl compounds, such as aldehydes and ketones, promoted by a Lewis acid, a reaction which is now widely known as the Mukaiyama aldol reaction. It was first reported in 1973, and this year marks the 40th anniversary. The directed cross-aldol reactions mediated by boron enolates and tin(II) enolates also emerged from the Mukaiyama laboratory. These directed cross-aldol reactions have become invaluable tools for the construction of stereochemically complex molecules from two carbonyl compounds. This Minireview provides a succinct historical overview of their discoveries and the early stages of their development. The rest is history: Teruaki Mukaiyama developed three directed cross-aldol reactions, which were mediated by silyl enol ethers, boron enolates, and tin(II) enolates. These reactions had an immense impact on the stereoselective construction of acyclic polyoxygenated carbon frameworks. This Minireview provides a look at the history of the three directed cross-aldol reactions and portrays the early stages of their development. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ishimori H.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Katsumi T.,Kyoto University
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2012

This paper examines the swelling capacity and hydraulic performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) at different temperatures against sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Free swell tests were conducted with deionized water and the NaCl solutions of 0.1-0.4 M. Permeating tests with the 0.4 M NaCl solutions were conducted using soil columns, which consisted of a GCL and underlying base layer soil similar to that in the bottom liner system in a landfill. The measured intrinsic permeabilities of the GCL to the 0.4 M NaCl solution are 5.9 × 10 -18 m 2 for 20 °C and 2.5 × 10 -17 m 2 for 60 °C, while the measured free swells to the solution are 8.5 mL/2 g for 20 °C and 11 mL/2 g for 60 °C and the free swells to other solutions tested also increase as the temperature increases. Even after accounting for the temperature dependence of the kinematic viscosity of the NaCl solutions, the intrinsic permeability increases with temperature because bentonite swelling depends on temperature. However, the free swell of bentonites in the GCLs increases as the temperature increases, and the relationship between free swelling and the permeability differs from the common notion that permeability decreases as the free swell increases. Consequently, the previous relationships obtained from free swell tests and hydraulic conductivity tests at room temperature are not applicable at elevated temperatures because at elevated temperatures, the increased intrinsic permeability is related to the decreased swelling pressure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Temporal variations in the electromagnetic field that accompany earthquakes are generated by various mechanisms, of which this study focuses on variations in the magnetic field arising from motionally induced electric currents that accompany seismic waves at large distances (several hundred kilometres) from the epicentre. A simple situation is considered in which seismic waves are approximated by plane waves and the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust has a stratified structure. Solutions of Maxwell's equations corresponding to this situation have analytical expressions. Analysis of the solutions verifies that SH waves do not generate variations in the EM field above the ground surface, thereby implying that Rayleigh waves are dominant at a significant distance from earthquake epicentres. Numerical examples demonstrate that the amplitudes of the variations in the magnetic field monotonically increase with increasing conductivity, although attenuation because of the skin effect cannot be ignored. The amplitudes of the generated magnetic field can be sensitive to the conductivity of both the shallow and deep crust. Nevertheless, calculations assuming a simplified conductivity structure provide an upper limit to the possible amplitudes of variations in the magnetic field because of seismic waves. For example, the amplitudes of variations in the magnetic field arising from a Rayleigh wave with displacement amplitude of 10 cm and a period of 30 s are as large as 0.1 nT, close to the limit of detection under typical observation conditions. It is also suggested that phase differences between seismic ground motions and variations in the magnetic field are insignificantly influenced by details of conductivity structures, and they occur within a rather narrow range of values determined by the direction orientation of the ambient geomagnetic field. In the future, if a detection limit of 0.01 nT becomes available, phase difference may be used to distinguish variations arising from the motional induction, from variations arising from other mechanisms. © 2012 The Author Geophysical Journal International © 2012 RAS.

Kameda T.,Kyoto University
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012

To investigate the effect of a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase, Y-27632, on monkey Schlemm's canal endothelial (SCE) cells. SCE cells were isolated from cynomolgus monkey eyes. The effects of Y-27632 on aqueous outflow facility were evaluated using enucleated monkey eyes and a constant-pressure perfusion system. The effect of Y-27632 on the barrier function of the confluent SCE-cell monolayer was evaluated by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein permeability. Y-27632-induced changes in the intracellular localization of ZO-1, claudin-5, β-catenin, pan-cadherin, and filamentous actin (F-actin) were examined by immunofluorescence. Gene-expression changes induced by Y-27632 were analyzed with microarray, and the functional categories of changed genes were identified by gene ontology analysis. The concentrations of intracellular calcium ions were estimated using Fluo-4/AM and a fluorescence microscope system. Y-27632 significantly increased the outflow facility and the number of associated giant vacuoles, decreased TEER of the SCE-cell monolayer, and increased the transendothelial flux of fluorescein. Y-27632 disrupted ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression in a confluent SCE-cell monolayer. Among 12,544 genes, Y-27632 treatment increased the expression of 57 genes and decreased the expression of 15 genes. Gene ontology analysis revealed that changed genes were related to various cellular functions, including regulation of calcium ion transport into the cytosol. Y-27632 partially diminished the A23187-induced increase in intracellular calcium ions. Y-27632 increased the permeability of the SCE-cell monolayer in association with disruption of the tight junction, F-actin depolymerization, and changes in various cell functions, including calcium transfer.

Yoshimura T.,Kyoto University
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2014

Catalytic asymmetric induction is one of the most important methods in current synthetic organic chemistry for designing efficient and attractive synthetic routes. The efficient total synthesis of a natural product can be achieved through the identification of appropriate method and strategy. This Letter introduces the catalytic asymmetric syntheses of alkaloids and terpenoids based on an overview of four recently reported types of asymmetric reaction: (1) asymmetric decarboxylative allylation, (2) organocatalytic cascade reaction, (3) polyene cyclization, and (4) asymmetric [2+2]-photocycloaddition catalyzed by a chiral Lewis acid. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yoshihara E.,Kyoto University
Methods in enzymology | Year: 2010

The cellular thiol redox state is a crucial mediator of metabolic, signaling and transcriptional processes in cells, and an exquisite balance between the oxidizing and reducing states is essential for the normal function and survival of cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely known to function as a kind of second messenger for intracellular signaling and to modulate the thiol redox state. Thiol reduction is mainly controlled by the thioredoxin (TRX) system and glutathione (GSH) systems as scavengers of ROS and regulators of the protein redox states. The thioredoxin system is composed of several related molecules interacting through the cysteine residues at the active site, including thioredoxin, thioredoxin-2, a mitochondrial thioredoxin family, and transmembrane thioredoxin-related protein (TMX), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-specific thioredoxin family. Thioredoxin couples with thioredoxin-dependent peroxidases (peroxiredoxin) to scavenge hydrogen peroxide. In addition, thioredoxin does not simply act only as a scavenger of ROS but also as an important regulator of oxidative stress response through protein-protein interaction. The interaction of thioredoxin and thioredoxin-binding proteins such as thioredoxin-binding protein-2 (TBP-2, also called as Txnip or VDUP1), apoptosis signal kinase (ASK-1), redox factor 1 (Ref-1), Forkhead box class O 4 (FoxO4), and nod-like receptor proteins (NLRPs) suggested unconventional functions of thioredoxin and a novel mechanism of redox regulation. Here, we introduce the central mechanism of thiol redox transition in cell signaling regulated by thioredoxin and related molecules. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kitagawa F.,Hirosaki University | Otsuka K.,Kyoto University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

This review highlights recent developments and applications of on-line sample preconcentration techniques in capillary electrophoresis (CE) from 2010 to April 2013. Various preconcentration techniques based on the analyte velocity change in two or three discontinuous solutions system including field-amplified stacking, transient isotachophoresis, pH-mediated stacking, sweeping, and their modified and combined techniques have been employed to enrich and separate biological, environmental, food, toxicological, forensic and nanoparticle samples in CE. More than 170 published research articles collected from Scopus databases from the year 2010 described the on-line sample preconcentration techniques. This review provides comprehensive tables listing the applications of the on-line sample preconcentration techniques with categorizing by the fundamental preconcentration mechanism and application area. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

A filtering algorithm is proposed that accurately extracts ground data from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements and generates an estimated digital terrain model (DTM). The proposed algorithm utilizes planar surface features and connectivity with locally lowest points to improve the extraction of ground points (GPs). A slope parameter used in the proposed algorithm is updated after an initial estimation of the DTM, and thus local terrain information can be included. As a result, the proposed algorithm can extract GPs from areas where different degrees of slope variation are interspersed. Specifically, along roads and streets, GPs were extracted from urban areas, from hilly areas such as forests, and from flat area such as riverbanks. Validation using reference data showed that, compared with commercial filtering software, the proposed algorithm extracts GPs with higher accuracy. Therefore, the proposed filtering algorithm effectively generates DTMs, even for dense urban areas, from airborne LiDAR data. © 2012 by the authors.

Background: Preclinical data indicated that the combination of erlotinib and pemetrexed is synergistic when erlotinib is administered after pemetrexed. Patients and Methods: This was a phase II study of pemetrexed and erlotinib in patients with pretreated advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Chemotherapy consisted of pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) on day 1 and erlotinib (150 mg/body) on days 2-15 every 3 weeks. The protocol treatment was repeated until disease progression or intolerable toxicities occurred. Results: Seventeen patients were enrolled between January 2010 and January 2013, and 15 patients were evaluable for both safety and efficacy. The study was terminated due to slow patient accrual. There was 1 complete response. There was a partial response in 3 patients, stable disease in 4 and progressive disease in 7. The response rate was 27% and disease control rate was 53%. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 2.5 months and 6.7 months, respectively. Conclusions: Statistical interpretation could not been made due to the early termination of the study. Further studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of this regimen in NSCLC patients without EGFR mutation (UMIN-CTR No. 0000024531). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Iwai K.,Kyoto University
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor involved in a wide variety of phenomena including inflammation, immune responses, and cell survival. Abnormal activation of NF-κB occurs in many pathological conditions, such as allergic and auto-inflammatory diseases and malignancies. As a result, the signal-induced NF-κB activation pathway has been extensively studied and revealed to be regulated by ubiquitination. Several types of polyubiquitin chains exist and the type of chain seems to impact how ubiquitinated proteins are regulated. Recently, different types of polyubiquitin chains, including linear (M1) and K11 chains, have been implicated in NF-κB activation. This review discusses existing evidence of the differential roles played by various ubiquitin chains, particularly K63, M1, and K11 chains, in NF-κB activation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Katoh Y.,Tohoku University | Omura Y.,Kyoto University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2011

The frequency and amplitude characteristics of chorus emissions are studied by performing electron hybrid code simulations with different initial number densities of energetic electrons. Chorus emissions with rising tones are generated in all simulation runs except for the simulation assuming the lowest number density. The frequency sweep rates of reproduced chorus vary depending on the variation of the wave amplitude of respective chorus elements. We find that the theoretically estimated frequency sweep rates are consistent with the simulation results. The simulation results reveal that the characteristic frequency variation of chorus elements showing rising tones are formed at the region very close to the magnetic equator while the wave amplitudes of chorus elements are significantly amplified through their propagation away from the equator. The spatial scale of the region where the observed explosive wave growth varies in each simulation run, corresponding to the difference of the wave amplitudes of reproduced chorus elements. We estimate the spatial scale hc, a measure of the spatial extent of the generation region derived from the nonlinear wave growth theory, using parameters of the simulation runs and find its consistency with the simulation results. We also analyze the energy spectra of reproduced chorus elements in the simulation results and find that the spectra of chorus are essentially different from those predicted by the linear growth rates in the frequency domain. These results clearly demonstrate that the nonlinear wave-particle interaction governs the chorus generation mechanism. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Cuturi M.,Kyoto University
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2011 | Year: 2011

We propose novel approaches to cast the widely-used family of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distances and similarities as positive definite kernels for time series. To this effect, we provide new theoretical insights on the family of Global Alignment kernels introduced by Cuturi et al. (2007) and propose alternative kernels which are both positive definite and faster to compute. We provide experimental evidence that these alternatives are both faster and more efficient in classification tasks than other kernels based on the DTW formalism. Copyright 2011 by the author(s)/owner(s).

Miyazawa M.,Kyoto University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

Increases in seismicity have been widely observed at varying distances from the source area following large earthquakes. The increased number of earthquakes are usually called aftershocks if the area is within a rupture length of the mainshock, and called remotely triggered events if they are well beyond that distance. These earthquakes can be explained as being induced by static and/or dynamic stress changes due to the mainshock. However, clear observations of dynamic triggering have been inadequate to differentiate between the two mechanisms. This study shows that early post-seismic events triggered by the 2011 M w 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake systematically propagated over Japan in a southwestern direction, associated with the strong seismic waves from the source. The propagation front was consistent with the arrivals of large amplitude surface waves traveling at 3.1 to 3.3 km/s and extending to a distance of 1,350 km. There were no observations of triggered earthquakes in the northern direction. Dynamic stress changes toward the north were comparable to or smaller than those necessary for triggering in the southwestern direction. Static stress changes were one to two orders smaller than dynamic stress changes at remote distance, indicating that static stress was not the main mechanism of the triggering. Furthermore, the dynamic stress/strain changes play an important role for remote triggering if the value is more than ∼500 kPa in stress or ∼10 -6 in strain. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Funayama N.,Kyoto University
Development Growth and Differentiation | Year: 2010

The stem cell system is one of the unique systems that have evolved only in multicellular organisms. Major questions about this system include what type(s) of stem cells are involved (pluri-, multi- or uni-potent stem cells), and how the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells are regulated. To understand the origin of the stem cell system in metazoans and to get insights into the ancestral stem cell itself, it is important to discover the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the stem cell system in sponges (Porifera), the evolutionarily oldest extant metazoans. Histological studies here provided a body of evidence that archeocytes are the stem cells in sponges, and recent molecular studies of sponges, especially the finding of the expression of Piwi homologues in archeocytes and choanocytes in a freshwater sponge, Ephydatia fluviatilis, have provided critical insights into the stem cell system in demosponges. Here I introduce archeocytes and discuss (i) modes of archeocyte differentiation, (ii) our current model of the stem cell system in sponges composed of both archeocytes and choanocytes based on our molecular analysis and previous microscopic studies suggesting the maintenance of pluripotency in choanocytes, (iii) the inference that the Piwi and piRNA function in maintaining stem cells (which also give rise to gametes) may have already been achieved in the ancestral metazoan, and (iv) possible hypotheses about how the migrating stem cells arose in the urmetazoan (protometazoan) and about the evolutionary origin of germline cells in the urbilaterian (protobilaterian). © 2010 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

Yagi Y.,University of Tsukuba | Fukahata Y.,Kyoto University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku-oki earthquake in eastern Japan and the devastating tsunami that followed it caused severe damage and numerous deaths. To clarify the rupture process of the earthquake, we inverted teleseismic P-wave data applying a novel formulation that takes into account the uncertainty of Green's function, which has been a major error source in waveform inversion. The estimated seismic moment is 5.7 × 1022 Nm (Mw = 9.1), associated with a fault rupture 440 km long and 180 km wide along the plate interface. The source process is characterized by asymmetric bilateral rupture propagation, but we also found continuous slips up-dip from the hypocenter, which led to a large maximum slip (50 m), long slip duration (90 s), and a large stress drop (20 MPa). The long slip duration, large stress drop, extensional (normal faulting) aftershocks in a previously compressional stress regime, and low-angle normal slips at approximately the depth of the plate interface suggest that the earthquake released roughly all of the accumulated elastic strain on the plate interface owing to exceptional weakening of the fault. The stress accumulated on the plate interface was about 20 MPa near the trench and 0-10 MPa in the down-dip source region. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Neukirch A.J.,University of Rochester | Hyeon-Deuk K.,Kyoto University | Prezhdo O.V.,University of Rochester
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2014

The review discusses the results of ab initio time-dependent density functional theory and non-adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations of photoinduced dynamics of charges, excitons, plasmons, and phonons in semiconductor and metallic quantum dots (QDs). The simulations create an explicit time-domain representation of the excited-state processes, including elastic and inelastic electron-phonon scattering, multiple exciton generation, fission, and recombination. These nonequilibrium phenomena control the optical and electronic properties of QDs. Our approach can account for QD size and shape, as well as chemical details of QD structure, such as dopants, defects, core/shell regions, surface ligands, and unsaturated bonds. Each of these variations significantly alters the properties of photoexcited QDs. The insights reported in this review provide a comprehensive understanding of the excited-state dynamics in QDs and suggest new ways of controlling the photo-induced processes. The design principles that follow, guide development of photovoltaic cells, electronic and spintronic devices, biological labels, and other systems rooted in the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoscale materials. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Jin R.,Carnegie Mellon University | Nobusada K.,Japan Institute for Molecular Science | Nobusada K.,Kyoto University
Nano Research | Year: 2014

The recent success in the synthesis and total structure determination of atomically precise gold nanoparticles has provided exciting opportunities for fundamental studies as well as the development of new applications. These unique nanoparticles are of molecular purity and possess well defined formulas (i.e., specific numbers of metal atoms and ligands), resembling organic compounds. Crystallization of such molecularly pure nanoparticles into macroscopic single crystals allows for the determination of total structures of nanoparticles (i.e., the arrangement of metal core atoms and surface ligands) by X-ray crystallography. In this perspective article, we summarize recent efforts in doping and alloying gold nanoparticles with other metals, including Pd, Pt, Ag and Cu. With atomically precise gold nanoparticles, a specific number of foreign atoms (e.g., Pd, Pt) can be incorporated into the gold core, whereas a range of Ag and Cu substitutions is observed but, interestingly, the total number of metal atoms in the homogold nanoparticle is preserved. The heteroatom substitution of gold nanoparticles allows one to probe the optical, structural, and electronic properties truly at the single-atom level, and thus provides a wealth of information for understanding the intriguing properties of this new class of nanomaterials. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Naruki M.,Kyoto University
Acta Physica Polonica B | Year: 2016

A variety of nuclear and hadron physics experiments are being performed using meson beams at the J-PARC Hadron Facility. As the first experiment at the facility, the pentaquark Θ+ was searched for in the π- p → K-X reaction with a missing-mass resolution of 2 MeV (FWHM). The number of accumulated beam pions are 7.8 × 1010 and 8.1 × 1010 for different beam momenta of 1.92 and 2.01 GeV/c, respectively. No significant structure was observed in the missing-mass spectra. Upper limits of the production cross section are obtained to be 0.28 μb/sr in the laboratory frame at 90% confidence level for each beam momenta. With a help of theoretical models, an upper limit of the total decay width of Θ+ was estimated to be 0.36 and 1.9 MeV for JP = 1/2+ and 1/2- states, respectively.

