Ryang S.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012
We consider an extremal three-point correlator of three heavy vertex operators for the circular winding string state with one large spin and one winding number in AdS 5 and one large spin and one winding number in S 5. We use a Schwarz-Christoffel transformation to compute semiclassically the extremal three-point correlator on a stationary string trajectory which is mapped to the complex plane with three punctures. It becomes a 4d conformal invariant three-point correlator on the boundary. We discuss the marginality condition of vertex operator. © 2012.
Ryang S.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011
We compute semiclassically the two-point correlator of the marginal vertex operators describing the rigid circular spinning string state with one large spin and one windining number in AdS5 and three large spins and three winding numbers in S5. The marginality condition and the conformal invariant expression for the two-point correlator obtained by using an appropriate vertex operator are shown to be associated with the diagonal and off-diagonal Virasoro constraints respectively. We evaluate semiclassically the three-point correlator of two heavy circular string vertex operators and one zero-momentum dilaton vertex operator and discuss its relation with the derivative of the dimension of the heavy circular string state with respect to the string tension. © SISSA 2011.
Katsuyama M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2010
NADPH oxidase is a superoxide (O2-)-generating enzyme first identified in phagocytes that shows bactericidal activities. It has been reported that O2- is also produced in an NADPHdependent manner in non-phagocytes. In the last decade, non-phagocyte-type NADPH oxidases have been identified, and the catalytic subunit NOX family has been found to be composed of five homologs, NOX1 to NOX5, and two related enzymes, DUOX1 and DUOX2. These NOX proteins have distinct features in dependency on other components for maximal enzymatic activity, tissue distribution, expressional regulation, and physiological functions. This review summarized the distinct characteristics of NOX family proteins, especially focusing on their functions and mechanisms of their expressional regulation. © 2010 The Japanese Pharmacological Society.
Ishii S.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies | Year: 2013
To determine whether ultrasound guidance increases the success rates, decreases the complication rates, and shortens the time to successful radial artery catheterization in infants and small children. Randomized study. Single university-affiliated hospital. Infants and children weighing 3-20 kg, undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. We randomly assigned the right and left radial arteries of patients undergoing arterial catheterization to ultrasound-guided technique versus the usual palpation technique. The primary study endpoints were the rates of successful cannulation at first and within three attempts. The secondary endpoints were time to radial artery identification, number of attempts for successful cannulation, and rate of complications. Compared with palpation, ultrasound-guided radial artery catheterization was successful in 76.3% versus 35.6% of first attempts and in 94.9% versus 50.8% of arteries after three attempts (both comparisons, p < 0.01). The median time [interquartile range] to identification of the arteries (18.5 seconds [11.25-27.25] vs 30 seconds [17.75-39.5]) was significantly shorter (p < 0.01), the number of attempts [interquartile range] at successful cannulation (1 [1-1] vs 2 [1-2]) was significantly fewer (p < 0.01), and the proportion of hematomas (5.1% vs 25.4%) was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in the ultrasound group than those in the palpation group. In infants and small children, ultrasound-guided radial artery catheterization was more successful and expeditious than the usual palpation technique.
Fushiki S.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Brain and Development | Year: 2013
On March 11, 2011, Japan was hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster. Firstly, this review focuses on what happened after the accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in 1979 and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, in terms of the effects of these incidents on health. The most critical issue when considering the effects of radiation on the health of children was the increase of thyroid cancer, as clearly demonstrated among people who were children or adolescence at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Therefore, in the early days after a nuclear accident, the primary concern should be efforts to prevent the exposure of children to radioactive iodine through inhalation and ingestion, because radioactive iodine preferentially accumulates in the thyroid. In the longer term, another concern is exposure to radionuclides with long half-lives, including cesium137 and cesium134, with physical half-lives of 30 and 2. years, respectively. Secondly, fetal radiation risks and radiobiological studies on low-level radiation are briefly reviewed, with reference to the effects upon the developing brain. A fetal dose of 100. mSv may increase the risk of an effect on brain development, especially neuronal migration, based upon the results of experiments with rodents. Finally, this review proposes that research on the health effects of low level radiation should be prioritized so that accurate information on the effects of radiation can be disseminated and prevent the prevalence of unnecessary fear lacking scientific justification. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology.
