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Soga K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Handa O.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Yamada M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Sakagami J.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2014

This review examines the use of digestive endoscopy to visualize intestinal helminths. The infections caused by these parasites are responsible for high levels of morbidity and mortality. These helminths can be visualized using gastroduodenal endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and colonoscopy. Endoscopic examination of the small bowel is limited by its considerable length and its distance from the mouth and anus. Since capsule endoscopy (CE) was first reported in 2000, it has been established as a noninvasive modality for the investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. CE is used as a first-line tool for imaging various small-bowel diseases, mainly obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and Crohn's disease. Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved CE in 2001, the indications for its use have expanded widely. For example, CE can be used to visualize the in vivo kinetics of intestinal helminths. If the current trends in technological development continue, CE will become more widely used to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of helminth infections in the near future. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Arizono N.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Arizono N.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment | Yamada M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Tegoshi T.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Onishi K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Korean Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2012

Natural habitat fragmentation and reducing habitat quality have resulted in an increased appearance of Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata (Gray, 1870), in suburban areas in Japan. To investigate the risk of zoonotic infections, a coprological survey of helminth eggs passed by wild Japanese macaques was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Microscopic examination found helminth eggs in high prevalence, and nucleotide sequencing of DNA extracted from the eggs identified Oesophagostomum cf. aculeatum and Trichuris trichiura. A fecal culture also detected infective larvae of Strongyloides fuelleborni. These zoonotic nematodes pose a potential health issue to local people in areas frequented by Japanese macaques. © 2012, Korean Society for Parasitology.

Arizono N.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Arizono N.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment | Kuramochi T.,The National Museum of Nature and Science | Kagei N.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Parasitology International | Year: 2012

Acanthocephalans of the genus Bolbosoma are intestinal parasites of marine mammals with a lifecycle similar to that of anisakid nematodes. Several cases of Bolbosoma infection in humans have been reported, but no species identification has been made. Here, we report a case of Bolbosoma infection, in which the worm was found in histological sections of the partially resected small intestine of a Japanese man. Morphological features of the worm reconstructed from serial sectioning indicated that the worm was most likely to be a sexually immature female of Bolbosoma capitatum. DNA extraction from paraffin-embedded sections and ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequencing showed that this species formed a monophyletic group with Bolbosoma nipponicum, and was clearly distinguishable from Corynosoma spp. or Polymorphus spp. These results may provide a reference for identifying and characterizing unknown acanthocephalans found in histological sections. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Arizono N.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Arizono N.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment | Yamada M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Tegoshi T.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Yoshikawa M.,Nara Medical University
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2012

Anisakiasis is one of the most common fishborne helminthic diseases in Japan, which is contracted by ingesting the larvae of the nematode Anisakis spp. carried by marine fish. Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffii are the dominant species in fish caught offshore Japan. The present study aimed to identify the anisakid species infecting Japanese patients and determine whether there is any difference in the pathogenetic potential of A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii. In total, 41 and 301 Anisakis larvae were isolated from Japanese patients and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), respectively; these were subjected to molecular identification using polymerase chain reaction targeted at a ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. Chub mackerel larvae were further examined for survival in artificial gastric juice (pH 1.8) for 7 days and for invasiveness on 0.75% solid agar over a 24-h interval. All clinical isolates, including those of asymptomatic, acute, and chronic infections as well as those from the stomach, small intestine, colon, and stool, were identified as A. simplex (s.s.). Chub mackerel harbored A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii larvae, together with a few larvae of other anisakid species. A. simplex (s.s.) larvae from chub mackerel tolerated the artificial gastric juice better than A. pegreffii, with 50% mortality in 2.6 and 1.4 days, respectively. In addition, A. simplex (s.s.) penetrated the agar at significantly higher rates than A. pegreffii. These results show that A. simplex (s.s.) larvae have the potential to survive acidic gastric juice to some extent and penetrate the stomach, small intestine, or colon in infected humans. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Saka M.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

I examined the toxicity of rice paddy herbicides simetryn, mefenacet, and thiobencarb to amphibians by conducting acute toxicity tests with tadpoles of Silurana tropicalis, which has attracted as a new model species instead of Xenopus laevis. The tadpoles at stages 49 and 50 were exposed to the herbicides at several concentrations during 96 h, and median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated at 24-h intervals. The LC50 values of simetryn, mefenacet, and thiobencarb were 16.9-3.70 mg/L (79.3-17.4 γM), 3.06-2.70 mg/L (10.3-9.04 γM), and 1.77-0.752 mg/L (6.85-2.92 γM), respectively. The most toxic herbicide was thiobencarb followed by mefenacet and simetryn. As for thiobencarb, the sensitivity of S. tropicalis was similar to that of X. laevis reported previously. This suggests that S. tropicalis as well as X. laevis can act as a model species in acute toxicity tests. The LC50 values of the three herbicides were very close to or at most two orders of magnitude higher than the maximum concentrations likely to occur in paddy water. Therefore, the three herbicides can be harmful to amphibian larvae living in paddy water. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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