Yokoyama T.,Kyoto University
Modern rheumatology / the Japan Rheumatism Association | Year: 2010

We have experienced two cases of drug-induced lupus erythematosus caused by ticlopidine in the last three years. Both were late-onset cases (1 and 4 years) that occurred in elderly men (76 and 81 years old). The common features were fever, arthralgia, myalgia, serositis, and the presence of anti-histone autoantibodies. Because ticlopidine is widely used in elderly people with ischemic vascular disease, ticlopidine-induced lupus should be considered when patients taking ticlopidine present lupus-like symptoms.

To determine whether lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) receptor 1 (LOX-1) and the soluble form of LOX-1 (sLOX-1) are novel target molecules for the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Expression of ox-LDL and LOX-1 proteins in human RA synovium was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Human RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were assessed for ox-LDL-induced expression of LOX-1 and ox-LDL-induced production of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3. Levels of sLOX-1 in the plasma and synovial fluid of patients with RA, compared with patients with osteoarthritis (OA), were determined by a specific chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay. In animal experiments, ox-LDL was injected into the knee joints of mice, with or without an anti-LOX-1 neutralizing antibody or sLOX-1, and the severity of arthritis was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Oxidized LDL and LOX-1 proteins were detected in the RA synovial tissue. Levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 were enhanced by stimulation of RA FLS with ox-LDL, and the production of both MMPs was inhibited by blockade of the ox-LDL-LOX-1 interaction with the anti-LOX-1 neutralizing antibody or sLOX-1. Levels of sLOX-1 in the plasma and synovial fluid of RA patients were significantly higher than those in OA patients and healthy controls and were positively correlated with inflammation markers and the extent of RA disease activity. In the knees of mice, blockade of the ox-LDL-LOX-1 interaction suppressed arthritic changes and reduced the expression of MMP-3 induced by ox-LDL. These findings strongly indicate that sLOX-1 is a novel biomarker that may be useful for the diagnosis of RA and for the evaluation of disease activity in RA. Furthermore, the results suggest that LOX-1 may be a potent therapeutic target for RA. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Yamamoto K.,Kyoto University
IEICE Transactions on Communications | Year: 2015

Potential games form a class of non-cooperative games where the convergent of unilateral improvement dynamics is guaranteed in many practical cases. The potential game approach has been applied to a wide range of wireless network problems, particularly to a variety of channel assignment problems. In this paper, the properties of potential games are introduced, and games in wireless networks that have been proven to be potential games are comprehensively discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

Inoue Y.,Kyoto University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

High energy gamma-ray emission from two nearby bright starburst galaxies, M82 and NGC 253, have recently been detected by Fermi, H. E. S. S., and VERITAS. Since starburst galaxies have a high star formation rate and plenty of dust in the central starburst region, infrared emissions are strong there. Gamma-ray photons are absorbed by the interstellar radiation field photons via electron and positron pair creation. The generated electron and positron pairs up-scatter the interstellar photons to very high energy gamma-ray photons via cascade emission through inverse Compton scattering. In this paper, we evaluate the contribution of this cascade emission to the gamma-ray spectra of M82 and NGC 253. Although it would be difficult to see direct gamma-ray evidence of cosmic-rays with an energy >10 TeV due to the gamma-ray attenuation, the resulting cascade emission would be indirect evidence. By including the cascade component, we find that the total flux above 1 TeV increases ∼18% and ∼45% compared with the absorbed flux assuming the maximum kinetic proton energy as 45.3 and 512 TeV, respectively. Future gammaray observatories such as CTA would be able to see the indirect evidence of cosmic-rays with energies >10 TeV by comparing with theoretical emission models including this cascade effect. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society.

Kanada-En'yo Y.,Kyoto University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2016

Isovector and isoscalar dipole excitations in Be9 and Be10 are investigated in the framework of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics, in which angular-momentum and parity projections are performed. In the present method, 1p-1h excitation modes built on the ground state and a large amplitude α-cluster mode are taken into account. The isovector giant dipole resonance (GDR) in E>20 MeV shows the two-peak structure, which is understood from the dipole excitation in the 2α core part with the prolate deformation. Because of valence neutron modes against the 2α core, low-energy E1 resonances appear in E<20 MeV, exhausting about 20% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule and 10% of the calculated energy-weighted sum. The dipole resonance at E∼15 MeV in Be10 can be interpreted as the parity partner of the ground state having a He6+α structure and has remarkable E1 strength because of the coherent contribution of two valence neutrons. The isoscalar dipole strength for some low-energy resonances is significantly enhanced by the coupling with the α-cluster mode. For the E1 strength of Be9, the calculation overestimates the energy-weighted sum (EWS) in the low-energy (E<20 MeV) and GDR (20

Ishikawa T.,Kyoto University
Cell structure and function | Year: 2011

The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). The ER stress signal is sensed and transmitted by a transmembrane protein(s) in the ER. The number of these transducers has increased with evolution, one in yeast, three in worm and fly, and five in mammals. Here, we examined medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, as a vertebrate model organism, and found that the medaka genome encodes five UPR transducers. Analysis of a medaka embryonic cell line revealed that the mammalian UPR signaling mechanisms are very well conserved. Thus, XBP1 mRNA, which encodes the transcription factor XBP1 downstream of the IRE1 pathway, was spliced in response to ER stress, resulting in production of the active form of XBP1. Translation was generally attenuated in response to ER stress, which paradoxically induced the translation of ATF4, the transcription factor downstream of the PERK pathway. ATF6 was constitutively synthesized as a transmembrane protein and activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis. Results obtained with the overexpression of active ATF6α, ATF6β, and XBP1 strongly suggested that ATF6α plays a major role in upregulating the major ER chaperone BiP, contrary to the case in non-vertebrates, in which the IRE1 pathway is essential to the induction of BiP. Physiological ER stress occurring during embryonic development was visualized using transgenic medaka carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene under the control of the BiP promoter. Thus, analysis of the vertebrate UPR using medaka will help provide a more comprehensive understanding of the biology and physiology of the UPR.

Takashima K.,Kyoto University
Cell structure and function | Year: 2011

Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids and cholesteryl esters in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs), which are generated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that Golgi-to-ER-retrograde transport mediated by COPI-coated vesicles under the control of Arf small GTPases is implicated in LD formation and utilization. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the regulation of lipid homeostasis by COPI-dependent transport has been poorly understood. Here we show that LD deposition and the cellular triacylglycerol content are significantly increased by siRNA-mediated depletion of not only β-COP (a subunit of the COPI coat complex) but also GBF1 (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arfs), Arf4 and Arf5 (class II Arfs), and ArfGAP1-ArfGAP3 (GTPase-activating proteins for Arfs). Although a previous proteomic study suggested the presence of COPI subunits and Arfs on LDs, we have failed to show that components of the GBF1-Arf-COPI-ArfGAP retrograde transport machinery are directly associated with and closely apposed to LDs. Furthermore, although recent studies suggested that COPI-mediated transport and GBF1 participated in delivery of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) onto the LD surface, we have found that depletion of β-COP or GBF1 does not affect association of ATGL with LDs or ATGL-mediated lipolysis. On the basis of these results, we propose other mechanisms how the GBF1-Arf-COPI-ArfGAP transport machinery is implicated in the regulation of lipid homeostasis.

Matsuoka M.,Kyoto University
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2010

The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) gene is transcribed as an anti-sense transcript of HTLV-1 from the 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR). Recent studies showed that the HBZ gene was expressed in all ATL cases, suggesting its critical role in leukemogenesis. In addition, only the HBZ gene sequence remains intact, unaffected by nonsense mutations and deletion. HBZ mRNA promotes proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells. The HBZ protein has three domains: activation, central, and bZIP domains. HBZ interacts with a variety of cellular factors, and modulates not only cellular functions, but also viral gene transcription from 5′LTR. The complex functions of HBZ modulate T-cells, and promote their proliferation, which is likely indispensable for leukemogenesis by HTLV-1. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Jackson J.L.,Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Jackson J.L.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Kuriyama A.,Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital | Hayashino Y.,Kyoto University
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2012

Context: Botulinum toxin A is US Food and Drug Administration approved for prophylactic treatment for chronic migraines. Objective: To assess botulinum toxin A for the prophylactic treatment of headaches in adults. Data Sources: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, bibliographies of published systematic reviews, and the Cochrane trial registries between 1966 and March 15, 2012. Inclusion and exclusion criteria of each study were reviewed. Headaches were categorized as episodic (<15 headaches per month) or chronic (≥15 headaches per month) migraine and episodic or chronic daily or tension headaches. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials comparing botulinum toxin A with placebo or other interventions for headaches among adults. Data Extraction: Data were abstracted and quality assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model. Data Synthesis: Pooled analyses suggested that botulinum toxin Awas associated with fewer headaches per month among patients with chronic daily headaches (1115 patients, -2.06 headaches per month; 95% CI, -3.56 to -0.56; 3 studies) and among patients with chronic migraine headaches (n=1508, -2.30 headaches per month; 95% CI, -3.66 to -0.94; 5 studies). There was no significant association between use of botulinum toxin A and reduction in the number of episodic migraine (n=1838, 0.05 headaches per month; 95% CI, -0.26 to 0.36; 9 studies) or chronic tension-type headaches (n=675, -1.43 headaches per month; 95% CI, -3.13 to 0.27; 7 studies). In single trials, botulinum toxin A was not associated with fewer migraine headaches per month vs valproate (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.20; 95% CI, -0.91 to 0.31), topiramate (SMD, 0.20; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.76), or amitriptyline (SMD, 0.29; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.76). Botulinum toxin A was associated with fewer chronic tension-type headaches per month vs methylprednisolone injections (SMD, -2.5; 95% CI, -3.5 to -1.5). Compared with placebo, botulinum toxin A was associated with a greater frequency of blepharoptosis, skin tightness, paresthesias, neck stiffness, muscle weakness, and neck pain. Conclusion: Botulinum toxin A compared with placebo was associated with a small to modest benefit for chronic daily headaches and chronic migraines but was not associated with fewer episodic migraine or chronic tension-type headaches per month. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Mori N.,Kyoto University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2012

Benjamin-Feir Index (BFI) and directional spread are measures of nonlinear four-wave interactions and resultant indices of possible conditions for freak waves. Temporal-spatial distributions of BFI and directional spread are examined with numerical simulations of a spectral wave model using typhoon conditions. The spatial distributions of wave characteristics such as significant wave height, wave period, BFI and directional spread are different from each other around the eye of the typhoon. BFI is significantly large in the fourth quadrant of the typhoon, while waves are steep and have narrow frequencies and directional spectra. Freak waves resulting from nonlinear four-wave-wave interactions have a greater potential of occurring in the fourth quadrant of the typhoon than in the other quadrants. Furthermore, crossing sea states from two-wind-wave systems can be observed behind the eye of the typhoon. The crossing, two-wind systems are also dangerous sea states, although as observed, they are closer to linear wave conditions. Finally, the characteristics of possible freak wave conditions during typhoons are verified with field data. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

Xu P.,Kyoto University
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2012

The LLL reduction of lattice vectors and its variants have been widely used to solve the weighted integer least squares (ILS) problem, or equivalently, the weighted closest point problem. Instead of reducing lattice vectors, we propose a parallel Cholesky-based reduction method for positive definite quadratic forms. The new reduction method directly works on the positive definite matrix associated with the weighted ILS problem and is shown to satisfy part of the inequalities required by Minkowski's reduction of positive definite quadratic forms. The complexity of the algorithm can be fixed a priori by limiting the number of iterations. The simulations have clearly shown that the parallel Cholesky-based reduction method is significantly better than the LLL algorithm to reduce the condition number of the positive definite matrix, and as a result, can significantly reduce the searching space for the global optimal, weighted ILS or maximum likelihood estimate. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Odake S.,Shinshu University | Sasaki R.,Kyoto University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Infinite families of multi-indexed orthogonal polynomials are discovered as the solutions of exactly solvable one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems. The simplest examples, the one-indexed orthogonal polynomials, are the infinite families of the exceptional Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials of types I and II constructed by the present authors. The totality of the integer indices of the new polynomials are finite and they correspond to the degrees of the '. virtual state wavefunctions' which are 'deleted' by the generalisation of Crum-Adler theorem. Each polynomial has another integer n which counts the nodes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Fukushima K.,Kyoto University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We propose a prescription to constrain the chiral effective model approach to the QCD phase diagram using the thermal Statistical Model which is a hadronic description consistent with the heavy-ion experimental data at the chemical freeze-out. In the transition region where thermal quantities of hadrons blow up, deconfined quarks and gluons should smoothly take over the relevant degrees of freedom from color confined hadrons. We use the Polyakov-loop coupled Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model as an effective description in the quark side. We require that the validity regions of these models should have an overlap on the phase diagram, which gives a condition to reduce model uncertainty. Our results favor a phase diagram with the chiral and the deconfinement phase transitions both staying close to the chemical freeze-out points until μB=500-600 MeV, above which the model parameter is not well constrained. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Choi K.-S.,Kyoto University
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2011

The Standard Model group and matter spectrum is obtained in vacua of F-theory, without resorting to an intermediate unification group. The group SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1)Y is the commutant to SU(5){box drawings light up and horizontal}×U(1)Y structure group of a Higgs bundle in E8 and is geometrically realized as a deformation of I5 singularity. Lying along the unification groups of En, our vacua naturally inherit their unification structure. By modding SU(5){box drawings light up and horizontal} out by Z4 monodromy group, we can distinguish Higgses from lepton doublets by matter parity. Turning on universal G-flux on this part, the spectrum contains three generations of quarks and leptons, as well as vectorlike pairs of electroweak and colored Higgses. Minimal Yukawa couplings is obtained at the renormalizable level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Fukushima K.,Kyoto University | Hatsuda T.,University of Tokyo
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2011

The current status of theoretical studies on the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential is reviewed with special emphasis on the origin of various phases and their symmetry breaking patterns. Topics include quark deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration, order of the phase transitions, QCD critical point(s), colour superconductivity, various inhomogeneous states and implications from QCD-like theories. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Takahashi K.,Kyoto University
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2014

Nuclear reprogramming technology was first established more than 50 years ago. It can rejuvenate somatic cells by erasing the epigenetic memories and reconstructing a new pluripotent order. The recent discovery reviewed here that induced pluripotency can be achieved by a small set of transcription factors has opened up unprecedented opportunities in the pharmaceutical industry, the clinic, and laboratories. This technology allows us to access pathological studies by using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In addition, iPS cells are also expected to be a rising star for regenerative medicine, as sources of transplantation therapy. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Taki M.,Kyoto University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Recently Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa have proposed relation between 2- and 4-dimensional conformal field theories. The relation implies that the Nekrasov partition functions of N = 2 superconformal gauge theories are equal to conformal blocks associated with the conformal algebra. Likewise, a counterpart in pure super Yang-Mills theory exists in conformal field theory. We propose a simple relation between the Shapovalov matrix of the W3-algebra and the Nekrasov partition function of N = 2 SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. © SISSA 2011.

Sasakura N.,Kyoto University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2011

By extending the algebraic description of the bosonic rank-three tensor models, a general framework for super rank-three tensor models and correspondence to super fuzzy spaces is proposed. The corresponding super fuzzy spaces must satisfy a certain cyclicity condition on the algebras of functions on them. Due to the cyclicity condition, the symmetry of the super rank-three tensor models are represented by super n-ary transformations. The Leibnitz rules and the fundamental identities for the super n-ary transformations are discussed from the perspective of the symmetry of the algebra of a fuzzy space. It is shown that the super n-ary transformations of finite orders which conserve the algebra of a fuzzy space form a finite closed n-ary super Lie algebra. Super rank-three tensor models would be of physical interest as background independent models for dynamical generation of supersymmetric fuzzy spaces, in which quantum corrections are under control. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Developing clinically relevant synthetic agents that are capable of disrupting protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is now a major goal of scientific research. In an effort to explore new methodologies that are applicable to the design of synthetic PPI inhibitors, we examined a strategy based on the assembly of small module compounds to create multivalent mid-sized agents. This personal account describes three particular approaches based on module assembly: metal-chelating-based ligand assembly, covalent chemical ligation templated by a targeted protein, and bivalent inhibitor design for simultaneous targeting of the active pocket and protein surface. These strategies were shown to be useful for synthesizing minimally sized synthetic agents for targeting PPIs and may enable development of agents that are applicable to inhibition of intracellular PPIs. Development of clinically relevant synthetic inhibitors for protein-protein interactions has been set as an important goal in the post-genome era; however, the large and featureless protein interfaces make it a difficult challenge. A strategy based on the assembly of small module compounds was examined to create multivalent mid-sized agents that are capable of recognizing protein surfaces. Copyright © 2013 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Mieno F.,Kyoto University
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2013

The economic reforms implemented by the Thein Sein government face several challenges, some of which continue from the past military regime and some of which are new. The government is starting to overhaul institutions in order to obtain market-based macroeconomic policy tools, which will possibly eliminate a long-lasting fundamental cause of economic instability. One essential challenge is to design policies to encourage private capital, and to promote the agricultural and manufacturing sectors, which have already shown a high potential. At the same time, a regulatory framework and a well-functioning financial system, which are essential to encourage private capital with market discipline, must be developed. A recent rise in natural resources exports created both a fiscal cushion and balance-of-payments surplus, which seems to have promoted reforms. However, the government should be aware that the recent favorable conditions may not last for a long future. © 2013 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2013 Japan Center for Economic Research.

Takada S.,Kyoto University
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2012

Recently, we saw a dramatic increase in the number of researches that rely on coarse-grained (CG) simulations for large biomolecules. Here, first, we briefly describe recently developed and used CG models for proteins and nucleic acids. Balance between structure-based and physico-chemical terms is a key issue. We also discuss the multiscale algorithms used to derive CG parameters. Next, we comment on the dynamics used in CG simulations with an emphasis on the importance of hydrodynamic interactions. We then discuss the pros and cons of CG simulations. Finally, we overview recent exciting applications of CG simulations. Publicly available tools and software for CG simulations are also summarized. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Takahashi K.,Kyoto University
Development Growth and Differentiation | Year: 2010

Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into a pluripotent state has been achieved with a set of just four transcription factors. Many scientists and medical doctors are trying to elucidate the causes of intractable diseases and discover new drugs using the newest types of technology. Various methods have been developed to produce clinical-grade fully reprogrammed cells for cell transplantation therapy. Augmenting agents, such as small-molecules, have been extensively screened to improve the reprogramming efficiency. The molecular mechanisms of reprogramming have been revealed by embryonic stem cell research. The accumulation of knowledge by the pioneers has driven the reprogramming field. In the present article, the contents of gift boxes from the studies of pluripotency to the nuclear reprogramming field are introduced. © 2010 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

Peltier G.,Aix - Marseille University | Aro E.-M.,University of Turku | Shikanai T.,Kyoto University
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Oxygenic photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy in the chloroplasts of plants and microalgae as well as in prokaryotic cyanobacteria using a complex machinery composed of two photosystems and both membrane-bound and soluble electron carriers. In addition to the major photosynthetic complexes photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f, and photosystem I (PSI), chloroplasts also contain minor components, including a well-conserved type I NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complex that functions in close relationship with photosynthesis and likewise originated from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterial ancestor. Some plants and many microalgal species have lost plastidial ndh genes and a functional NDH-1 complex during evolution, and studies have suggested that a plastidial type II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) complex substitutes for the electron transport activity of NDH-1. However, although NDH-1 was initially thought to use NAD(P)H as an electron donor, recent research has demonstrated that both chloroplast and cyanobacterial NDH-1s oxidize reduced ferredoxin. We discuss more recent findings related to the biochemical composition and activity of NDH-1 and NDH-2 in relation to the physiology and regulation of photosynthesis, particularly focusing on their roles in cyclic electron flow around PSI, chlororespiration, and acclimation to changing environments. Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Maeda A.,Kyoto University
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies | Year: 2014

This article assesses the effects of banking on tradable emission permit markets and, in particular, the role of uncertainty in permit markets that allow banking. In such markets, current and future spot trade markets are linked: An increase in uncertainty about future spot markets at first lowers spot prices due to the presence of unregulated agents but soon spurs an increase in spot prices. © 2004, Springer Japan.

Kondo K.,Kyoto University
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies | Year: 2014

This article explores the cause-and-effect relationship between the exports of manufactured goods and water resources (virtual water). Little is known about virtual water flows in relation to Japan’s exports of manufactured goods. The research is based on the Japanese input-output tables and factor decomposition analysis (1980–2000). Virtual water exports include both “direct” water exports (the water utilized to manufacture final goods) and “indirect” water exports (the water required to produce intermediate goods). In the analysis, the change in virtual water exports is decomposed into three determinant factors: the direct water coefficient change, indirect water coefficient change, and export volume change. The findings imply that the export volume change was the most influential factor in determining the total volume of Japanese virtual water exports in the early 1980s; however, the volume of indirect water change exerts a stronger influence on the massive virtual water exports now and is greatly affected by subsidiaries. Manufacturers depend on the supply of water from developing countries to enhance their competitive strengths. Thus, the article suggests possible changes in virtual water trade flows between Japan and other countries. © 2005, Springer Japan.

Nishiguchi S.,Kyoto University
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2012

Smartphones are very common devices in daily life that have a built-in tri-axial accelerometer. Similar to previously developed accelerometers, smartphones can be used to assess gait patterns. However, few gait analyses have been performed using smartphones, and their reliability and validity have not been evaluated yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a smartphone accelerometer. Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. They walked 20 m at their preferred speeds, and their trunk accelerations were measured using a smartphone and a tri-axial accelerometer that was secured over the L3 spinous process. We developed a gait analysis application and installed it in the smartphone to measure the acceleration. After signal processing, we calculated the gait parameters of each measurement terminal: peak frequency (PF), root mean square (RMS), autocorrelation peak (AC), and coefficient of variance (CV) of the acceleration peak intervals. Remarkable consistency was observed in the test-retest reliability of all the gait parameter results obtained by the smartphone (p<0.001). All the gait parameter results obtained by the smartphone showed statistically significant and considerable correlations with the same parameter results obtained by the tri-axial accelerometer (PF r=0.99, RMS r=0.89, AC r=0.85, CV r=0.82; p<0.01). Our study indicates that the smartphone with gait analysis application used in this study has the capacity to quantify gait parameters with a degree of accuracy that is comparable to that of the tri-axial accelerometer.

Mochida K.,Kyoto University
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2011

The diversity of aposematic signals is one of the most difficult phenomena for understanding the evolution of such signals because aposematic animals are most effectively protected when they are common. Theoretical and experimental studies predict that a combination of local selection pressures could maintain variation in aposematic signals. However, the application of this hypothesis to large-scale geographic variation in aposematic signals, other than mimicry systems, is yet to be tested empirically. I investigated geographic variation in morphological and behavioural aposematic signals of the newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, and in predation pressures on them in populations ranging over 800 km of latitude. Field experiments demonstrated that local differences in predation pressures explain well the island-mainland variation in the aposematic colouration and behaviour of newts. Furthermore, I found a latitudinal gradient in aposematic colouration but not in behaviour, independent of predation pressures. The results suggested that island-mainland variation in aposematic signals resulting from local differences in predation pressures might also be shaped by several factors, such as temperature, body size variation, and genetic differences, and such factors might act on each aposematic trait differently. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Yamamoto T.,Kyoto University
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2011

Reactor noise simulations have been performed with the analog Monte Carlo technique in the past. The applicability of the non-analog Monte Carlo technique, which uses "weighing" for the purpose of variance reduction, to reactor noise simulations has been discussed. The joint probability of a pair of counts and Feynman variance-to-mean ratio in the non-analog Monte Carlo technique are formulated for one-speed neutron random walk in an infinite homogeneous medium. Unlike the analog Monte Carlo technique, the fission-related correlation exists even for the number of fission neutrons ν = 1 because the neutron causing a fission survives and will contribute to subsequent detections. As a results, the joint probability and the variance-to-mean ratio has the same function of time as the analog Monte Carlo technique. The probability of an uncorrelated pair of counts for a coincidence detection within one detector is different from the analog Monte Carlo technique, which introduces an extra unknown parameter in Feynman-α method. In the two-detector system, the extra parameter does not arise and the conventional Feynman-α formula can be applied to non-analog Monte Carlo simulations. The formulations derived in this work are verified by the fact that the theoretical values agree well with the numerical results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yanagita M.,Kyoto University
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2012

Renal fibrosis is a major hallmark of chronic kidney disease, regardless of the initial causes, and prominent renal fibrosis predicts poor prognosis for renal insufficiency. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a pivotal role in the progression of renal fibrosis, and therapeutic interventions targeting TGF-β have been successful and well tolerated in animal models. However, these interventions might have adverse effects by inducing systemic inflammation due to the strong bifunctional role of TGF-β (pro-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory). This review of the current literature focuses on the inhibitors/antagonists of TGF-β, and discusses possible therapeutic approaches targeting them, describing the effectiveness of orally active bone morphogenetic protein 7 mimetics in reversing established fibrosis. It will conclude with a brief discussion of possible future directions for research. © 2012 The Author.

Tanaka K.,Kyoto University
Herpetologica | Year: 2011

Difference in growth pattern is one of the proximate causes of geographic variation in body size. Such a difference in growth pattern could be explained by two extremes such as genetically determined outcome and phenotypic plasticity or by a combination of these. The Japanese four-lined snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) on Yakushima Island, Japan, has small body size compared with snakes on the main islands. To examine whether the dwarfism of Yakushima snakes is a consequence of genetic modification or a direct phenotypic response to immediate environmental conditions, E. quadrivirgata from Yakushima and a main island (Shiga Prefecture in Honshu Island), were reared from hatching in a laboratory environment. Data of field surveys were used to examine feeding habits and growth in the wild. Free-ranging snakes on Yakushima had significantly smaller body size and lower growth rate than those in Shiga. Yakushima snakes consumed almost exclusively lizards, whereas frogs were the main prey for Shiga snakes. The proportion of snakes that contained food in their stomach was lower in Yakushima than in Shiga. Available information suggests that the dwarfism of Yakushima snakes cannot be explained by lower survivorship. At hatching, Yakushima snakes of both sexes were larger than Shiga snakes. However, Yakushima and Shiga snakes reached similar body size after approximately 1 year. Captive-reared snakes from the insular dwarf population can reach comparable size to those from the main island, indicating that the growth rate, and hence body size, of E. quadrivirgata is obviously highly plastic. Based on these results, I consider that the dwarfism of Yakushima snakes is attributable to a direct phenotypic response, presumably to food limitation, rather than to microevolutionary changes. © 2011 The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

Murakami A.,Kyoto University
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

A large number of physiologically functional foods are comprised of plant polyphenols. Their antioxidative activities have been intensively studied for a long period and proposed to be one of the major mechanisms of action accounting for their health promotional and disease preventive effects. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) are considered to possess marked anti-oxidative properties and versatile beneficial functions, including anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. On the other hand, some investigators, including us, have uncovered their toxicity at high doses presumably due to pro-oxidative properties. For instance, both experimental animal studies and epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that GTPs may cause hepatotoxicity. We also recently showed that diets containing high doses (0.5-1%) of a GTP deteriorated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In addition, colitis mode mice fed a 1% GTP exhibited symptoms of nephrotoxicity, as indicated by marked elevation of serum creatinine level. This diet also increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, a reliable marker of oxidative damage, in both kidneys and livers even in normal mice, while the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs) were diminished in colitis and normal mice. Intriguingly, GTPs at 0.01% and 0.1% showed hepato-protective activities, i.e., they significantly suppressed DSS-increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. Moreover, those diets remarkably restored DSS-down-regulated expressions of heme oxygenase-1 and HSP70 in livers and kidneys. Taken together, while low and medium doses of GTPs are beneficial in colitis model mice, unwanted side-effects occasionally emerge with high doses. This dose-dependent functionality and toxicity of GTPs are in accordance with the concept of hormesis, in which mild, but not severe, stress activates defense systems for adaptation and survival. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Tsuboi T.,Kyoto University
Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) | Year: 2011

The appropriate target level for PaCO(2) after the introduction of long-term noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with COPD remains uncertain, and therefore must be tested. Data on 54 patients with COPD receiving long-term domiciliary NPPV were examined retrospectively. PaCO(2) a few months after NPPV and potential confounders were analyzed with discontinuation of long-term NPPV as the primary outcome. The differences in annual hospitalization rates due to respiratory deterioration between those from 1 year before to 2 years after initiation of NPPV were compared according to the PaCO(2) measured at 6 months after NPPV (6-mo PaCO(2)). 6-mo PaCO(2) seemed to be most related to continuation of NPPV (p=0.019). Patients with 6-mo PaCO(2) of less than 60 mmHg had maintained a significantly lower PaCO(2) value 6 to 24 months after NPPV (p=0.04) and had a significantly higher continuation rate of NPPV (p=0.03) than those with a 6-mo PaCO(2) of 60 mmHg or more. Annual hospitalization rates due to respiratory deterioration were not associated with the 6-mo PaCO(2) level, but fatal hospitalization rates during the first year of NPPV were significantly correlated with relatively high 6-mo PaCO(2) (p=0.008). A relatively low 6-mo PaCO(2) value was predictive of long-term use of NPPV. The target values of 6-mo PaCO(2) may, therefore, be less than 60 mmHg in COPD patients with extremely severe hypercapnia, although more prospective studies are needed.

Itoh N.,Kyoto University | Ornitz D.M.,University of Washington
Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of structurally related polypeptides that are essential for embryonic development and that function postnatally as homoeostatic factors, in the response to injury, in the regulation of electrical excitability of cells and as hormones that regulate metabolism. In humans, FGF signalling is involved in developmental, neoplastic, metabolic and neurological diseases. Fgfs have been identified in metazoans but not in unicellular organisms. In vertebrates, FGFs can be classified as having intracrine, paracrine and endocrine functions. Paracrine and endocrine FGFs act via cell-surface FGF receptors (FGFRs); while, intracrine FGFs act independent of FGFRs. The evolutionary history of the Fgf family indicates that an intracrine Fgf is the likely ancestor of the Fgf family. During metazoan evolution, the Fgf family expanded in two phases, after the separation of protostomes and deuterostomes and in the evolution of early vertebrates. These expansions enabled FGFs to acquire diverse actions and functions. © The Authors 2010.

Nakao Y.,Kyoto University | Hiyama T.,Chuo University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Much attention has been paid to the cross-coupling reaction of organosilicon compounds due to their stability, non-toxicity, and natural abundance of silicon. In addition, the silicon-based cross-coupling has many advantages over other cross-coupling protocols. Successful examples of the silicon-based cross-coupling reaction are reviewed, focusing especially on the advances made in the last decade. Having had a number of highly effective palladium catalysts developed mainly for other cross-coupling reactions, the development of the silicon-based protocol owes heavily to the design of organosilicon reagents which effectively undergo transmetalation, a key elemental step of the silicon-based cross-coupling reaction. This tutorial review thus classifies various organosilicon reagents depending on substituents on silicon and surveys their cross-coupling reactions with various electrophiles. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Kanamori K.,Kyoto University
Nippon Seramikkusu Kyokai Gakujutsu Ronbunshi/Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan | Year: 2011

A brief overview of siloxane-based low-density aerogels and aerogels-like xerogels is presented. Aerogels are highly porous solids composed of inorganic oxides, metals, cross-linked polymers and carbons, and are known to possess a number of excellent physical properties such as high visible-light transparency with low refractive index, low dielectric properties, and extremely-low thermal conductivity. Aerogels are therefore regarded as a promising candidate for applications such as superinsulators; however, a mass production and applications of aerogels have been significantly discouraged due to the lack of mechanical properties since the first invention in 1931. This review introduces the substantial effort to improve the mechanical properties of aerogels with particularly highlighting our recent findings on elastic organic-inorganic hybrid aerogel monoliths obtained from methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) using the controlled sol-gel chemistry. © 2011 The Ceramic Society of Japan. All rights reserved.

The pattern of diversity and functioning of fungi associated with leaf litter decomposition in Asian forests of different climatic regions was investigated by performing meta-analysis of published data for seven tree species in subalpine, temperate, subtropical and tropical forests. Fungal assemblages were examined by using common standard isolation-culture methods, and the abilities of individual fungal species to decompose leaf litter were examined with pure culture decomposition tests. The climatic patterns of diversity, assemblage structure and genus composition depended on the method of isolation: the washing method revealed no consistent pattern, whereas the surface sterilization method showed lower diversity and greater relative abundance of dominant fungal species within the assemblages in cooler climates. The decomposing ability of species within fungal assemblages was greater in warmer than in cooler climates and in broad-leaved than in coniferous tree species. In particular, the greatest abilities to cause mass loss were found among fungi with ligninolytic activity in broad-leaved tree species in warmer climates. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society.

Cheung M.C.M.,Lockheed Martin | Isobe H.,Kyoto University
Living Reviews in Solar Physics | Year: 2014

Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field) in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

In the Monte Carlo power iteration method, a higher k-eigenfunction is represented by both positive and negative particle weights. A special technique is required for these signed particle weights to cancel each other. Unlike some regionwise exact or approximate cancellation techniques that have been developed thus far, a newly developed cancellation technique using the kernel density estimator (KDE) eliminates the cumbersome regional division process. Density functions for fission source sites with positive and negative weights are represented by positive and negative kernel density estimators, respectively. After they cancel each other, the fission source sites for the next iteration cycle are determined by the rejection sampling. The new technique with KDE has shown feasibility of providing as accurate calculation results as other existing cancellation techniques by choosing a small enough kernel bandwidth. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The 1064 nm nanosecond laser-induced fragmentative decomposition of fine CuO powder in acetone, at the laser fluence of typically ∼1 J/cm 2, generated ∼10 nm Cu nanoparticles (NPs) at the production rate, ∼1 mg/min, for the input laser power of only ∼0.5 W. This highly productive laser synthesis of CuNPs is also characterized by a large conversion yield (≥80%) from CuO powder to CuNPs, as achieved by sufficiently prolonged laser irradiation. They underwent rapid aerobic oxidation preferentially to Cu2O NPs, which are equally useful material for conductive pattern making. In whatever oxidation states, they also exhibited superior dispersivity in ketone solvents with neither intentional nor unintentional protective shell. The 1064 nm laser interaction of fine CuO powder is characterized by relatively small light absorption efficiency as compared to that in the visible region, which rather helps in preventing excess and/or nonuniform laser heating of each particle. Spectroscopic analysis of the laser-induced emission indicates that a temporal but very high temperature state, ∼5000 K or more, can still occur easily, which then most likely relaxes by fragmentative decomposition directly into CuNPs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Yamamoto T.,Kyoto University
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2011

Using a generalized formula for the space and energy dependent Feynman-α method, which was originally derived by Endo et al. and Muñoz-Cobo et al., the effect of higher order modes of the α-mode eigenvalue problem on the Feynman Y function has been investigated. To deal with a large number of higher order modes, the diffusion approximation is adopted instead of the transport theory for a one-dimensional homogeneous infinite slab. By making a transport correction to low order mode eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, the formula can accurately reproduce the Monte Carlo simulation results of the Feynman-α method. By virtue of these efforts, an accurate numerical application of the generalized formula, which has not been performed due to the difficulty in solving the higher order α-mode eigenvalue problem, has been made possible. Sample numerical examples for a near-critical system and a deeply-subcritical system quantitatively demonstrate how the Feynman Y functions are decomposed into the higher order mode components. While the higher order mode components in the Feynman Y function can be negligible in a near-critical system, the Feynman Y function in a deeply-subcritical system is found to be severely contaminated by the higher order modes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

An examination of the holotype of Microhyla borneensis Parker 1928 revealed that this nomen applies to a miniaturized narrow-mouthed frog from Borneo that recently was described as Microhyla nepenthicola Das & Haas 2010. This is confirmed concordantly by body size of the female holotype of M. borneensis, and by its reduced extent of toe webbing and rather rounded, short snout profile.Consequently, the name M. nepenthicola is to be considered as a junior synonym of M. borneensis, and an old report of nepenthiphilous breeding habits of M. borneensis is therefore justified. A sympatric larger species usually treated as M. borneensis has no scientific name and is described here as M. malang sp. nov. Thenew species and M. borneensis are sister to each other, and together are closely related to M. mantheyi from Peninsular Malaysia. These three species are morphologicallyvery similar, but can be distinguished by body size, color pattern, and extent of toe webbing. Phylogenetic relationships, miniaturization, and larval oral morphology in the genus Microhyla arediscussed.

Akamatsu M.,Kyoto University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The physicochemical properties of candidate compounds play important roles in the design of new pesticides. Pesticides must be absorbed by pests, be transported to the target site, and then interact with proteins. Hydrophobicity is very important for these processes. Log P, where P is the partition coefficient in the 1-octanol/water system, is commonly used as a hydrophobic descriptor and correlates with membrane permeation and transport. It was recently reported that permeability by the parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) could be used to predict human oral absorption of passively transported compounds. PAMPA, which is a rapid high-throughput screening system, may be useful to predict pesticide absorption because PAMPA permeability can be calculated using log P and other parameters. Electronic and structural properties as well as hydrophobicity are important factors for protein-ligand interaction. To show the importance of physicochemical properties, the classic QSAR and CoMFA of neonicotinoids and prediction of bioavailability of pesticides in terms of membrane permeability in comparison with drugs are described. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Compared with other alternative fuel vehicles (AFV), LPG vehicles (LPGV) have lower economic and technological barriers, leading to its faster growth in some developing countries in recent years. By means of regulation, Shanghai managed to have nearly all taxis converted to LPGV in the early 2000s, and all taxis and 80% of buses in Guangzhou are LPGV. Nevertheless, LPGV diffusion in China (excluding Hong Kong) has been slow and even showing signs of retreating. By 2008, less than 5% of taxis in Shanghai were LPGV. This paper looks into the problem by comparing the LPGV development of Shanghai, Guangzhou versus that of Hong Kong where the LPGV development seems to be running well. The obstacles of LPGV development in China include a lack of policy coherence between the central and local governments; insufficient price advantage of Autogas; not enough fueling stations; and high maintenance costs due to immature technology and poor quality control. Bi-fuel system has further magnified the problems in China. In order to facilitate the use of alternative fuel, efforts should be made to increase the number of AFVs as well as to ensure the availability and price-competitiveness of the alternative fuel concerned. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Nishida N.,Kyoto University | Goe A.,Baylor University
Current Genomics | Year: 2011

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and the incidence of this fatal disease is still on rise. The majority of HCCs emerge in the background of a chronic liver disease, such as chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The current understanding is that majority of HCCs evolve as a consequence of chronic inflammation and due to the presence of infection with hepatitis viruses. These underlying pathogenic stimuli subsequently induce a spectrum of genetic and epigenetic alterations in several cancer-related genes, which are involved in cell-cycle regulation, cell growth and adhesion. Such widespread genomic alterations cause disruption of normal cellular signaling and finally lead to the acquisition of a malignant phenotype in HCC. In general, the type of gene alterations, such as point mutations, deletion of chromosomal regions and abnormal methylation of gene promoters differ according to the individual targeted gene. In HCC, incidence of genetic alterations is relatively rare and is limited to a subset of few cancer-specific genes, such as the tumor suppressor p53, RB genes and oncogenes such as the CTNNB1. In contrast, epigenetic changes that involve aberrant methylation of genes and other post-transcriptional histone modifications occur far more frequently, and some of these epigenetic alterations are now being exploited for the development of molecular diagnostic signatures for HCC. In addition, recent findings of unique microRNA expression profiles also provide an evidence for the existence of novel mechanisms for gene expression regulation in HCC. In this review article, we will review the current state of knowledge on the activation of various oncogenic pathways and the inactivation of tumor suppressor pathways in HCC that result in the disruption of cancer-related gene function. In addition, we will specifically emphasize the clinical implication of some of these genetic and epigenetic alterations in the management of hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Akiyama H.,Kyoto University | Lefebvre V.,Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2011

Since the discovery of SOX9 mutations in the severe human skeletal malformation syndrome campomelic dysplasia in 1994, Sox9 was shown to be both required and sufficient for chondrocyte specification and differentiation. At the same time, its distant relatives Sox5 and Sox6 were shown to act in redundancy with each other to robustly enhance its functions. The Sox trio is currently best known for its ability to activate the genes for cartilage-specific extracellular matrix components. Sox9 and Sox5/6 homodimerize through domains adjacent to their Sry-related high-mobility-group DNA-binding domain to increase the efficiency of their cooperative binding to chondrocytespecific enhancers. Sox9 possesses a potent transactivation domain and thereby recruits diverse transcriptional coactivators, histone-modifying enzymes, subunits of the mediator complex, and components of the general transcriptional machinery, such as CBP/p300, Med12, Med25, and Wwp2. This information helps us begin to unravel the mechanisms responsible for Sox9-mediated transcription. We review here the discovery of this master chondrogenic trio and its roles in chondrogenesis in vivo and at the molecular level, and we discuss how these pioneering studies open the way for many additional studies that are needed to further increase our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory machinery operating in chondrogenesis. © The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer 2011.

Ujiie K.,University of Tsukuba | Tsutsumi A.,Kyoto University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

We conducted high-velocity friction experiments on clay-rich fault gouge taken from the megasplay fault zone in the Nankai subduction zone under dry and wet conditions. In the dry tests, dehydration of clay minerals occurred by frictional heating, and slip weakening is related to thermal pressurization associated with water vaporization, resulting in a random distribution of clay-clast aggregates in the gouge matrix. In the wet tests, slip weakening is caused by pore-fluid pressurization via shear-enhanced compaction and frictional heating, and there is a very weak dependence of the steady-state shear stress on the normal stress. The resulting microstructure reflects the grain size segregation in a granular-fluid shear flow at high shear rates. These results suggest that earthquake rupture propagates easily through clay-rich fault gouge by high-velocity weakening, potentially leaving the microstructures resulting from the frictional heating or the flow sorting at high slip rates. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

We describe a 65-year-old woman with follicular lymphoma (FL), grade 1, stage IV, which occurred concurrently with B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. Through the evaluation of FL, the cells that were morphologically suspected of having undergone transformation were found in the bone marrow, and flow cytometric and cytogenetic analyses detected the transformed population that suggested concomitant t(8;22) with typical t(14;18) FL cells. Repeated analyses of the lymph nodes demonstrated the typical morphological, phenotypic, and cytogenetic features of FL. The patient received several multiagent chemotherapy regimens, but the disease gradually became resistant, and the patient died of leukemic progression. In B-cell malignancies, cases involving both BCL2 and MYC translocations simultaneously, so-called "double-hit leukemia/lymphoma (DHL)", have occasionally been reported. Patients with this type of translocation have a very poor clinical outcome, and no standard therapy has been established. In our case, FL was supposed to have transformed into B lymphoblastic leukemia via Burkitt's lymphoma-like phase. Our case is unique in that the transformed DHL cells, derived from clonally related FL cells, showed ongoing transformation from Burkitt-like feature to B lymphoblastic leukemia exclusively in the bone marrow, which suggests that the bone marrow may provide a preferable milieu for malignant transformation. Similar cases should be accumulated and analyzed carefully.

Kawai H.,Kyoto University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2013

In quantum gravity or string theory, it is natural to take the topology change of the space into account. We consider the low energy effective action for such case and show that it does not have a simple form of the local action but has a multilocal form. Actually, in quantum gravity or matrix model, there are some mechanisms that the low energy effective action becomes Seff = ∑ici Si + ∑ijc ijSiSj + ∑ijkcijk Si Sj Sk + ⋯, where Si is a local action of the form Si = dxg(x)Oi(x). We further discuss that the topology change of the space naturally leads to the multiverse in which indefinite number of macroscopic universes exist in parallel. In this case, the space-time coordinates x in the multilocal action may sit either in the same universe or in different ones. We then consider the wave function of the entire multiverse, and see how the locality and causality are recovered in such theory. We further discuss the possibility of solving the naturalness problem. In doing so, we need to introduce some assumptions to interpret the multiverse wave function. We consider two different possibilities. One is to simply assume the probabilistic interpretation for the multiverse wave function. The other is to assume infrared cutoff independence of the partition function of the universe. In both cases, we find that the big fix occurs, in which all the coupling constants in the low energy physics are determined by the dynamics of the multiverse. Actually, we find that they are fixed in such a way that the total entropy of the universe at the late stage (in the far future) is maximized. Although the argument here is similar to Coleman's original one given in the late 1980s, our results are based on Lorentzian signature theory and the dynamical mechanism is rather different. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Dasatinib treatment markedly increases the number of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) in a proportion of Ph+ leukemia patients, which associates with a better prognosis. The lymphocytosis is predominantly observed in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive patients, yet detectable CMV reactivation exists only in a small fraction of patients. Thus, etiology of the lymphocytosis still remains unclear. Here, we identified NK cells as the dominant LGLs expanding in dasatinib-treated patients, and applied principal component analysis (PCA) to an extensive panel of NK cell markers to explore underlying factors in NK cell activation. PCA displayed phenotypic divergence of NK cells that reflects CMV-associated differentiation and genetic differences, and the divergence was markedly augmented in CMV-seropositive dasatinib-treated patients. Notably, the CMV-associated highly differentiated status of NK cells was already observed at leukemia diagnosis, and was further enhanced after starting dasatinib in virtually all CMV-seropositive patients. Thus, the extensive characterization of NK cells by PCA strongly suggests that CMV is an essential factor in the NK cell activation, which progresses stepwise during leukemia and subsequent dasatinib treatment most likely by subclinical CMV reactivation. This study provides a rationale for the exploitation of CMV-associated NK cell activation for treatment of leukemias.Leukemia advance online publication, 28 June 2016; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.174. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Hyeon-Deuk K.,Kyoto University | Prezhdo O.V.,University of Rochester
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Multiple exciton generation and recombination (MEG and MER) dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are simulated using ab initio time-dependent density functional theory in combination with nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. The approach differs from other MEG and MER theories because it provides atomistic description, employs time-domain representation, allows for various dynamical regimes, and includes electron-phonon interactions. MEG rapidly accelerates with energy, reflecting strong energy dependence of double exciton (DE) density of states. At early times, MEG is Gaussian rather than exponential. Exponential dynamics, assumed in rate theories, starts at a later time and becomes more important in larger QDs. Phonon-assisted MEG is observed at energies below the purely electronic threshold, particularly in the presence of high-frequency ligand vibrations. Coupling to phonons is essential for MER since higher-energy DEs must relax to recombine into single excitons (SEs), and SEs formed during MERs must lose some of their energy to avoid recreating DEs. MER simulated starting from a DE is significantly slower than MER involving an optical excitation of a SE, followed by MEG and then MER. The latter time scale agrees with experiment, emphasizing the importance of quantum-mechanical superpositions of many DEs for efficient MER. The detailed description of the interplay between MEG and MER coupled to phonons provides important insights into the excited state dynamics of semiconductor QDs and nanoscale materials in general. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Yuge K.,Kyoto University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We demonstrate the applicability of an extended cluster expansion (CE) technique, variable-lattice CE (VLCE), enabling configurational energetics on multiple lattices to be modeled. For application in real systems, the general conditions of determining interactions in VLCE is derived. As an example, VLCE was applied to a boron nitride (BN) binary system on two-dimensional lattices. VLCE successfully predicted the energy of structures, not only on lattices that are used to obtain interactions, but also of structures on those not used to obtain interactions. VLCE reasonably predicts the stable structure of BN on a honeycomb lattice from information about other lattices. These facts indicate that VLCE opens the door to effectively searching for stable as well as metastable structures on multiple lattices for unknown given systems, which has not been achieved by the current CE. © 2012 American Physical Society.

duVerle D.,Kyoto University
Genome informatics. International Conference on Genome Informatics | Year: 2010

While the importance of modulatory proteolysis in research has steadily increased, knowledge on this process has remained largely disorganized, with the nature and role of entities composing modulatory proteolysis still uncertain. We built CaMPDB, a resource on modulatory proteolysis, with a focus on calpain, a well-studied intracellular protease which regulates substrate functions by proteolytic processing. CaMPDB contains sequences of calpains, substrates and inhibitors as well as substrate cleavage sites, collected from the literature. Some cleavage efficiencies were evaluated by biochemical experiments and a cleavage site prediction tool is provided to assist biologists in understanding calpain-mediated cellular processes. CaMPDB is freely accessible at http://calpain.org.

Nakata K.,Kyoto University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2012

We theoretically propose quantum spin pumping mediated by magnons, under a time-dependent transverse magnetic field, at the interface between a ferromagnetic insulator and a non-magnetic metal. The generation of a spin current under a thermal equilibrium condition is discussed by calculating the spin relaxation torque which breaks the spin conservation law for conduction electrons, and the torque operates the coherent magnon state. Localized spins lose spin angular momentum by emitting magnons and conduction electrons flip from down to up by absorbing the momentum. The spin relaxation torque has a resonance structure as a function of the angular frequency of the applied transverse field. This fact is useful to enhance the spin pumping effect induced by quantum fluctuations. We also discuss the distinction between our quantum spin pumping theory and the one proposed by Tserkovnyak et al. © 2012 The Physical Society of Japan.

Suzuki M.,Kyoto University
Journal of Nanophotonics | Year: 2013

Even prior to the recent advent of advanced top-down processes, shadowing growth by oblique angle deposition (OAD) has long been providing self-assembled nanostructures over much larger areas for much lower costs. In the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the development of well-controlled three-dimensional nanomorphologies such as zigzags and helixes. Much effort has been put into theoretical and numerical understanding of the growth mechanism to improve morphology. Many researchers in academia have been investigating useful properties of nanocolumnar thin films in their laboratories. However, most companies seem hesitant to introduce OAD techniques into the factory, owing to the prejudice that the OAD thin films are neither durable nor reproducible. The progress in OAD technology for practical applications is reviewed and discussed. © 2013 The Authors.

Peterson M.,Kyoto University
ReCALL | Year: 2012

This paper reports on the task-based interaction of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in the 3D multiuser virtual environment (MUVE) Second Life. The discussion first explores research on the precursors of MUVEs, text-based 2D virtual worlds known as MOOs. This is followed by an examination of studies on the use of MUVEs in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). The discussion then focuses on an investigation of the Second Life-based text chat of learners located at a university in Japan. Data analysis reveals that the environment, and tasks, elicited types of collaborative interaction hypothesized as beneficial in the sociocultural account of language development. Collaborative interaction identified in the data involved peer-scaffolding focusing on lexis, and correction. The data further showed that the participants actively maintained a supportive atmosphere through the provision of utterances designed to signal interest, and the extensive use of positive politeness. These factors facilitated social cohesion, intersubjectivity, and the consistent production of coherent target language output focused on the tasks. Participant feedback was broadly positive, and indicates that specific features of Second Life such as individual avatars, coupled to the computer-based nature of the interaction, appeared to enhance discourse management, engagement, and participation. The findings suggest that Second Life provides an arena for learner centered social interaction that offers valuable opportunities for target language practice, and the development of autonomy. Areas of potential for future research are identified. © 2012 European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning.

Nagayama H.,Kyoto University
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

This study analyses original panel data from 86 countries between 1985 and 2006. Econometric methods were used to identify the effects of different policy devices of power sector reforms on performance indicators (installed capacity per capita, transmission and distribution loss) in the countries analyzed. The research findings suggest that reform variables such as the entry of independent power producers (IPPs), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of regulatory agencies, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market are the driving forces of increasing generation capacity, as well as reducing transmission and distribution loss in the respective regions. In this study, we can assume that, firstly, different electric industry's reform policies/measures have different impacts on geographically and economically diverse countries. Secondly, a country's state of economic development has a different impact on policy effects of reforms. Thirdly, coexistent with independent regulatory agencies, reform policy becomes more powerful in realizing sector performances. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ueno K.,Kyoto University
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2012

We introduce a new technique proving formula size lower bounds based on the linear programming bound originally introduced by Karchmer, Kushilevitz and Nisan and the theory of stable set polytopes. We apply it to majority functions and prove their formula size lower bounds improved from the classical result of Khrapchenko. Moreover, we introduce a notion of unbalanced recursive ternary majority functions motivated by a decomposition theory of monotone self-dual functions and give matching upper and lower bounds of their formula size. We also show monotone formula size lower bounds of balanced recursive ternary majority functions improved from the quantum adversary bound of Laplante, Lee and Szegedy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ito H.,Kyoto University
Current Osteoporosis Reports | Year: 2014

Osteoporosis-related fractures may severely limit activities of daily living and may require bed rest, which may become life threatening in elderly people. Osteoporosis has attracted much attention recently because of its severe effects on the daily activities of older people and because it is now treatable, thanks to recent advances in drug discovery. However, these medications have yet to reduce fully the number of fracture cases. On the other hand, declines in the number and function of osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow and within the periosteum lead to reduced osteogenesis and bone formation. Thus, bone regeneration, through induction of MSCs, provides a rational therapeutic strategy for preventing or treating age-related osteoporosis. In this review, I summarize cell-related issues in osteoporosis, stem cell candidates for cell-based therapy, and possible therapeutic strategies for osteoporosis. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.

Ichikawa T.,Kyoto University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

Background: At extremely low incident energies, unexpected decreases in fusion cross sections, compared to the standard coupled-channels (CC) calculations, have been observed in a wide range of fusion reactions. These significant reductions of the fusion cross sections are often referred to as the fusion hindrance. However, the physical origin of the fusion hindrance is still unclear. Purpose: To describe the fusion hindrance based on an adiabatic approach, I propose a novel extension of the standard CC model by introducing a damping factor that describes a smooth transition from sudden to adiabatic processes, that is, the transition from the separated two-body to the united dinuclear system. I demonstrate the performance of this model by systematically investigating various deep sub-barrier fusion reactions. Method: I extend the standard CC model by introducing a damping factor into the coupling matrix elements in the standard CC model. This avoids double counting of the CC effects, when two colliding nuclei overlap one another. I adopt the Yukawa-plus-exponential (YPE) model as a basic heavy ion-ion potential, which is advantageous for a unified description of the one- and two-body potentials. For the purpose of these systematic investigations, I approximate the one-body potential with a third-order polynomial function based on the YPE model. Results: Calculated fusion cross sections for the medium-heavy mass systems of Ni64+Ni64, Ni58+Ni58, and Ni58+Fe54, the medium-light mass systems of Ca40+Ca40, Ca48+Ca48, and Mg24+Si30, and the mass-asymmetric systems of Ca48+Zr96 and O16+Pb208 are consistent with the experimental data. The astrophysical S factor and logarithmic derivative representations of these are also in good agreement with the experimental data. The values obtained for the individual radius and diffuseness parameters in the damping factor, which reproduce the fusion cross sections well, are nearly equal to the average value for all the systems. Conclusions: Since the results calculated with the damping factor are in excellent agreement with the experimental data in all systems, I conclude that a coordinate-dependent coupling strength is responsible for the fusion hindrance. In all systems, the potential energies at the touching point VTouch strongly correlate with the incident threshold energies for which the fusion hindrance starts to emerge, except for the medium-light mass systems. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Minami Y.,Chuo University | Yoshiyasu H.,Chuo University | Nakao Y.,Kyoto University | Hiyama T.,Chuo University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Selective C-C bond cleavage: A catalyst consisting of nickel(0)/DPEphos and BPh3 is highly effective for the addition of polyfluorobenzonitriles to alkynes through selective activation of the C-CN bond over the C-H or C-F bonds. The addition reaction is applicable to the sequential insertion of two different alkynes into C-CN and C-H bonds (see scheme). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Okano T.,Kyoto University
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a common clinical condition resulting from dysfunction in one or more parts in the auditory pathway between the inner ear and auditory cortex. Despite the prevalence of SNHL, little is known about its etiopathology, although several mechanisms have been postulated including ischemia, viral infection or reactivation, and microtrauma. Immunemediated inner ear disease has been introduced and accepted as one SNHL pathophysiology; it responds to immunosuppressive therapy and is one of the few reversible forms of bilateral SNHL. The concept of immune-mediated inner ear disease is straightforward and comprehensible, but criteria for clinical diagnosis and the precise mechanism of hearing loss have not been determined. Moreover, the therapeutic mechanisms of corticosteroids are unclear, leading to several misconceptions by both clinicians and investigators concerning corticosteroid therapy. This review addresses our current understanding of the immune system in the inner ear and its involvement in the pathophysiology in SNHL. Treatment of SNHL, including immunemediated inner ear disorder, will be discussed with a focus on the immune mechanism and immunocompetent cells as therapeutic targets. Finally, possible interventions modulating the immune system in the inner ear to repair the tissue organization and improve hearing in patients with SNHL will be discussed. Tissue macrophages in the inner ear appear to be a potential target for modulating the immune response in the inner ear in the pathophysiology of SNHL. © 2014 Okano.

Kondo S.,Osaka University | Miura T.,Kyoto University
Science | Year: 2010

The Turing, or reaction-diffusion (RD), model is one of the best-known theoretical models used to explain self-regulated pattern formation in the developing animal embryo. Although its real-world relevance was long debated, a number of compelling examples have gradually alleviated much of the skepticism surrounding the model. The RD model can generate a wide variety of spatial patterns, and mathematical studies have revealed the kinds of interactions required for each, giving this model the potential for application as an experimental working hypothesis in a wide variety of morphological phenomena. In this review, we describe the essence of this theory for experimental biologists unfamiliar with the model, using examples from experimental studies in which the RD model is effectively incorporated.

Shizuya K.,Kyoto University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

In a magnetic field, bilayer graphene supports an octet of zero-energy Landau levels with an extra twofold degeneracy in Landau orbitals n=0 and 1. It is shown that this orbital degeneracy is lifted due to Coulombic quantum fluctuations of the valence band (the Dirac sea); this is a quantum effect analogous to the Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom. A detailed study is made of how these zero-energy levels evolve, with filling, into a variety of pseudo-zero-mode Landau levels in the presence of possible spin and valley breaking and Coulomb interactions, and a comparison is made with experimental results. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Shitan N.,Kobe Pharmaceutical University | Yazaki K.,Kyoto University
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The vacuole is the largest compartment in plant cells, often occupying more than 80% of the total cell volume. This organelle accumulates a large variety of endogenous ions, metabolites, and xenobiotics. The compartmentation of divergent substances is relevant for a wide range of biological processes, such as the regulation of stomata movement, defense mechanisms against herbivores, flower coloration, etc. Progress in molecular and cellular biology has revealed that a large number of transporters and channels exist at the tonoplast. In recent years, various biochemical and physiological functions of these proteins have been characterized in detail. Some are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of ions and metabolites, whereas others are related to defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. In this review, we provide an updated inventory of vacuolar transport mechanisms and a comprehensive summary of their physiological functions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Matsumoto T.,Nagoya University | Yoshida K.,Kyoto University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: We further study integrable deformations of the AdS5×S5 superstring by following the Yang-Baxter sigma model approach with classical r-matrices satisfying the classical Yang-Baxter equation (CYBE). Deformed string backgrounds specified by r-matrices are considered as solutions of type IIB supergravity, and therefore the relation between gravitational solutions and r-matrices may be called the gravity/CYBE correspondence. In this paper, we present a family of string backgrounds associated with a classical r-matrices carrying two parameters and its three-parameter generalization. The two-parameter case leads to the metric and NS-NS two-form of a solution found by Hubeny-Rangamani-Ross [hep-th/0504034] and another solution in [arXiv:1402.6147]. For all of the backgrounds associated with the three-parameter case, the metric and NS-NS two-form are reproduced by performing TsT transformations and S-dualities for the undeformed AdS5 × S5 background. As a result, one can anticipate the R-R sector that should be reproduced via a supercoset construction. © 2015, The Author(s).

Kanada-En'Yo Y.,Kyoto University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

I investigate entanglement entropy of one-dimensional (1D) cluster states to discuss the delocalization of clusters in linear-chain 3α- and 4α-cluster states. In analysis of entanglement entropy of 1D Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke (THSR) and Brink-Bloch cluster wave functions, I show clear differences in the entanglement entropy between localized cluster wave functions and delocalized cluster wave functions. To clarify spatial regions where the entanglement entropy is generated by the delocalization of clusters, I analyze the spatial distribution of entanglement entropy. In the linear-chain 3α-cluster state, the delocalization occurs dominantly in a low-density tail region while it is relatively suppressed in an inner region because of the Pauli blocking effect between clusters. In the linear-chain 4α state having a larger system size than the linear-chain 3α state, the delocalization occurs in the whole system. The entanglement entropy is found to be a measure of the delocalization of clusters in the 1D cluster systems. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Kanada-En'Yo Y.,Kyoto University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

I investigate the neutron number (N) dependence of root-mean-square radii of point proton distribution (proton radii) of Be, B, and C isotopes with the theoretical method of variation after spin-parity projection in the framework of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). The proton radii in Be and B isotopes changes rapidly as N increases, reflecting the cluster structure change along the isotope chains, whereas those in C isotopes show a weak N dependence because of the stable proton structure in nuclei with Z=6. In neutron-rich Be and B isotopes, the proton radii are remarkably increased by the enhancement of the two-center cluster structure in the prolately deformed neutron structure. I compare the N dependence of the calculated proton radii with the experimental ones reduced from the charge radii determined by isotope shift and those deduced from the charge changing interaction cross section. It is found that the N dependence of proton radii can be a probe to clarify enhancement and weakening of cluster structures. © 2015 American Physical Society.

The ground state of an S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, which is an effective model of Mott insulators on a triangular layer of organic charge transfer salts or Cs 2CuCl 4, is numerically studied. We apply a numerical variational method by using a tensor network with entanglement renormalization, which improves the capability of describing a quantum state. Magnetic ground states are identified for 0.7≤J 2/J 1≤1 in the thermodynamic limit, where J 1 and J 2 denote the innerchain and interchain coupling constants, respectively. Except for the isotropic case (J 1=J 2), the magnetic structure is spiral with an incommensurate wave vector that is different from the classical one. The quantum fluctuation weakens the effective coupling between chains, but the magnetic order remains in the thermodynamic limit. In addition, the incommensurate wave number is in good agreement with that of the series expansion method. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Terashima S.,Kyoto University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: In this note we show that the gaugino condensation of 4d N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories in the confining phase can be computed by the localization technique with an appropriate choice of a supersymmetry generator. © 2015, The Author(s).

Shibasaki H.,Kyoto University
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2012

Recent advance in non-invasive techniques including electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging has enabled investigation of control mechanism of voluntary movements and pathophysiology of involuntary movements in human. Epicortical recording with subdural electrodes in epilepsy patients complemented the findings obtained by the non-invasive techniques. Before self-initiated simple movement, activation occurs first in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and SMA proper bilaterally with some somatotopic organisation, and the lateral premotor area (PMA) and primary motor cortex (M1) mainly contralateral to the movement with precise somatotopic organisation. Functional connectivity among cortical areas has been disclosed by cortico-cortical coherence, cortico-cortical evoked potential, and functional MRI. Cortical activities associated with involuntary movements have been studied by jerk-locked back averaging and cortico-muscular coherence. Application of transcranial magnetic stimulation helped clarifying the state of excitability and inhibition in M1. The sensorimotor cortex (S1-M1) was shown to play an important role in generation of cortical myoclonus, essential tremor, Parkinson tremor and focal dystonia. Cortical myoclonus is actively driven by S1-M1 while essential tremor and Parkinson tremor are mediated by S1-M1. 'Negative motor areas' at PMA and pre-SMA and 'inhibitory motor areas' at peri-rolandic cortex might be involved in the control of voluntary movement and generation of negative involuntary movements, respectively. © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Noma H.,Kyoto University
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2011

In medical meta-analysis, the DerSimonian-Laird confidence interval for the average treatment effect has been widely adopted in practice. However, it is well known that its coverage probability (the probability that the interval actually includes the true value) can be substantially below the target level. One particular reason is that the validity of the confidence interval depends on the assumption that the number of synthesized studies is sufficiently large. In typical medical meta-analyses, the number of studies is fewer than 20. In this article, we developed three confidence intervals for improving coverage properties, based on (i) the Bartlett corrected likelihood ratio statistic, (ii) the efficient score statistic, and (iii) the Bartlett-type adjusted efficient score statistic. The Bartlett and Bartlett-type corrections improve the large sample approximations for the likelihood ratio and efficient score statistics. Through numerical evaluations by simulations, these confidence intervals demonstrated better coverage properties than the existing methods. In particular, with a moderate number of synthesized studies, the Bartlett and Bartlett-type corrected confidence intervals performed well. An application to a meta-analysis of the treatment for myocardial infarction with intravenous magnesium is presented. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Matsumoto T.,Nagoya University | Yoshida K.,Kyoto University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: We present further examples of the correspondence between deformed AdS5×S5 solutions of type IIB supergravity and classical r-matrices satisfying the classical YangBaxter equation (CYBE). In the previous works, classical r-matrices have been composed of generators of only one of either so(2, 4) or so(6). In this paper, we consider some examples of r-matrices with both of them. The r-matrices of this kind contain (generalized) Schrödinger spacetimes and gravity duals of dipole theories. It is known that the generalized Schrödinger spacetimes can also be obtained via a certain class of TsT transformations called null Melvin twists. The metric and NS-NS two-form are reproduced by following the Yang-Baxter sigma-model description. © 2015, The Author(s).

Strong correlations between electrons, spins and lattices—stemming from strong hybridization between transition metal d and oxygen p orbitals—are responsible for the functional properties of transition metal oxides. Artificial oxide heterostructures with chemically abrupt interfaces provide a platform for engineering bonding geometries that lead to emergent phenomena. Here we demonstrate the control of the oxygen coordination environment of the perovskite, SrRuO3, by heterostructuring it with Ca0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (0–4 monolayers thick) grown on a GdScO3 substrate. We found that a Ru–O–Ti bond angle of the SrRuO3 /Ca0.5Sr0.5TiO3 interface can be engineered by layer-by-layer control of the Ca0.5Sr0.5TiO3 layer thickness, and that the engineered Ru–O–Ti bond angle not only stabilizes a Ru–O–Ru bond angle never seen in bulk SrRuO3, but also tunes the magnetic anisotropy in the entire SrRuO3 layer. The results demonstrate that interface engineering of the oxygen coordination environment allows one to control additional degrees of freedom in functional oxide heterostructures. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group

Moriyama S.,Nagoya University | Nosaka T.,Kyoto University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

It was known that the ABJM matrix model is dual to the topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau manifold. Using this relation it was possible to write down the exact instanton expansion of the partition function of the ABJM matrix model. The expression consists of a universal function constructed from the free energy of the refined topological string theory with an overall topological invariant characterizing the CalabiYau manifold. In this paper we explore two other superconformal Chern-Simons theories of the circular quiver type. We find that the partition function of one theory enjoys the same expression from the refined topological string theory as the ABJM matrix model with different topological invariants while that of the other is more general. We also observe an unexpected relation between these two theories.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, The Author(s).

Tanaka M.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Hotokezaka K.,Kyoto University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

Mergers of binary neutron stars (NSs) are among the most promising gravitational wave (GW) sources. Next generation GW detectors are expected to detect signals from NS mergers within about 200 Mpc. The detection of electromagnetic wave (EM) counterparts is crucial to understanding the nature of GW sources. Among the possible EM emission from the NS merger, emission powered by radioactive r-process nuclei is one of the best targets for follow-up observations. However, predictions so far have not taken into account detailed r-process element abundances in the ejecta. We perform for the first time radiative transfer simulations of the NS merger ejecta including all the r-process elements from Ga to U. We show that the opacity of the NS merger ejecta is about κ = 10 cm2 g-1, which is higher than that of Fe-rich Type Ia supernova ejecta by a factor of ∼100. As a result, the emission is fainter and lasts longer than previously expected. The spectra are almost featureless due to the high expansion velocity and bound-bound transitions of many different r-process elements. We demonstrate that the emission is brighter for a higher mass ratio of the two NSs and a softer equation of state adopted in the merger simulations. Because of the red color of the emission, follow-up observations in red optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths will be the most efficient. At 200 Mpc, the expected brightness of the emission is i = 22-25 AB mag, z = 21-23 AB mag, and 21-24 AB mag in the NIR JHK bands. Thus, observations with wide-field 4 m- and 8 m-class optical telescopes and wide-field NIR space telescopes are necessary. We also argue that the emission powered by radioactive energy can be detected in the afterglow of nearby short gamma-ray bursts. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

The ontogeny of swimming speed, schooling behaviour and jellyfish avoidance was studied in hatchery-reared Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus to compare its life-history strategy with two other common pelagic fishes, jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Cruise swimming speed of E. japonicus increased allometrically from 1·4 to 3·9 standard length (LS) per s (LS s-1) from early larval to metamorphosing stage. Burst swimming speed also increased from 6·1 to 28 LS s-1 in these stages. Cruise speed was inferior to that of S. japonicus, as was burst speed to that of T. japonicus. Engraulis japonicus larvae were highly vulnerable to predation by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and were readily eaten until they reached 23 mm LS, but not at 26 mm LS. Schooling behaviour (indicated by parallel swimming) started at c. 17 mm LS. Average distance to the nearest neighbour was shorter than values reported in other pelagic fishes. The relatively low predator avoidance capability of E. japonicus may be compensated for by their transparent and thus less conspicuous body, in addition to their early maturation and high fecundity. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Lites B.W.,High Altitude Observatory | Ichimoto K.,Kyoto University
Solar Physics | Year: 2013

The Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter (SP) is the first space-borne precision spectro-polarimeter for the study of solar phenomena. It is primarily intended for measuring the solar photospheric vector magnetic field at high spatial and spectral resolution. This objective requires that the data are calibrated and conditioned to a high degree of precision. We describe how the calibration package SP_PREP for the SP operates. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hillier A.,Kyoto University | Van Ballegooijen A.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

The dense prominence material is believed to be supported against gravity through the magnetic tension of dipped coronal magnetic field. For quiescent prominences, which exhibit many gravity-driven flows, hydrodynamic forces are likely to play an important role in the determination of both the large- and small-scale magnetic field distributions. In this study, we present the first steps toward creating a three-dimensional magneto-hydrostatic prominence model where the prominence is formed in the dips of a coronal flux tube. Here 2.5D equilibria are created by adding mass to an initially force-free magnetic field, then performing a secondary magnetohydrodynamic relaxation. Two inverse polarity magnetic field configurations are studied in detail, a simple o-point configuration with a ratio of the horizontal field (Bx) to the axial field (By) of 1:2 and a more complex model that also has an x-point with a ratio of 1:11. The models show that support against gravity is either by total pressure or tension, with only tension support resembling observed quiescent prominences. The o-point of the coronal flux tube was pulled down by the prominence material, leading to compression of the magnetic field at the base of the prominence. Therefore, tension support comes from the small curvature of the compressed magnetic field at the bottom and the larger curvature of the stretched magnetic field at the top of the prominence. It was found that this method does not guarantee convergence to a prominence-like equilibrium in the case where an x-point exists below the prominence flux tube. The results imply that a plasma β of ∼0.1 is necessary to support prominences through magnetic tension. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Few proteomic studies have examined human cardiac tissue following acute lethal infarction. Here, we applied a novel proteomic approach to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissue and aimed to reveal the molecular changes in the very early phase of acute myocardial infarction. Heart tissue samples were collected from 5 patients who died within 7 hours of myocardial infarction and from 5 age- and sex-matched control cases. Infarcted and control myocardia were histopathologically diagnosed and captured using laser microdissection. Proteins were extracted using an originally established method and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The label-free quantification demonstrated that the levels of 21 proteins differed significantly between patients and controls. In addition to known biomarkers, the sarcoplasmic protein sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 2 (SORBS2) was greatly reduced in infarcted myocardia. Immunohistochemical analysis of cardiac tissues confirmed the decrease, and Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in serum sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 2 in acute myocardial infarction patients (n=10) compared with control cases (n=11). Our advanced comprehensive analysis using patient tissues and serums indicated that sarcoplasmic sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 2 is released from damaged cardiac tissue into the bloodstream upon lethal acute myocardial infarction. The proteomic strategy presented here is based on precise microscopic findings and is quite useful for candidate biomarker discovery using human tissue samples stored in depositories.

Takiwaki T.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Kotake K.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Suwa Y.,Kyoto University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We present numerical results on three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic core-collapse simulations of an 11.2 M ⊙ star. By comparing one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) results with those of 3D, we study how the increasing spacial multi-dimensionality affects the postbounce supernova dynamics. The calculations were performed with an energy-dependent treatment of the neutrino transport that is solved by the isotropic diffusion source approximation scheme. In agreement with previous study, our 1D model does not produce explosions for the 11.2M ⊙ star, while the neutrino-driven revival of the stalled bounce shock is obtained in both the 2D and 3D models. The standing accretion-shock instability (SASI) is observed in the 3D models, in which the dominant mode of the SASI is bipolar (ℓ = 2) with its saturation amplitudes being slightly smaller than 2D. By performing a tracer-particle analysis, we show that the maximum residency time of material in the gain region becomes longer in 3D than in 2D due to non-axisymmetric flow motions, which is one of advantageous aspects of 3D models to obtain neutrino-driven explosions. Our results show that convective matter motions below the gain radius become much more violent in 3D than in 2D, making the neutrino luminosity larger for 3D. Nevertheless, the emitted neutrino energies are made smaller due to the enhanced cooling. Our results indicate whether these advantages for driving 3D explosions could or could not overwhelm the disadvantages is sensitive to the employed numerical resolutions. An encouraging finding is that the shock expansion tends to become more energetic for models with finer resolutions. To draw a robust conclusion, 3D simulations with much higher numerical resolutions and with more advanced treatment of neutrino transport and of gravity are needed, which could be practicable by utilizing forthcoming Petaflops-class supercomputers. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Kanehisa M.,Kyoto University
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

KEGG (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) is an integrated database resource for linking genomes or molecular datasets to molecular networks (pathways, etc.) representing higher-level systemic functions of the cell, the organism, and the ecosystem. Major efforts have been undertaken for capturing and representing experimental knowledge as manually drawn KEGG pathway maps and for genome-based generalization of experimental knowledge through the KEGG Orthology (KO) system. Current knowledge on diseases and drugs has also been integrated in the KEGG pathway maps, especially in terms of known disease genes and drug targets. Thus, KEGG can be used as a reference knowledge base for integration and interpretation of large-scale datasets generated by high-throughput experimental technologies, as well for finding their practical values. Here we give an introduction to the KEGG Mapper tools, especially for understanding disease mechanisms and adverse drug interactions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

ATP synthases are molecular motors, which synthesize ATP, the ubiquitous energy source in all living cells. They use an electrochemical gradient to drive a rotation in the membrane embedded Fo domain, namely the c-ring, causing a conformational change in the soluble F1 domain which leads to the catalytic event. In the opposite fashion, they can also hydrolyse ATP to maintain the ion gradient across the membrane. To prevent wasteful ATP hydrolysis, bacteria and mammals have developed peculiar mechanistic features in addition to a common one, namely MgADP inhibition. Here I discuss the distinct ATPase inhibition mechanism in mitochondrial (IF1) and bacterial (subunits ε and ζ) F-type ATP synthases, based on available structural, biophysical and biochemical data. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kitamura A.,Kyoto University
Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2012

Rats subjected to bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion or 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) have been used as animal models of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia. However, this model possesses an inherent limitation in that cerebral blood flow (CBF) drops too sharply and substantially after ligation of CCAs. To circumvent such hypoxic-ischemic conditions, we tested implantation of the ameroid constrictor device on bilateral CCAs of male Wistar-Kyoto rats and more precisely replicated chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by gradual narrowing of the CCAs (2-vessel gradual occlusion; 2VGO). The acute cerebral blood flow reduction and resultant inflammatory responses observed in the 2VO rats were eliminated in the 2VGO rats. Thus, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was segregated, and induced selective white matter changes with relatively preserved neurovascular coupling and substantially less metabolic and histological derangements in the gray matter including the hippocampus. This led to significant spatial working memory impairment of a magnitude similar to the 2VO rats at 28 days postoperation. The 2VGO model may more closely mimic cognitive impairment subsequent to selective white matter damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Yagi K.,Montana State University | Yunes N.,Montana State University | Tanaka T.,Kyoto University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Dynamical Chern-Simons gravity cannot be strongly constrained with current experiments because it reduces to general relativity in the weak-field limit. This theory, however, introduces modifications in the nonlinear, dynamical regime, and thus it could be greatly constrained with gravitational waves from the late inspiral of black-hole binaries. We complete the first self-consistent calculation of such gravitational waves in this theory. For favorable spin orientations, advanced ground-based detectors may improve existing solar system constraints by 6 orders of magnitude. © 2012 American Physical Society.

When a nematic liquid crystal is confined in a porous medium with strong anchoring conditions, topological defects, called disclinations, are stably formed with numerous possible configurations. Since the energy barriers between them are large enough, the system shows multistability. Our lattice Boltzmann simulations demonstrate dynamic couplings between the multistable defect pattern and the flow in a regular porous matrix. At sufficiently low flow speed, the topological defects are pinned at the quiescent positions. As the flow speed is increased, the defects show cyclic motions and nonlinear rheological properties, which depend on whether or not they are topologically constrained in the porous networks. In addition, we discover that the defect pattern can be controlled by controlling the flow. Thus, the flow path is recorded in the porous channels owing to the multistability of the defect patterns. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Sotani H.,Kyoto University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We consider the slowly rotating relativistic stars with a uniform angular velocity in scalar-tensor gravity, and examine the rotational effect around such compact objects. For this purpose, we derive a second order differential equation describing the frame dragging in scalar-tensor gravity and solve it numerically. As a result, we find that the total angular momentum is proportional to the angular velocity even in scalar-tensor gravity. We also show that one can observe the spontaneous scalarization in rotational effects as well as the other stellar properties, if the cosmological value of the scalar field is zero. On the other hand, if the cosmological value of the scalar field is nonzero, the deviation from general relativity can be seen in a wide range of coupling constants. Additionally, we find that, independently of the cosmological value of the scalar field, the deviation from general relativity becomes larger with more massive stellar models. Thus, via precise observations of astronomical phenomena associated with rotating relativistic stars, one may probe not only the gravitational theory in the strong-field regime, but also the existence of a scalar field. © 2012 American Physical Society.

We find novel phase transitions and critical phenomena that occur only outside the linear-response regime of current-driven nonequilibrium states. We consider the strongly interacting (3+1)-dimensional N=4 large-N c SU(N c) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a single flavor of fundamental N=2 hypermultiplet as a microscopic theory. We compute its nonlinear nonballistic quark-charge conductivity by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We find that the system exhibits a novel nonequilibrium first-order phase transition where the conductivity jumps and the sign of the differential conductivity flips at finite current density. A nonequilibrium critical point is discovered at the end point of the first-order regime. We propose a nonequilibrium steady-state analogue of thermodynamic potential in terms of the gravity-dual theory in order to define the transition point. Nonequilibrium analogues of critical exponents are proposed as well. The critical behavior of the conductivity is numerically confirmed on the basis of these proposals. The present work provides a new example of nonequilibrium phase transitions and nonequilibrium critical points. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Motohashi H.,University of Tokyo | Nishizawa A.,Kyoto University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The reheating dynamics after the inflation induced by the R2-corrected f(R) model is considered. To avoid the complexity of solving the fourth order equations, we analyze the inflationary and reheating dynamics in the Einstein frame and its analytical solutions are derived. We also perform numerical calculations including the backreaction from the particle creation and compare the results with the analytical solutions. Based on the results, observational constraints on the model are discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Seto N.,Kyoto University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

One component of a massive black hole binary might capture a small third body, and then a hierarchical, inclined triple system would be formed. With the post-Newtonian approximation including radiation reaction, we analyzed the evolution of the triple initially with small eccentricities. We found that an essentially new resonant relation could arise in the triple system. Here relativistic effects are crucial. Relativistic resonances, including the new one, stably work even for an outer massive black hole binary of comparable masses, and significantly change the orbit of the inner small body. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Minamitsuji M.,Kyoto University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In this paper, we present the higher order spectra of a scalar field produced through the higher derivative interactions in the initially anisotropic universe. Although we ignore the backreaction of the scalar field on the geometry, our analysis should have much overlap with the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton field in the anisotropic universe. We also include the planar modes whose momenta are along the plane which is perpendicular to the primordial preferred direction, for which effects of the initial anisotropy are not suppressed. The presence of a negative frequency mode produces features distinguishable from the case of the de Sitter inflation. We also show that richer features appear in the trispectra due to the primordial anisotropy. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Kobayashi T.,Kyoto University
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2011

The lipase-catalyzed reaction is useful to obtain sugar esters with chemically defined structures and will contribute to the synthesis of sugar-based compounds by a chemo-enzymatic pathway. The synthesis of sugar esters in nonaqueous media has been attempted for a quarter century. To facilitate the reactions, they have been performed either in an organic solvent with/without a polar adjuvant or in an ionic liquid, or by using a hydrophobic sugar derivative. In this review, the following points are discussed: (1) various synthetic methods of sugar esters; (2) role of the solvents or adjuvants; and (3) improvement in the productivity. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kambe N.,Osaka University | Iwasaki T.,Osaka University | Terao J.,Kyoto University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Cross-coupling reactions have become indispensable tools for creating carbon-carbon (or heteroatom) bonds in organic synthesis. Like in other important transition metal catalyzed reactions, such as metathesis, addition, and polymerization, unsaturated compounds are usually employed as substrates for cross-coupling reactions. However during the past decade, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the use of alkyl halides as saturated compounds in cross-coupling reactions, which has resulted in significant progress in this undeveloped area by introducing new effective ligands. Many useful catalytic systems are now available for synthetic transformations based on Csp 3-Csp3, Csp3-Csp2 and Csp 3-Csp bond formation as complementary methods to conventional Csp2-Csp2, Csp2-Csp and Csp-Csp coupling. This tutorial review summarizes recent advances in cross-coupling reactions of alkyl halides and pseudohalides catalyzed by a palladium complex. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Matsuzaki K.,Kyoto University
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2011

It is widely accepted that the conversion of the soluble, nontoxic amyloid β-protein (Aβ) monomer to aggregated toxic Aβ rich in β-sheet structures is central to the development of Alzheimers disease. However, the mechanism of the abnormal aggregation of Aβ in vivo is not well understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that lipid rafts (microdomains) in membranes mainly composed of sphingolipids (gangliosides and sphingomyelin) and cholesterol play a pivotal role in this process. This paper summarizes the molecular mechanisms by which Aβ aggregates on membranes containing ganglioside clusters, forming amyloid fibrils. Notably, the toxicity and physicochemical properties of the fibrils are different from those of Aβ amyloids formed in solution. Furthermore, differences between Aβ-(140) and Aβ-(142) in membrane interaction and amyloidogenesis are also emphasized. Copyright 2011 Katsumi Matsuzaki.

Epigenetic regulation of the nuclear estrogen and androgen receptors, ER and AR, constitutes the molecular basis for the long-lasting effects of sex steroids on gene expression in cells. The effects prevail at hundreds of gene loci in the proximity of estrogen- and androgen-responsive elements and many more such loci through intra- and even inter-chromosomal level regulation. Such a memory system should be active in a flexible manner during the early development of vertebrates, and later replaced to establish more stable marks on genomic DNA. In mammals, DNA methylation is utilized as a very stable mark for silencing of the ER α and AR isoform expression during cancer cell and normal brain development. The factors affecting the DNA methylation of the ER α and AR genes in cells include estrogen and androgen. Since testosterone induces brain masculinization through its aromatization to estradiol in a narrow time window of the perinatal stage in rodents, the autoregulation of estrogen receptors, especially the predominant form of ER α, at the level of DNA methylation to set up the "cell memory" affecting the sexually differentiated status of brain function has been attracting increasing attention. The alternative usage of the androgen-AR system for brain masculinization and estrogenic regulation of AR expression in some species imply that the DNA methylation pattern of the AR gene can be established by closely related but different systems for sex steroid-induced phenomena, including brain masculinization. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Mark Taketo M.,Kyoto University
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2011

Most patients with a lethal cancer die of metastasis, the control of which deserves to be one of the most urgent missions of cancer treatment. For some subsets of colorectal cancer, metastasis is stimulated by chemokines or Notch signaling at early stages that coincide with the inflammatory phase of postoperative wound healing. This temporary phase may provide a unique opportunity for "metastasis prevention," because some novel agents have been developed that target such chemokine receptors or Notch signaling. ©2011 AACR.

Tochio H.,Kyoto University
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2012

Isotope-assisted multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can now be applied to proteins inside living cells. The technique, called in-cell NMR, aims to investigate the structures, interactions and dynamics of proteins under their native conditions, ideally at an atomic resolution. The application has begun with bacterial cells but has now expanded to mammalian cultured cells, such as HeLa cells. The importance of the realization of such 'in-mammalian cell' NMR should be stressed, as these are the cells most often employed in cell biology. Hence, a substantially wide range of application would be possible in the near future once the technique has been well developed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mamitsuka H.,Kyoto University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery | Year: 2012

Proteins are important cellular molecules, and interacting protein pairs provide biologically important information, such as functional relationships. We focus on the problem of predicting physically interacting protein pairs. This is an important problem in biology, which has been actively investigated in the field of data mining and knowledge discovery. Our particular focus is on data-mining-based methods, and the objective of this review is to introduce these methods for data mining researchers from technical viewpoints.We categorize those methods into three types: pairwise data-based, network-based, and integrative approaches, each approach being described in a different section. The first section is further divided into five types, such as supervised learning, algorithmic approaches, and unsupervised learning. The second section is mainly on link prediction, which can be further divided into two types, and two subsections that cover topics related with protein interaction networks are further added. The final section provides a wide variety ofmethods in integrative approaches. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Nakayama K.,Kyoto University
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2016

During cell division, cells undergo membrane remodeling to achieve changes in their size and shape. In addition, cell division entails local delivery and retrieval of membranes and specific proteins as well as remodeling of cytoskeletons, in particular, upon cytokinetic abscission. Accumulating lines of evidence highlight that endocytic membrane removal from and subsequent membrane delivery to the plasma membrane are crucial for the changes in cell size and shape, and that trafficking of vesicles carrying specific proteins to the abscission site participate in local remodeling of membranes and cytoskeletons. Furthermore, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery has been shown to play crucial roles in cytokinetic abscission. Here, the author briefly overviews membrane-trafficking events early in cell division, and subsequently focus on regulation and functional significance of membrane trafficking involving Rab11 and Arf6 small GTPases in late cytokinesis phases and assembly of the ESCRT machinery in cytokinetic abscission. © 2015 Taylor and Francis.

Shinohara N.,Kyoto University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment | Year: 2012

This paper describes various wireless power transmission (WPT) technologies including inductive coupling, radio waves, and resonance coupling. Theoretically, these three WPT technologies are similar, in that all of them depend on Maxwell's equations. However, there are pros and cons for each application of the WPT. Therefore, a suitable WPT technology must be selected for each application. Herein, the theory, technologies, and applications of WPT are discussed. WPT is a useful and convenient technology that can be employed to charge the batteries in mobile phones, notebook PCs, electric vehicles, light-emitting diodes, integrated circuits, and other equipment without the need for a wire connection. For systems that use very low power, the battery can be removed altogether, and the systems can be run on energy harvested from ambient radio frequency and microwave radiation. Therefore, the number of batteries can be reduced when wireless power is available from various locations, and because batteries can be charged wirelessly, concerns about the shortage of batteries can also be reduced. WPT via microwaves, for example, can be applied in the future to stable and CO2-free space-based solar power satellites. Overall, WPT will support both future energy production and the environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This article explores research on the use of computerized games and simulations in language education. The author examined the psycholinguistic and sociocultural constructs proposed as a basis for the use of games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning. Research in this area is expanding rapidly. However, to date, few studies have critically investigated this body of work. The author reviewed key findings from influential studies. The author's analysis reveals that, although these studies are subject to limitations, simulations and games present valuable opportunities for effective language learning. The contemporary literature on theories of language acquisition hypothesizes that simulations and games are beneficial methods for helping learners acquire another language. This article concludes by identifying potential areas for future research. © The Author(s) 2010.

Takeda K.,Kyoto University
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

An integrated Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based NMR spectrometer is described, with an emphasis on its applications to non-conventional NMR experiments, some of which are accompanied with modification to the hardware and software of the system. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Morikawa H.,Osaka University | Sakaguchi S.,Osaka University | Sakaguchi S.,Kyoto University
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2014

Naturally occurring regulatory T (nTreg) cells, which specifically express the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3), are indispensable for the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that developing nTreg cells in the thymus acquire a Treg-specific and stable hypomethylation pattern in a limited number of genes, which encode key molecules including FoxP3, essential for Treg cell function. This epigenetic change is acquired via T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, beginning prior to FoxP3 expression. The Treg-specific DNA hypomethylated regions generally act as gene enhancers in steady state nTreg cells, contributing to the stable expression of Treg function-associated key genes including Ctla4, Il2ra, and Ikzf4 in addition to Foxp3. Upon TCR stimulation of mature nTreg cells, FoxP3 strongly represses many genes including Il2, contributing to Treg suppressive activity. Thus, the Treg-specific epigenome alteration can determine the heritable Treg-specific gene network including Foxp3 regulation. Considering physiological presence of non-suppressive FoxP3+ T cells in the immune system and loss of FoxP3 in Treg cells under certain immunological conditions, functional nTreg cells can be more accurately defined as a T-cell subpopulation possessing the Treg-type epigenome, rather than FoxP3+ T cells. This epigenome-based definition of Treg cells would enable better understanding of functional stability, plasticity, and heterogeneity of Treg cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Tagami T.,Kyoto University
Tectonophysics | Year: 2012

The timing of faulting episodes can be constrained by radiometric dating of fault-zone rocks. Fault-zone material suitable for dating is produced by tectonic processes, such as (1) fragmentation of host rocks, followed by grain-size reduction and recrystallization to form mica and clay minerals, (2) secondary heating/melting of host rocks by frictional fault motions, and (3) mineral vein formation as a result of fluid advection associated with the fault motions. The thermal regime of fault zones consists primarily of the following three factors: (a) regional geothermal structure across the fault zone and background thermal history of studied province bounded by fault systems, (b) frictional heating of wall rocks by fault motions, and (c) heating of host rocks by hot fluid advection in and around the fault zone. Thermochronological methods widely applied in fault zones are K-Ar ( 40Ar/ 39Ar), fission-track, and U-Th methods, for which methodological principles as well as analytical procedures are briefly described. The thermal sensitivities of individual thermochronological systems are then reviewed, which critically control the response of each method against the thermal processes. Based on the knowledge above, representative examples as well as key issues are highlighted to date fault gouges, pseudotachylytes, mylonites and carbonate veins, placing new constraints upon geological, geomorphological and seismological frames. Finally, the Nojima Fault is presented as an example for multiple applications of thermochronological methods in a complex fault zone. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

This paper reports on an exploratory case study that investigates the synchronous interaction of intermediate level EFL learners in the 3D virtual world Second Life. The subjects took part in three seventy-minute chat sessions that involved the use of affordances provided by a purpose-built world within this environment. Analysis of the data revealed that the context and tasks appeared to elicit a high degree of participation. The interaction was highly learner-centered, with the majority of messages exchanged between students. The analysis further indicated that the subjects overcame initial difficulties to produce coherent target language output focused on the tasks through collaborative interaction involving the use of five transactional and two interactional discourse management strategies. Transactional strategies identified in the data were the use of split turns, time saving devices, addressivity, upper case and quotation marks. Interactional strategies were the use of politeness and keyboard symbols. The majority of these represented transfers from strategies used in non-computer-based forms of communication. The others were adaptive behaviours appropriate to the online medium. The consistent use of these strategies enabled the subjects to manage their interaction in an effective manner. Learner feedback was largely positive, and indicted that participation appeared to engender high levels of motivation and interest. This paper concludes by identifying areas of potential in future research on the use of 3D virtual worlds in CALL. © 2010 European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning.

This paper derives performance limitations for disturbance rejection of scalar systems under information constraints subject to either bounded or Gaussian disturbances. Two kinds of disturbance are treated in a unified manner, using appropriate entropies and distortions. It is shown that the achievable performance cannot be improved even if the maximum information constraint is relaxed to an average information constraint. Another observation is that, while the information constraints are weaker than bit-rate or signal-to-noise ratio constraints on the communication channel, the same performance levels are achieved by the best encoder and decoder for disturbance rejection with the information constraints. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ohnishi A.,Kyoto University
Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement | Year: 2012

The physics of the QCD phase diagram is discussed in view from heavy-ion collisions, compact astrophysical phenomena, lattice QCD and chiral effective models. We find that (T,μ B) region probed in heavy-ion collisions and the black hole formation processes covers most of the critical point locations predicted in recent lattice QCD Monte-Carlo simulations and chiral effective models of QCD. We also discuss the consistency of the statistical model results and dynamical model description.

Terui K.,Kyoto University
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs | Year: 2012

Consider the following problem: given a simply typed lambda term of Boolean type and of order r, does it normalize to "true"? A related problem is: given a term M of word type and of order r together with a finite automaton D, does D accept the word represented by the normal form of M? We prove that these problems are n-EXPTIME complete for r = 2n + 2, and n-EXPSPACE complete for r = 2n + 3. While the hardness part is relatively easy, the membership part is not so obvious; in particular, simply applying β reduction does not work. Some preceding works employ semantic evaluation in the category of sets and functions, but it is not efficient enough for our purpose. We present an algorithm for the above type of problem that is a fine blend of β reduction, Krivine abstract machine and semantic evaluation in a category based on preorders and order ideals, also known as the Scott model of linear logic. The semantic evaluation can also be presented as intersection type checking. © Kazushige Terui.

Mori K.,Kyoto University
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2010

The unfolded protein response (UPR), an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional induction program that is coupled with intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus, is activated to cope with ER stress and to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. In 1996, we isolated a basic leucine zipper protein, which had been previously named activating transcription factor (ATF)6, as a candidate transcription factor responsible for the mammalian UPR. Subsequent analysis, however, was confounding. The problem was eventually tracked down to an unusual property of ATF6: rather than being a soluble nuclear protein, as expected for an active transcription factor, ATF6 was instead synthesized as a transmembrane protein embedded in the ER, which was activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis. ATF6 was thus unique: an ER stress sensor/transducer that is involved in all steps of the UPR, from the sensing step in the ER to the transcriptional activation step in the nucleus. © 2010 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

Background and aims: Tropical rain forests on deeply weathered soils are increasingly thought to be limited by phosphorus (P), where plants and associated organisms would demonstrate adaptations to efficiently recycle P using acid phosphatase from organic matter. The activities of soil and root acid phosphatase were investigated in nine tropical rain forests that demonstrated a 20-fold difference in the soil organic P pool on Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo. Methods: Acid phosphatase activity was measured at pH6.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Results: The specific phosphatase activity of tree roots on a soil-surface-area basis was significantly positively related with P-use efficiency of above-ground productivity, suggesting a physiological linkage between above and below-ground systems in the adaptation to P deficiency. The phosphatase activities of soils and roots were significantly negatively correlated with the pool size of soil organic P fractions, suggesting that demand for P determines phosphatase activities. Conclusions: It is suggested that tree roots and soil microbes develop more active phosphatases in response to the chronic shortage of soil P, which forms the basis for an important functional role for the efficient acquisition of P from soil organic matter. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Danshita I.,Kyoto University | Danshita I.,RIKEN
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We study superflow decay via quantum phase slips in trapped one-dimensional (1D) quantum gases through dipole oscillations induced by sudden displacement of the trapping potential. We find the relation between the damping rate of the dipole oscillation G and the phase-slip nucleation rate Γ as Gâ̂Γ/v, where v is the flow velocity. This relation allows us to show that damping of 1D Bose gases in optical lattices, which has been extensively studied in experiment, is due to quantum phase slips. It is also found that the damping rate versus the flow velocity obeys the scaling formula for an impurity potential even in the absence of an explicit impurity. We suggest that the damping rate at a finite temperature exhibits a universal crossover behavior upon changing the flow velocity. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Higaki T.,German Electron Synchrotron | Kobayashi T.,Kyoto University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

We study properties of moduli stabilization in the four dimensional N=1 supergravity theory with heavy moduli and would-be saxion-axion multiplets, including light string-theoretic axions. We give general formulation for the scenario that heavy moduli and saxions are stabilized while axions remain light, assuming that moduli are stabilized near the supersymmetric solution. One can find stable vacuum, i.e. nontachyonic saxions, in the nonsupersymmetric Minkowski vacua. We also discuss the cases where the moduli are coupled to the supersymmetry breaking sector and/or moduli have contributions to supersymmetry breaking. Futhermore, we study the models with axions originating from matterlike fields. Our analysis on moduli stabilization is applicable even if there are not light axion multiplets. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Seto N.,Kyoto University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The Kozai mechanism for a hierarchical triple system could reduce the merger time of inner eccentric binary emitting gravitational waves (GWs) and has been qualitatively explained with the secular theory that is derived by averaging short-term orbital revolutions. However, with the secular theory, the minimum value of the inner pericenter distance could be excessively limited by the averaging operation. Compared with traditional predictions, the actual evolution of an eccentric inner binary could be accompanied by (i) a higher characteristic frequency of the pulselike GWs around its pericenter passages and (ii) a larger residual eccentricity at its final inspiral phase. These findings would be important for GW astronomy with the forthcoming advanced detectors. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Falcaro P.,CSIRO | Furukawa S.,Kyoto University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Space division with red cubes: Doping metal-organic frameworks with another metal component gives a further opportunity to tune their properties. Recent work successfully introduced europium into the inorganic nodes of frameworks. Although the doping element does not affect the framework topology, highly improved emissive performance was measured thanks to the intrinsic red emission of europium.

Son D.T.,University of Chicago | Yamamoto N.,Kyoto University | Yamamoto N.,University of Maryland University College
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

A kinetic theory can be modified to incorporate triangle anomalies and the chiral magnetic effect by taking into account the Berry curvature flux through the Fermi surface. We show how such a kinetic theory can be derived from underlying quantum field theories. Using the new kinetic theory, we also compute the parity-odd correlation function that is found to be identical to the result in the perturbation theory in the next-to-leading order hard dense loop approximation. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Vertical mobile grazing is typical in undulating mountain landscapes. However, recent social, economic, and political changes in China are impacting these traditional practices. This paper presents findings of a study conducted in the Tibetan communities of southwest China to assess the current status of mountain pastoralism and its future viability. Rangeland environment, livestock variety, and grazing form were found to be significantly related factors, which made it possible to analyze livestock distribution. The yak population-the main mobile grazer in alpine pasture- is currently stagnating while the population of cattle raised around settlements is steadily increasing. This situation is likely closely related to labor shortages in households, which have triggered the imbalanced distribution of livestock. The fact that the key to rangeland sustainability is to stimulate mobile grazing runs counter to current privatization policies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Harima Y.,Kyoto University
Current opinion in genetics & development | Year: 2013

Somitogenesis is controlled by the segmentation clock, where the oscillatory expression of cyclic genes such as Hes7 leads to the periodic expression of Mesp2, a master gene for somite formation. Fgf signaling induces the oscillatory expression of Hes7 while Hes7 drives coupled oscillations in Fgf and Notch signaling, which inhibits and activates Mesp2 expression, respectively. Because of different oscillatory dynamics, oscillation in Fgf signaling dissociates from oscillation in Notch signaling in S-1, a prospective somite region, where Notch signaling induces Mesp2 expression when Fgf signaling becomes off. Thus, oscillation in Fgf signaling regulates the timing of Mesp2 expression and the pace of somitogenesis. In addition, Fgf signaling was found to be a primary target for hypoxia, which causes phenotypic variations of heterozygous mutations in Hes7 or Mesp2, suggesting gene-environment interaction through this signaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Masubuchi Y.,Kyoto University
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering | Year: 2014

To optimize automation for polymer processing, attempts have been made to simulate the flow of entangled polymers. In industry, fluid dynamics simulations with phenomenological constitutive equations have been practically established. However, to account for molecular characteristics, a method to obtain the constitutive relationship from the molecular structure is required. Molecular dynamics simulations with atomic description are not practical for this purpose; accordingly, coarse-grained models with reduced degrees of freedom have been developed. Although the modeling of entanglement is still a challenge, mesoscopic models with a priori settings to reproduce entangled polymer dynamics, such as tube models, have achieved remarkable success. To use the mesoscopic models as staging posts between atomistic and fluid dynamics simulations, studies have been undertaken to establish links from the coarse-grained model to the atomistic and macroscopic simulations. Consequently, integrated simulations from materials chemistry to predict the macroscopic flow in polymer processing are forthcoming. © 2014 by Annual Reviews.

Matsuo T.,Kyoto University
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics | Year: 2011

A finite integration method on a four-dimensional space-time grid is studied for the computation of electromagnetic wave propagation, where a non-uniform time-step distribution is naturally introduced. A dual grid based on the Hodge duality and the Lorentz metric is proposed to provide a simple constitutive equation for electromagnetic variables. An explicit time-marching scheme for a non-uniform space-time grid achieves a more efficient electromagnetic field computation than the conventional FDTD method. © 2011 IEEE.

Konoplya R.A.,Kyoto University | Konoplya R.A.,University of Tubingen | Zhidenko A.,University of Sao Paulo | Zhidenko A.,Federal University of ABC
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

Perturbations of black holes, initially considered in the context of possible observations of astrophysical effects, have been studied for the past 10 years in string theory, brane-world models, and quantum gravity. Through the famous gauge/gravity duality, proper oscillations of perturbed black holes, called quasinormal modes, allow for the description of the hydrodynamic regime in the dual finite temperature field theory at strong coupling, which can be used to predict the behavior of quark-gluon plasmas in the nonperturbative regime. On the other hand, the brane-world scenarios assume the existence of extra dimensions in nature, so that multidimensional black holes can be formed in a laboratory experiment. All this stimulated active research in the field of perturbations of higher-dimensional black holes and branes during recent years. In this review recent achievements on various aspects of black hole perturbations are discussed such as decoupling of variables in the perturbation equations, quasinormal modes (with special emphasis on various numerical and analytical methods of calculations), late-time tails, gravitational stability, anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory interpretation of quasinormal modes, and holographic superconductors. We also touch on state-of-the-art observational possibilities for detecting quasinormal modes of black holes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Katsumata S.-Y.,Kyoto University
Information and Computation | Year: 2013

We consider the problem of establishing a relationship between two interpretations of base type terms of a λc-calculus extended with algebraic operations. We show that the given relationship holds if it satisfies a set of natural conditions. We apply this result to 1) comparing two monadic semantics related by a strong monad morphism, and 2) comparing two monadic semantics of fresh name creation: Stark's new name creation monad and the global counter monad. We also consider the same problem, relating semantics of computational effects, in the presence of recursive functions. We apply this additional by extending the previous monad morphism comparison result to the recursive case. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Nakao H.,Kyoto University | Nakao H.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Mikhailov A.S.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Nature Physics | Year: 2010

Turing instability in activator-inhibitor systems provides a paradigm of non-equilibrium self-organization; it has been extensively investigated for biological and chemical processes. Turing instability should also be possible in networks, and general mathematical methods for its treatment have been formulated previously. However, only examples of regular lattices and small networks were explicitly considered. Here we study Turing patterns in large random networks, which reveal striking differences from the classical behaviour. The initial linear instability leads to spontaneous differentiation of the network nodes into activator-rich and activator-poor groups. The emerging Turing patterns become furthermore strongly reshaped at the subsequent nonlinear stage. Multiple coexisting stationary states and hysteresis effects are observed. This peculiar behaviour can be understood in the framework of a mean-field theory. Our results offer a new perspective on self-organization phenomena in systems organized as complex networks. Potential applications include ecological metapopulations, synthetic ecosystems, cellular networks of early biological morphogenesis, and networks of coupled chemical nanoreactors. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Kawabata H.,Kyoto University
Journal of clinical and experimental hematopathology : JCEH | Year: 2013

Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) is a rare polyclonal lymphoproliferative disorder that manifests with lymphadenopathy and inflammatory symptoms. In order to clarify the clinical features and actual management of MCD in Japan, we analyzed 21 patients diagnosed with MCD and treated in Kyoto University Hospital between 2005 and 2012. There were 12 men and 9 women. The median age at disease onset was 46 years, and the median follow-up period was 98 months. Common symptoms included splenomegaly (13/20), renal dysfunction (11/21), interstitial pneumonia (7/21), pleural effusion and/or ascites (7/21), and thrombocytopenia (6/21). The results of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody and human herpes virus-8 DNA tests in the blood were available in 13 and 5 cases, respectively, and no patient was positive for either. Among 12 patients treated with tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, 11 exhibited an improvement in MCD-related symptoms and 3 achieved complete resolution of all these symptoms. In 8 patients treated with tocilizumab for over 1 year, the mean Hb level increased from 7.4 to 12.2 g/dL while the mean serum C-reactive protein level decreased from 13.2 to 0.4 mg/dL. Three patients died during the observation period due to sepsis, secondary leukemia, or pancreatic cancer. The clinical courses of most cases were indolent; however, in some cases with pleural effusion, ascites, renal dysfunction, and/or thrombocytopenia, the disease manifestation was serious. A nationwide survey is required to further clarify the epidemiology, clinical features, and optimal treatment strategies of MCD in Japan.

Toju H.,Kyoto University
Population Ecology | Year: 2015

The network theoretical framework of ecological community studies is expected to promote not only the basic understanding of ecological and coevolutionary dynamics but also the application of those scientific insights into ecosystem management. However, our knowledge of ecological network architecture in the wild largely stems from empirical studies on macro-organismal systems such as those of plant–pollinator, plant–seed disperser, and prey–predator interactions. In this sense, we have remained ignorant of the diversity of ecological network architecture, its underlying assembly processes, and its consequences on ecological and coevolutionary dynamics. In this paper, I discuss how the high-throughput DNA barcoding of microbes, especially that based on next-generation sequencing, potentially expands the target of ecological network studies. I review the methodological platforms of next-generation sequencing-based analyses of microbe–host animal/plant networks and then introduce some case studies on the networks of plants and their hyper-diverse fungal symbionts. As those preliminary studies are uncovering the unexpected diversity of ecological network architecture, further application of such next-generation sequencing-based analyses to a diverse array of microbial systems will significantly improve our views on community ecological and coevolutionary processes. © 2015, The Society of Population Ecology and Springer Japan.

Ogumi Z.,Kyoto University
Electrochemistry | Year: 2010

Lithium-ion transfer through interfaces between electrodes of lithium-ion batteries and electrolyte is investigated. The interfacial lithium-ion transfer is a slow process in reactions of lithium-ion batteries. De-solvation reactions require high activation energy. The activation energy of interfacial lithium-ion transfer depends on the electrolyte solvents. Intercalation of solvated lithium-ion into graphite gives a lower activation energy than that of de-solvated lithium-ion. Surface modification by oxide on LiCoO 2decreseses the activation energy. Ion-pairing at high salt concentration enhances the activation energy.

We theoretically show that a sequence of short laser pulses can efficiently polarize nuclear-spin of atoms/ions. This is a variant of optical pumping with an important difference that a sequence of short laser pulses is used instead of a continuous-wave laser. Such a replacement is particularly useful if the pumping wavelength is in the ultraviolet or vacuum-ultraviolet region where obtaining a continuous-wave light source with a sufficient intensity is very difficult. Because of the use of short laser pulses neither hyperfine transitions nor fine structure transitions are spectrally resolved, which is quite in contrast to the standard optical pumping scheme by a continuous-wave laser. As an example we apply the scheme to polarize the muonium (μ+e-, lifetime 2.2 μs), for which the pumping wavelength is 122 nm. From numerical solutions of a set of density matrix equations, we find that the use of only a single, two, and five pulses with a ps duration at the peak intensity of 2×108 W/cm2 and a 5 ns time interval results in the degrees of spin-polarization of 33, 50, and 80 %, respectively, within the time scale of a few tens of ns. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Kimoto T.,Kyoto University
Digest of Technical Papers - Symposium on VLSI Technology | Year: 2010

High-efficiency electric power conversion is an essential technology for energy saving. The efficiency of power converters/inverters relies on the performance of power semiconductor devices employed in the power electronic systems. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a newly-emerging wide bandgap semiconductor, by which high-voltage, low-loss power devices can be realized owing to its superior properties. This paper reviews recent progress in SiC material and device technologies for power device applications. Benefits and remaining issues of SiC power devices are highlighted. © 2010 IEEE.

Sasakura N.,Kyoto University | Sato Y.,University of South Africa
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Canonical tensor model is a theory of dynamical fuzzy spaces in arbitrary space-time dimensions. Examining its simplest case, we find a connection to a special case of minisuperspace model of general relativity in arbitrary dimensions. This is a first step in interpreting variables in canonical tensor model based on the known language of general relativity. © 2014 The Authors.

Munakata T.,Kyoto University | Rosinberg M.L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Continuous feedback control of Langevin processes may be non-Markovian due to a time lag between the measurement and the control action. We show that this requires one to modify the basic relation between dissipation and time reversal and to include a contribution arising from the noncausal character of the reverse process. We then propose a new definition of the quantity measuring the irreversibility of a path in a nonequilibrium stationary state, which can also be regarded as the trajectory-dependent total entropy production. This leads to an extension of the second law, which takes a simple form in the long-time limit. As an illustration, we apply the general approach to linear systems that are both analytically tractable and experimentally relevant. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Kobayashi M.,Kyoto University | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We show that a momentum operator of a translational symmetry may not commute with an internal symmetry operator in the presence of a topological soliton in nonrelativistic theories. As a striking consequence, there appears a coupled Nambu-Goldstone mode with a quadratic dispersion consisting of translational and internal zero modes in the vicinity of a domain wall in an O(3) σ model, a magnetic domain wall in ferromagnets with an easy axis. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Hyodo T.,Kyoto University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

The influence of a two-hadron threshold is studied for the hadron mass scaling with respect to some quantum chromodynamics parameters. A quantum mechanical model is introduced to describe the system with a one-body bare state coupled with a single elastic two-body scattering. The general behavior of the energy of the bound and resonance state near the two-body threshold for a local potential is derived from the expansion of the Jost function around the threshold. It is shown that the same scaling holds for the nonlocal potential induced by the coupling to a bare state. In p or higher partial waves, the scaling law of the stable bound state continues across the threshold describing the real part of the resonance energy. In contrast, the leading contribution of the scaling is forbidden by the nonperturbative dynamics near the s-wave threshold. As a consequence, the bound state energy is not continuously connected to the real part of the resonance energy. This universal behavior originates in the vanishing of the field renormalization constant of the zero-energy resonance in the s wave. A proof is given for the vanishing of the field renormalization constant, together with a detailed discussion. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Kanada-En'Yo Y.,Kyoto University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

Cluster structures and monopole transitions in positive parity states of O16 are investigated based on the generator coordinate method calculation of an extended C12+α cluster model. The ground and excited states of a C12 cluster are taken into account by using C12 wave functions obtained with the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The 02+ state of O16 and its rotational members, the 21+ and 41+ states, are described well by the cluster states dominated by the C12(01+)+α structure. Above the C12(02+)+α threshold energy, I obtain a 0+ state having the C12(02+)+α cluster structure, which is considered to be a candidate for the 4α cluster gas state. The band structures are discussed based on the calculated E2 transition strength. Isoscalar monopole excitations from the ground state are also discussed. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Narita S.-I.,Kyoto University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is an asymmetric lipid bilayer with phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). β-Barreled outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins are embedded in the outer membrane. All of these constituents are essential to the function of the outer membrane. The transport systems for lipoproteins have been characterized in detail. An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, LolCDE, initiates sorting by mediating the detachment of lipoproteins from the inner membrane to form a water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex in the periplasm. Lipoproteins are then transferred to LolB at the outer membrane and are incorporated into the lipid bilayer. A model analogous to the Lol system has been suggested for the transport of LPS, where an ABC transporter, LptBFG, mediates the detachment of LPS from the inner membrane. Recent developments in the functional characterization of ABC transporters involved in the biogenesis of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria are discussed.

Kambe T.,Kyoto University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Zinc plays essential roles in the early secretory pathway for a number of secretory, membrane-bound, and endosome/lysosome-resident enzymes. It enables the enzymes to fold properly and become functional, by binding as a structural or catalytic component. Moreover, zinc secreted from the secretory vesicles/granules into the extracellular space has a pivotal role as a signaling molecule for various physiological functions. Zinc transporters of the Slc30a/ZnT and Slc39a/Zip families play crucial roles in these functions, mediating zinc influx to and efflux from the lumen of the secretory pathway, constitutively or in a cell-specific manner. This paper reviews current knowledge of the ways these two zinc transporters perform these tasks by manipulating zinc homeostasis in the secretory pathway. Recent questions concerning zinc released into the cytoplasm from the secretory pathway, which then functions as an intracellular signaling molecule, are also briefly reviewed, emphasizing zinc transporter functions.

Wakita M.,Kyoto University
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception. © 2014 Wakita.

Ishimori H.,Kyoto University | King S.F.,University of Southampton
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We propose a first model of quarks based on the discrete family symmetry δ(6N2) in which the Cabibbo angle is correctly determined by a residual Z2 × Z2 subgroup, and the smaller quark mixing angles may be qualitatively understood from the model. The present model of quarks may be regarded as a first step towards formulating a complete model of quarks and leptons based on δ(6N2), in which the lepton mixing matrix is fully determined by a Klein subgroup. For example, the choice N = 28 provides an accurate determination of both the reactor angle and the Cabibbo angle. © 2014.

Chatake T.,Kyoto University
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation | Year: 2013

In the present study, Z-DNA d(CGCGCG)2 was crystallized from a DNA solution in the absence of divalent metal cations and polyamines, and its X-ray structure was determined at 0.98 Å resolution. Comparison of this structure and previously reported Z-DNA structures, containing Mg2+ cations and/or polyamines, demonstrated that Z-DNA can have structural fluctuations with respect to phosphate groups and hydration in the minor groove. At the GpC steps, a two-state structural equilibrium between the ZI and ZII conformations was frequently observed. In contrast, at the CpG steps, the phosphate groups exhibited rotational fluctuation, which could induce distortion of sugar puckering. In addition, alternative positions of water molecules were found in the middle of the minor groove of the Z-DNA. These structural fluctuations were likely observable because of the absence of Mg2+ cations and polyamines. The results related to these phenomena were supported by those of other experimental methods, suggesting the possibility of these fluctuations occurring in biological conditions.

Kunitomo H.,Kyoto University
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics | Year: 2014

We attempt to construct the full equations of motion for the Neveu-Schwarz and the Ramond sectors of the heterotic string field theory. Although they are also non-polynomial in the Ramond string field ψ, we can construct them order by order in Ψ. Their explicit forms with the gauge transformations are given up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in ψ. We also determine a subset of the terms to all orders. By introducing an auxiliary Ramond string field Ψ, we construct a covariant action supplemented with a constraint, which should be imposed on the equations of motion. We propose the Feynman rules and show how they reproduce well-known physical four-point amplitudes with external fermions. © The Author(s) 2014.

Matsumoto T.,University Utrecht | Yoshida K.,Kyoto University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We consider γ-deformations of the AdS5×S5 superstring as Yang-Baxter sigma models with classical r-matrices satisfying the classical Yang-Baxter equation (CYBE). An essential point is that the classical r-matrices are composed of Cartan generators only and then generate abelian twists. We present examples of the r-matrices that lead to real γ-deformations of the AdS5×S5 superstring. Finally we discuss a possible classification of integrable deformations and the corresponding gravity solution in terms of solutions of CYBE. This classification may be called the gravity/CYBE correspondence. © 2014 The Author(s).

Kurihara T.,Kyoto University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Enzymes that catalyze the conversion of organohalogen compounds have been attracting a great deal of attention, partly because of their possible applications in environmental technology and the chemical industry. We have studied the mechanisms of enzymatic degradation of various organic halo acids. In the reaction of L-2-haloacid dehalogenase and fluoroacetate dehaloge-nase, the carboxylate group of the catalytic aspartate residue nucleophilically attacked the a-carbon atom of the substrates to displace the halogen atom. In the reaction catalyzed by DL-2-haloacid dehalogenase, a water molecule directly attacked the substrate to displace the halogen atom. In the course of studies on the metabolism of 2-chloroacrylate, we discovered two new enzymes. 2-Haloacrylate reductase catalyzed the asymmetric reduction of 2-haloacrylate to produce l-2-haloalkanoic acid in an NADPH-dependent manner. 2-Haloacrylate hydratase catalyzed the hydration of 2-haloacrylate to produce pyruvate. The enzyme is unique in that it catalyzes the non-redox reaction in an FADH2-dependent manner.

Takasaki K.,Kyoto University
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013

This paper addresses the issue of integrable structure in a modified melting crystalmodel of topological string theory on the resolved conifold. The partition function can be expressed as the vacuum expectation value of an operator on the Fock space of 2D complex free fermion fields. The quantum torus algebra of fermion bilinears behind this expression is shown to have an extended set of 'shift symmetries'. They are used to prove that the partition function (deformed by external potentials) is essentially a tau function of the 2D Toda hierarchy. This special solution of the 2D Toda hierarchy can also be characterized by a factorization problem of Z×Z matrices. The associated Lax operators turn out to be quotients of first-order difference operators. This implies that the solution of the 2D Toda hierarchy in question is actually a solution of the Ablowitz- Ladik (equivalently, the relativistic Toda) hierarchy. As a byproduct, the shift symmetries are shown to be related to matrix-valued quantum dilogarithmic functions. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Ueda K.,Kyoto University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

Seto N.,Kyoto University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2016

We discuss the prospects of eLISA for detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from Galactic binary black holes (BBHs) similar to GW150914. For a comoving merger rate that is consistent with current observation, eLISA is likely to identify at least one BBH with a sufficient signalto- noise ratio. In addition, eLISA has a potential to measure the eccentricity of the BBH as small as e ~ 0.02, corresponding to the residual value e ~ 10-6 at 10 Hz. Therefore, eLISA could provide us with a crucial information to understand the formation processes of relatively massive BBHs like GW150914. We also derive a simple scaling relation for the expected number of detectable Galactic BBHs. © 2016 The Author.

Noda S.,Kyoto University
Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics | Year: 2010

Photonic crystals in which the refractive index changes periodically provide an exciting tool for the manipulation of photons and have seen substantial progress in recent years. In this article, we discuss two topics regarding photonic crystal lasers: (i) ultimate nanolasers based on the photonic bandgap effect and high-Q nanocavities, and (ii) broad-area photonic crystal lasers based on the photonic bandedge effect. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Odake S.,Shinshu University | Sasaki R.,Kyoto University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

We present a new set of infinitely many shape invariant potentials and the corresponding exceptional (Xℓ) Laguerre polynomials. They are to supplement the recently derived two sets of infinitely many shape invariant thus exactly solvable potentials in one-dimensional quantum mechanics and the corresponding Xℓ Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials [S. Odake, R. Sasaki, Phys. Lett. B 679 (2009) 414]. The new Xℓ Laguerre polynomials and the potentials are obtained by a simple limiting procedure from the known Xℓ Jacobi polynomials and the potentials, whereas the known Xℓ Laguerre polynomials and the potentials are obtained in the same manner from the mirror image of the known Xℓ Jacobi polynomials and the potentials. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yoshida Y.,Kyoto University
Progress of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2010

We study the virtual photon structure functions from gauge/string duality. If the Bjorken variable x is not small, supergravity approximation becomes good in dual string theory. We calculate the virtual photon structure functions at large 't Hooft coupling in a moderate x-region and determine x-behavior of the structure functions. We also show that the CallanGross relation FL = 0 is satisfied to a good approximation in gravity calculation.

Yamamoto A.,Kyoto University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

This Letter presents a novel analysis of th