Maruyama K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012
It has been shown previously that the presence in the cornea of antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as macrophages (MPS) and lymphangiogenesis, is a risk for corneal transplantation. We sought to determine whether the existence of lymphatic vessels in the non-inflamed cornea is associated with the presence of MPS. Flat mounts were prepared from corneas of untreated C57BL/6, CD11b(-/-), F4/80(-/-), and BALB/c mice, and after suture placement or corneal transplantation, observed by immunofluorescence for the presence of lymphatic vessels using LYVE-1 as a marker of lymphatic endothelium. Innate immune cells were detected in normal mouse corneas using CD11b, F4/80, CD40, as well as MHC-class II. Digital images of the flat mounts were taken using a spot image analysis system, and the area covered by lymphatic vessels was measured using NIH Image software. The number of spontaneous lymphatic vessels in C57BL/6 corneas was significantly greater than in BALB/c corneas (P = 0.03). There were more CD11b(+) (P < 0.01) and CD40(+), MHC-class II (+) cells in the C57BL/6 corneas than in BALB/c mouse corneas. MPS depletion via clodronate liposome in C57BL/6 mice led to fewer spontaneous lymphatic vessels and reduced inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis relative to control mice. Mice deficient in CD11b or F4/80 had fewer spontaneous lymphatic vessels and less lymphangiogenesis than control C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mouse corneas have more endogenous CD11b(+) cells and lymphatic vessels. The endogenous lymphatic vessels, along with pro-inflammatory MPS, account for the high risk of corneal graft rejection in C57BL/6 mice. CD11b(+) and F4/80(+) MPS appear to have an important role in of the formation of new lymphatic vessels.
Kitaya K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2011
Chronic endometritis was identified immunohistochemically in 9.3% of patients with recurrent miscarriages (in 12.9% of patients with miscarriages of unknown etiology). Chronic endometritis is not negligible in patients with recurrent miscarriages. ©2011 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
Akakabe Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Nature communications | Year: 2013
Insulin resistance is closely associated with obesity and is one of the earliest symptoms of type-2 diabetes. Endothelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance through their role in insulin delivery and adipose tissue angiogenesis. Here we show that Ecscr (endothelial cell surface expressed chemotaxis and apoptosis regulator; also known as ARIA), the transmembrane protein that regulates endothelial cell signalling, is highly expressed in white and brown adipose tissues, and regulates energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis by modulating endothelial cell functions. Ecscr-deficient mice fed a normal chow show improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin sensitivity. We demonstrate that Ecscr deletion enhances the insulin-mediated Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells, which increases insulin delivery into the skeletal muscle. Ecscr deletion also protects mice on a high-fat diet from obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders by enhancing adipose tissue angiogenesis. Conversely, targeted activation of Ecscr in endothelial cells impairs glucose tolerance and predisposes mice to diet-induced obesity. Our results suggest that the inactivation of Ecscr enhances insulin sensitivity and may represent a new therapeutic strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.
Nomura T.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Nature communications | Year: 2013
The emergence of larger brains with large numbers of neurons is an evolutionary innovation in mammals and birds. However, the corresponding changes in cortical developmental programmes during amniote evolution are poorly understood. Here we examine the cortical development of Madagascar ground geckos, and report unique characteristics of their reptilian cortical progenitors. The rates of proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the gecko cortex are much lower than those in other amniotes. Notch signalling is highly activated in the gecko cortical progenitors, which provides a molecular basis for the low rate of cortical neurogenesis. Interestingly, multiple neuron subtypes are sequentially generated in the gecko cortex, similar to other amniotes. These results suggest that changes in the regulation of cortical neural progenitors have accelerated neurogenesis and provided encephalization in mammalian and archosaurian lineages. In addition, the temporal regulation for making cortical neuronal subtypes has evolved in a common ancestor(s) of amniotes.
Tamagawa-Mineoka R.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Journal of Dermatological Science | Year: 2015
Platelets work as immune cells by initiating and modulating inflammatory and immune responses, in addition to having prominent functions in hemostasis and thrombosis. They store a multitude of immune-associated molecules in their granules. Upon activation in response to various factors such as thrombin, chemokines, and microbial toxins, platelets express adhesive and immune receptors such as P-selectin, CD40 ligand, and Toll-like receptors on their surface, and release soluble mediators such as chemokines, cytokines, and antimicrobial peptides. In this way, platelets interact with endothelial cells and leukocytes including dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, neutrophils, monocytes, and natural killer cells, both directly by cell to cell contact and indirectly via secretion of soluble mediators. In cutaneous inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, platelets circulate in an activated state, and the degree of platelet activation correlates with disease severity. Platelets are closely linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and psoriasis, via several pathomechanisms, e.g. increasing leukocyte rolling on the endothelium via formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes, recruiting leukocytes into inflamed skin via release of inflammatory mediators including chemokines, inhibiting monocytic apoptosis, inducing neutrophil phagocytosis, promoting allergic sensitization, provoking pruritus, and regulating inflammation. Platelets can also recognize bacterial pathogens through interactions via Toll-like receptors, leading to subsequent elimination of the bacteria by release of antimicrobial peptides or by aggregation of platelets around the bacteria. Thus, platelets are deeply involved in the innate and acquired immune responses in the skin via interactions with leukocytes and the endothelium. © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology.